Dynamics of Marine Ecosystems

Biological-Physical Interactions in the Oceans

Author: K. H. Mann,John R. N. Lazier

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118687914

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 8729

The new edition of this widely respected text providescomprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the effects ofbiological–physical interactions in the oceans from themicroscopic to the global scale. considers the influence of physical forcing on biologicalprocesses in a wide range of marine habitats including coastalestuaries, shelf-break fronts, major ocean gyres, coral reefs,coastal upwelling areas, and the equatorial upwelling system investigates recent significant developments in this rapidlyadvancing field includes new research suggesting that long-term variability inthe global atmospheric circulation affects the circulation of oceanbasins, which in turn brings about major changes in fish stocks.This discovery opens up the exciting possibility of being able topredict major changes in global fish stocks written in an accessible, lucid style, this textbook isessential reading for upper-level undergraduates and graduatestudents studying marine ecology and biological oceanography

Biological Oceanography

Author: Charles B. Miller,Patricia A. Wheeler

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118223187

Category: Nature

Page: 504

View: 6605

This new edition of Biological Oceanography has been greatlyupdated and expanded since its initial publication in 2004. Itpresents current understanding of ocean ecology emphasizing thecharacter of marine organisms from viruses to fish and worms,together with their significance to their habitats and to eachother. The book initially emphasizes pelagic organisms and processes,but benthos, hydrothermal vents, climate-change effects, andfisheries all receive attention. The chapter on oceanic biomes hasbeen greatly expanded and a new chapter reviewing approaches topelagic food webs has been added. Throughout, the book has beenrevised to account for recent advances in this rapidly changingfield. The increased importance of molecular genetic data acrossthe field is evident in most of the chapters. As with the previous edition, the book is primarily written forsenior undergraduate and graduate students of ocean ecology andprofessional marine ecologists. Visit ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/miller/oceanography"www.wiley.com/go/miller/oceanography/a toaccess the artwork from the book.

Biological Oceanography: An Introduction

Author: Carol Lalli,Timothy R. Parsons

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008052799X

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 1554

This popular undergraduate textbook offers students a firm grounding in the fundamentals of biological oceanography. As well as a clear and accessible text, learning is enhanced with numerous illustrations including a colour section, thorough chapter summaries, and questions with answers and comments at the back of the book. The comprehensive coverage of this book encompasses the properties of seawater which affect life in the ocean, classification of marine environments and organisms, phytoplankton and zooplankton, marine food webs, larger marine animals (marine mammals, seabirds and fish), life on the seafloor, and the way in which humans affect marine ecosystems. The second edition has been thoroughly updated, including much data available for the first time in a book at this level. There is also a new chapter on human impacts - from harvesting vast amounts of fish, pollution, and deliberately or accidentally transferring marine organisms to new environments. This book complements the Open University Oceanography Series, also published by Butterworth-Heinemann, and is a set text for the Open University third level course, S330. A leading undergraduate text New chapter on human impacts - a highly topical subject Expanded colour plate section

Ecosystem Sustainability and Global Change

Author: Patrick Prouzet

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119007720

Category: Science

Page: 234

View: 4757

This volume provides various examples and dimensions, chemical, biological, climatic, or related to extreme (hazards). It describes, by reciprocity, the vulnerability of ecosystems, resources, heritage, human health and, consequently, economic and social sectors. it considers climate scenarios and socio-economic status indicators research, design strategies and patterns of adaptation, development of innovative monitoring systems, analysis of perceptions of major hazards and valuation of ecosystem services.

Circulation in the Coastal Ocean

Author: G.T. Csanady

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027714008

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 3266

For some time there has existed an extensive theoretical literature relating to tides on continental shelves and also to the behavior of estuaries. Much less attention was traditionally paid to the dynamics of longer term, larger scale motions (those which are usually described as circulation') over continental shelves or in enclosed shallow seas such as the North American Great Lakes. This is no longer the case: spurred on by other disciplines, notably biological oceanography, and by public concern with the environment, the physical science of the coastal ocean has made giant strides during the last two decades or so. Today, it is probably fair to say that coastal ocean physics has come of age as a deduc tive quantitative science. A well developed body of theoretical models exist, based on the equations of fluid motion, which have been related to observed currents, sea level variations, water properties, etc. Quantitative parameters required in using the models to predict e.g. the effects of wind or of freshwater influx on coastal currents can be estimated within reasonable bounds of error. While much remains to be learned, and many exciting discoveries presumably await us in the future, the time seems appropriate to summarize those aspects of coastal ocean dynamics relevant to 'circulation' or long term motion.

Ecological Geography of the Sea

Author: Alan R. Longhurst

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080465579

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 5911

This book presents an in-depth discussion of the biological and ecological geography of the oceans. It synthesizes locally restricted studies of the ocean to generate a global geography of the vast marine world. Based on patterns of algal ecology, the book divides the ocean into four primary compartments, which are then subdivided into secondary compartments. *Includes color insert of the latest in satellite imagery showing the world's oceans, their similarities and differences *Revised and updated to reflect the latest in oceanographic research *Ideal for anyone interested in understanding ocean ecology -- accessible and informative

The Sea, Biological-Physical Interactions in the Sea

Author: Maurice Neville Hill,Allan R. Robinson,James J. McCarthy,Brian J. Rothschild

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN: 9780471189015

Category: Science

Page: 634

View: 303

This book is the third in a new sequence of volumes of The Sea to be edited by Dr. Allan Robinson and a new, distinguished editorial board. As oceanography has matured over recent decades, the once separate interests of chemical, biological, and physical oceanographers have converged. These volumes reflect the change in attitude in oceanography to a solid, interdisciplinary approach.

Principles of Ocean Physics

Author: John R. Apel

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080570747

Category: Science

Page: 634

View: 3199

In recent years, significant advances in both the theoretical and observational sides of physical oceanography have allowed the ocean's physical behavior to be described more quantitatively. This book discusses the physical mechanisms and processes of the sea, and will be valuable not only to oceanographers but also physicists, graduate students, and scientists working in dynamics or optics of the marine environment.

Marine Ecosystems and Global Change

Author: Manuel Barange

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199558027

Category: Nature

Page: 412

View: 4973

Global changes, including climate change and intensive fishing, are having significant impacts on the world's oceans. This book advances knowledge of the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems and their major sub-systems, and how they respond to physical forcing.

Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics

Author: Adrian E. Gill

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080570525

Category: Science

Page: 662

View: 1962

A systematic, unifying approach to the dynamics of the ocean and atmosphere is given in this book, with emphasis on the larger-scale motions (from a few kilometers to global scale). The foundations of the subject (the equations of state and dynamical equations) are covered in some detail, so that students with training in mathematics should find it a self-contained text. Knowledge of fluid mechanics is helpful but not essential. Simple mathematical models are used to demonstrate the fundamental dynamical principles with plentiful illustrations from field and laboratory.

Estuarine Ecology

Author: John W. Day, Jr.,W. Michael Kemp,Alejandro Yáñez-Arancibia,Byron C. Crump

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118391918

Category: Science

Page: 568

View: 5130

Estuaries are among the most biologically productive ecosystems on the planet--critical to the life cycles of fish, other aquatic animals, and the creatures which feed on them. Estuarine Ecology, Second Edition, covers the physical and chemical aspects of estuaries, the biology and ecology of key organisms, the flow of organic matter through estuaries, and human interactions, such as the environmental impact of fisheries on estuaries and the effects of global climate change on these important ecosystems. Authored by a team of world experts from the estuarine science community, this long-awaited, full-color edition includes new chapters covering phytoplankton, seagrasses, coastal marshes, mangroves, benthic algae, Integrated Coastal Zone Management techniques, and the effects of global climate change. It also features an entriely new section on estuarine ecosystem processes, trophic webs, ecosystem metabolism, and the interactions between estuaries and other ecosystems such as wetlands and marshes

Real-time Coastal Observing Systems for Marine Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms

theory, instrumentation and modelling

Author: Babin, Marcel,Roesler, Collin S.,Cullen, John J.

Publisher: UNESCO

ISBN: 9231040421

Category: Nature

Page: 880

View: 4334

The proliferation of harmful phytoplankton in marine ecosystems can cause massive fish kills, contaminate seafood with toxins, impact local and regional economies and dramatically affect ecological balance. Real-time observations are essential for effective short-term operational forecasting, but observation and modelling systems are still being developed. This volume provides guidance for developing real-time and near real-time sensing systems for observing and predicting plankton dynamics, including harmful algal blooms, in coastal waters. The underlying theory is explained and current trends in research and monitoring are discussed.Topics covered include: coastal ecosystems and dynamics of harmful algal blooms; theory and practical applications of in situ and remotely sensed optical detection of microalgal distributions and composition; theory and practical applications of in situ biological and chemical sensors for targeted species and toxin detection; integrated observing systems and platforms for detection; diagnostic and predictive modelling of ecosystems and harmful algal blooms, including data assimilation techniques; observational needs for the public and government; and future directions for research and operations.

Coastal Fluxes in the Anthropocene

The Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme

Author: Christopher J. Crossland,Hartwig H. Kremer,Han J. Lindeboom,Janet I. Marshall Crossland,Martin D.A. Le Tissier

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540278516

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 1313

This book synthesizes knowledge of coastal and riverine material fluxes, biogeochemical processes and indications of change, both natural, and increasingly human-initiated. Here, the authors assess coastal flux in the past and present, and in future under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP) and the LOICZ II (Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone) Project.

Introductory Dynamical Oceanography

Author: Stephen Pond,George L. Pickard

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780750624961

Category: Science

Page: 329

View: 8767

'Introductory Dynamical Oceanography' 2nd ed provides an introduction to Dynamical Physical Oceanography at a level suitable for senior year undergraduate students in the sciences and for graduate students entering oceanography. It aims to present the basic objectives, procedures and successes and to state some of the present limitations of dynamical oceanography and its relations to descriptive physical oceanography. The first edition has been thoroughly revised and updated and the new work includes reference to the Practical Salinity Scale 1978, the International Equation of State 1980 and the beta-spiral technique for calculating absolute currents from the density distribution. In addition the description of mixed-layer models has been updated and the chapters on Waves and on Tides have been substantially revised and enlarged, with emphasis on internal waves in the Waves chapter. While the text is self-contained readers are recommended to acquaint themselves with the general aspects of descriptive (synoptic) oceanography in order to be aware of the character of the ocean which the dynamical oceanographer is attempting to explain by referring to Pickard and Emery's 'Descriptive Physical Oceanography' 4th edition.

Dynamics and Characterization of Marine Organic Matter

Author: N. Handa,E. Tanoue,T. Hama

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401713197

Category: Science

Page: 562

View: 5703

Over the past decade the scientific activities of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), which focuses on the role of the oceans in controlling climate change via the transport and storage of greenhouse gases and organic matter, have led to an increased interest in the study of the biogeochemistry of organic matter. There is also a growing interest in global climate fluctuations. This, and the need for a precise assessment of the dynamics of carbon and other bio-elements, has led to a demand for an improved understanding of biogeochemical processes and the chemical characteristics of both particulate and dissolved organic matter in the ocean. A large amount of proxy data has been published describing the changes of the oceanic environment, but qualitative and quantitative estimates of the vertical flux of (proxy) organic compounds have not been well documented. There is thus an urgent need to pursue this line of study and, to this end, this book starts with several papers dealing with the primary production of organic matter in the upper ocean. Thereafter, the book goes on to follow the flux and characterization of particulate organic matter, discussed in relation to the primary production in the euphotic zone and resuspension in the deep waters, including the vertical flux of proxy organic compounds. It goes on to explain the decomposition and transformation of organic matter in the ocean environment due to photochemical and biological agents, and the reactivity of bulk and specific organic compounds, including the air-sea interaction of biogenic gases. The 22 papers in the book reflect the interests of JGOFS and will thus serve as a valuable reference source for future biogeochemical investigations of both bio-elements and organic matter in seawater, clarifying the role of the ocean in global climate change.

Global Versus Local Changes in Upwelling Systems

Author: Marie-Hélène Durand

Publisher: IRD Orstom


Category: Climatic changes

Page: 594

View: 4039

This volume brings together thirty-three contributions presented at an international conference held on 6-8 September 1994 in Monterey, California, USA under the auspices of the Climate and Eastern Ocean Systems Project (CEOS). The CEOS was a collaborative project linking a variety of research institutions and devoted to study the potential effects of global versus local changes on the pelagic marine fish resources of upwelling systems. These stocks of small pelagics, such as sardines, anchovies or mackerel, account for about one third of the world's yield of marine fish and thus are of key importance to many, especially developing countries. The dynamics of theses stocks appear to be closely related to physical oceanographic processes. The goals of this international research project were to understand the changes that affect environment and consequently the resources in upwelling areas, to desentangle the observed changes in terms of their origins and scale and to analyse the links between environment and resource. The contributions in this volume cover the most important upwelling areas of the world, and describe, compare and assess the observed changes and their impacts. Some initial scenarios already available are presented. It is hoped that these contributions will prove useful to fisheries managers, and also lead to new research ideas and projects. Cet ouvrage rassemble trente-trois contributions présentées lors d'une conférence qui s'est tenue à Monterey en Californie du 6 au 8 septembre 1994 dans le cadre du programme CEOS. Le programme de recherche CEOS a permis à un grand nombre d'institutions de divers pays d'Amérique, d'Afrique et d'Europe de collaborer pour étudier dans une perspective comparative l'impact des changements climatiques sur les ressources en espèces pélagiques dans les différentes zones d'upwelling mondiales. Il est maintenant établi que la dynamique de ces stocks dépend très étroitement de l'environnement physique et des modifications des processus océanographiques. Les recherches ont porté plus spécialement sur la manière d'évaluer et de caractériser les changements observés en distinguant l'origine et l'échelle, globale ou locale, de ces phénomènes. Les changements climatiques sont décrits, analysés et comparés, leurs impacts sur les ressources pélagiques sont évalués, quelques scénarios d'évolution dorénavant identifiés sont présentés. Cet ouvrage, qui enrichit la connaissance des relations entre environnement et ressources, pourra être utilement mis à profit par les gestionnaires des pêches. Nous espérons qu'il participera également à la production de nouvelles idées et projets de recherche.