Durkheim and Foucault

Perspectives on Education and Punishment

Author: Mark Sydney Cladis,British Centre for Durkheimian Studies

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9780952993629

Category: Education

Page: 122

View: 8716

A fundamental natural resource, water and its use not only reflect "modes of production" but also that complex interplay between resources and their exploitation (and domination) by various social agents, who in their turn are inevitably influenced by the abundance or rarity of water supplies. Focusing on scientific, social and economic issues from the 16th to the 19th century, the author, one of Italy's leading historians in this field, looks at the innumerable conflicts that arose over water resources and the environmental impact of projects intended to control them. Venice and Holland are undoubtedly the two most fascinating cases of societies "built on water," with the conquest of vast expanses of marshland - either inland or on the coast (the Dutch polders or the Venetian lagoon) – not only stimulating agricultural production, but also nurturing a deeply-felt relationship between the local populations and the element of water itself. The author rounds off his study by looking at the influence the hydraulic technology developed in Holland would have on many European countries (France, England and Germany in particular) and at questions raised by contemporaries about the environmental impact of agricultural progress and its effects upon the social-economic equilibria within the communities concerned.
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Public Vision, Private Lives

Rousseau, Religion, and 21st-century Democracy

Author: Mark Sydney Cladis

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231139694

Category: Political Science

Page: 298

View: 2946

Mark S. Cladis pinpoints the origins of contemporary notions of the public and private and their relationship to religion in the work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. His thesis cuts across many fields and issues-philosophy of religion, women's studies, democratic theory, modern European history, American culture, social justice, privacy laws, and notions of solitude and community-and wholly reconsiders the political, cultural, and legal nature of modernity in relation to religion. Turning to Rousseau's Garden, its inhabitants, the Solitaires, and the question of restoration and redemption that preoccupied much of Rousseau's thought, Cladis examines how Rousseau addressed the tension between the joys and moral obligations of social engagement and the desire for solitude. He was caught between two possibilities: active involvement in the creation of an enlightened and humane society or extrication from social entanglements in favor of cultivating a spiritual interior life. Yet Rousseau did not view this conflict as a desperate division. Rather, for him it was a moral struggle to be endured by those who had fallen from the Garden. For this edition Cladis has added a substantive introduction that discusses the role of religion in contemporary democratic societies, particularly in American public life. Cladis proposes four models of thinking about religion in public and champions what he calls spiritual democracy-a dynamic, culturally specific, and progressive democracy. Cladis argues that spiritual democracy refers not only to a society's legal codes and principles but also to its democratic culture and symbols and its daily practices and institutions. It encompasses the nation's character, diverse identities, and a distinctivel exchange between the nation's public vision and citizens' complex, private lives.
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A Communitarian Defense of Liberalism

Emile Durkheim and Contemporary Social Theory

Author: Mark S. Cladis

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804723656

Category: Philosophy

Page: 339

View: 5512

In this provocative and timely reading of Emile Durkheim the author isolates the merits and liabilities of both liberal and communitarian theories and demonstrates that we need not be in the position of having to choose between them.
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The Ground Between

Anthropologists Engage Philosophy

Author: Veena Das,Michael D. Jackson,Arthur Kleinman,Bhrigupati Singh

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822376431

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 4536

The guiding inspiration of this book is the attraction and distance that mark the relation between anthropology and philosophy. This theme is explored through encounters between individual anthropologists and particular regions of philosophy. Several of the most basic concepts of the discipline—including notions of ethics, politics, temporality, self and other, and the nature of human life—are products of a dialogue, both implicit and explicit, between anthropology and philosophy. These philosophical undercurrents in anthropology also speak to the question of what it is to experience our being in a world marked by radical difference and otherness. In The Ground Between, twelve leading anthropologists offer intimate reflections on the influence of particular philosophers on their way of seeing the world, and on what ethnography has taught them about philosophy. Ethnographies of the mundane and the everyday raise fundamental issues that the contributors grapple with in both their lives and their thinking. With directness and honesty, they relate particular philosophers to matters such as how to respond to the suffering of the other, how concepts arise in the give and take of everyday life, and how to be attuned to the world through the senses. Their essays challenge the idea that philosophy is solely the province of professional philosophers, and suggest that certain modalities of being in the world might be construed as ways of doing philosophy. Contributors. João Biehl, Steven C. Caton, Vincent Crapanzano, Veena Das, Didier Fassin, Michael M. J. Fischer, Ghassan Hage, Clara Han, Michael Jackson, Arthur Kleinman, Michael Puett, Bhrigupati Singh
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Revisiting the Jewish Question

Author: Elisabeth Roudinesco

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745683746

Category: Religion

Page: 280

View: 9307

What does it mean to be Jewish? What is an anti-Semite? Why does the enigmatic identity of the men who founded the first monotheistic religion arouse such passions? We need to return to the Jewish question. We need, first, to distinguish between the anti-Judaism of medieval times, which persecuted the Jews, and the anti-Judaism of the Enlightenment, which emancipated them while being critical of their religion. It is a mistake to confuse the two and see everyone from Voltaire to Hitler as anti-Semitic in the same way. Then we need to focus on the development of anti-Semitism in Europe, especially Vienna and Paris, where the Zionist idea was born. Finally, we need to investigate the reception of Zionism both in the Arab countries and within the Diaspora. Re-examining the Jewish question in the light of these distinctions and investigations, Roudinesco shows that there is a permanent tension between the figures of the ‘universal Jew’ and the ‘territorial Jew’. Freud and Jung split partly over this issue, which gained added intensity after the creation of the State of Israel in 1948 and the Eichmann trial in 1961. Finally, Roudinesco turns to the Holocaust deniers, who started to suggest that the Jews had invented the genocide that befell their people, and to the increasing number of intellectual and literary figures who have been accused of anti-Semitism. This thorough re-examination of the Jewish question will be of interest to students and scholars of modern history and contemporary thought and to a wide readership interested in anti-Semitism and the history of the Jews.
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Social Identity and Sectarianism in the Qumran Movement

Author: Jutta Jokiranta

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004238611

Category: Religion

Page: 261

View: 8293

'Identity' and 'sectarianism', two crucial and frequently used concepts on the study of the Qumran movement, are problematized, praised, and redefined in this book. Sociology of sectarianism and social identity approach inform the investigation of the serakhim (rule documents) and pesharim (biblical commentaries).
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The "God" Part of the Brain

A Scientific Interpretation of Human Spirituality and God

Author: Matthew Alper

Publisher: Sourcebooks, Inc.

ISBN: 1402236379

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 4735

Is Man the product of a God...or is "God" the product of human evolution? From the dawn of our species, every human culture-no matter how isolated-has believed in some form of a spiritual realm. According to author Matthew Alper, this is no mere coincidence but rather due to the fact that humans, as a species, are genetically predisposed to believe in the universal concepts of a god, a soul and an afterlife. This instinct to believe is the result of an evolutionary adaptation-a coping mechanism-that emerged in our species to help us survive our unique and otherwise debilitating awareness of death. Spiritual seekers and atheists alike will be compelled and transformed by Matthew Alper's classic study of science and religion. The 'God' Part of the Brain has gained critical acclaim from some of the world's leading scientists, secular humanists, and theologians, and is as a must read for anyone who has pondered the question of God's existence, as well as the meaning of our own. Praise for The "God" Part of the Brain "This cult classic in many ways parallels Rene Descartes' search for reliable and certain knowledge...Drawing on such disciplines as philosophy, psychology, and biology, Alper argues that belief in a spiritual realm is an evolutionary coping method that developed to help humankind deal with the fear of death...Highly recommended."— Library Journal "I very much enjoyed the account of your spiritual journey and believe it would make excellent reading for every college student - the resultant residence-hall debates would be the best part of their education. It often occurs to me that if, against all odds, there is a judgmental God and heaven, it will come to pass that when the pearly gates open, those who had the valor to think for themselves will be escorted to the head of the line, garlanded, and given their own personal audience." — Edward O. Wilson, two-time Pulitzer Prize-Winner "This is an essential book for those in search of a scientific understanding of man's spiritual nature. Matthew Alper navigates the reader through a labyrinth of intriguing questions and then offers undoubtedly clear answers that lead to a better understanding of our objective reality." — Elena Rusyn, MD, PhD; Gray Laboratory; Harvard Medical School "What a wonderful book you have written. It was not only brilliant and provocative but also revolutionary in its approach to spirituality as an inherited trait."— Arnold Sadwin, MD, former chief of Neuropsychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania "A lively manifesto...For the discipline's specific application to the matter at hand, I've seen nothing that matches the fury of The 'God' Part of the Brain, which perhaps explains why it's earned something of a cult following." — Salon.com "All 6 billion plus inhabitants of Earth should be in possession of this book. Alper's tome should be placed in the sacred writings' section of libraries, bookstores, and dwellings throughout the world. Matthew Alper is the new Galileo...Immensely important...Defines in a clear and concise manner what each of us already knew but were afraid to admit and exclaim."— John Scoggins, PhD "Vibrant ... vivacious. An entertaining and provocative introduction to speculations concerning the neural basis of spirituality."— Free Inquiry Magazine
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Jesus in Disneyland

Religion in Postmodern Times

Author: David Lyon

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745669379

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 2393

In this lively and accessible study, David Lyon explores the relationship between religion and postmodernity, through the central metaphor of 'Jesus in Disneyland.'
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Gospel According to the Klan

The Kkk's Appeal to Protestant America, 1915-1930

Author: Kelly J. Baker

Publisher: Culture America (Hardcover)

ISBN: 9780700624478

Category: History

Page: 340

View: 1520

Shows that the Ku Klux Klan based its justifications for hatred on a particular brand of Protestantism that resonated with mainstream Americans. Analyzes the complex religious arguments the Klan crafted to gain acceptability and credibility, and reveals how successful those messages were--and how they still resonate today.
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The Comfort of Kin

Samaritan Community, Kinship, and Marriage

Author: Monika Schreiber

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004274251

Category: Religion

Page: 432

View: 4826

In The Comfort of Kin Monika Schreiber presents a study of the social and religious life of the modern Samaritans, with an emphasis on the kinship system and marriage patterns of the community.
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After Postmodernism

Education, Politics And Identity

Author: Richard Smith,Philip Wexler

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135718075

Category: Education

Page: 264

View: 8930

This work presents a set of thematic essays aimed at clarifying the educational problems and paradoxes of postmodern educational conditions and theory. The major concerns of the book are the possibility of achieving substantive political objectives and of theorising such possiblities. These concerns arise from a dissatisfaction with the organisational and political conditions of postmodern educational practice.; The seeming inability of academics to intervene in the public sector, especially in matters of equality, provides a driving force to the book. For individuals who care about the future of education and its role in social reconstruction, the pessimistic nature of postmodern theories of society and education is an additional impetus for the book.; All the chapters exemplify the issues that confront lecturers in contemporary university teacher education contexts. A notable feature of the book is a theme that current theorisation about education and society are historically outmoded and that the future lies in "post" postmodern theories.
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A Companion to Ancient History

Author: Andrew Erskine

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118581539

Category: History

Page: 736

View: 6856

This Companion provides a comprehensive introduction to key topics in the study of ancient history. Examines the forms of evidence, problems, approaches, and major themes in the study of ancient history Comprises more than 40 essays, written by leading international scholars Moves beyond the primary focus on Greece and Rome with coverage of the various cultures within the ancient Mediterranean Draws on the latest research in the field Provides an essential resource for any student of ancient history
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Simon Dubnow's "New Judaism"

Diaspora Nationalism and the World History of the Jews

Author: Robert Seltzer

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004260676

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 752

In Simon Dubnow’s ‘New Judaism’, Seltzer traces a shtetl youth’s rejection of traditional Judaism and the impact of European intellectual currents on the most eminent East European Jewish historian of his time (1860-1941) and exponent of Jewish cultural nationalism.
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Post-Orientalism

Knowledge and Power in a Time of Terror

Author: Hamid Dabashi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351295861

Category: History

Page: 310

View: 6226

Post-Orientalism is a sustained record of Hamid Dabashi's reflections over many years on the question of authority and power. Who gets to represent whom and by what authority? Dabashi's work picks up where Edward Said's Orientalism left off. Said traced the origin of the power of representation and the normative agency that it entails to the colonial hubris that carried a militant band of mercenary merchants, military officers, Christian missionaries, and European Orientalists around the globe. This hubris enabled them to write and represent the people they sought to rule. Dabashi's book is not as much a critique of colonial representation as it is of the manners and modes of fighting back and resisting it. He does not question the significance of Orientalism and its principal concern with the colonial acts of representation, but he provides a different angle that argues for the primacy of the question of postcolonial agency. Dabashi uses the United States as an example of a country that initiated militant acts of representation in Iraq and Afghanistan. He attempts to unearth and examine the United States' deeply rooted claim to normative and moral agency, particularly in light of the world's post-9/11 political reality.
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Everyday Aesthetics

Prosaics, the Play of Culture and Social Identities

Author: Katya Mandoki

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131713849X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 344

View: 4531

Katya Mandoki advances in this book the thesis that it is not only possible but crucial to open up the field of aesthetics (traditionally confined to the study of art and beauty) toward the richness and complexity of everyday life. She argues that in every process of communication, whether face to face or through the media, fashion, and political propaganda, there is always an excess beyond the informative and functional value of a message. This excess is the aesthetic. Following Huizinga's view of play as an ingredient of any social environment, Mandoki explores how various cultural practices are in fact forms of playing since, for the author, aesthetics and play are Siamese twins. One of the unique contributions of this book is the elaboration and application of a semiotic model for the simultaneous analysis of social interactions in the four registers, namely visual, auditory, verbal and body language, to detect the aesthetic strategies deployed in specific situations. She argues that since the presentation of the self is targeted towards participants' sensibilities, aesthetics plays a key role in these modes of exchange. Consequently, the author updates important debates in this field to clear the way for a socio-aesthetic inquiry through contexts such as the family, school, medical, artistic or religious traditions from which social identities emerge.
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All My Bones Shake

Seeking a Progressive Path to the Prophetic Voice

Author: Robert Jensen

Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com

ISBN: 1458780899

Category: Fiction

Page: 284

View: 1494

Robert Jensen, a life-long activist fighting for women's rights, racial equality, and global justice, reveals with this book the emotional journey that brought him back to the church after an entire adulthood of religious indifference. Our world is perched on the verge of chaos, he warns. As political, economic, cultural, and ecological crises peak, the decisions we make are likely to have permanent consequences for our future and for the fate of our planet. In our nation, what underlies this chaos is a spiritual unrest, a stubborn conflict that has gotten in the way of understanding and slowed theological progress to a glacial crawl. Drawing on the Old and New Testaments, contemporary philosophy, common sense, personal intuition, and progressive politics, Jensen offers a full defense of his conclusion, holding its consistency up to the best of religious and secular teachings. A touchingly open memoir that is also a study of the religious debate in America, ''All My Bones Shake'' marks an entirely new communion; a way to look at religion as a tool with which we may create closer ties to all humanity and begin to create a just and sustainable society - to face with confidence the uncertainty of our lives. Both political and spiritual, radical and universal, public and very personal, Jensen's warmhearted text is a passionate testament to the potential of religion to offer sanity and stability in the face of our culture's growing turmoil.
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Solidarity, Memory and Identity

Author: Maria Virginia Filomena Cremasco,Wojciech Owczarski

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443873985

Category: History

Page: 385

View: 8313

In today’s context of rapid socio-political changes, with deepening ethnic and religious conflicts on the one hand, and a diminishing feeling of identification with the community on the other, reflection on the idea of “solidarity” is very much necessary. This book provides answers to the following questions: “What is the idea of solidarity today?”; “How can it be defined?”; “How has it evolved over recent decades?”; “How does it manifest itself in social life?”; “How is it reflected in the arts?”; and, above all, “How does it relate to collective memory and identity?” With this outline of topic areas in mind, this volume brings together essays analysing various aspects of the concept of solidarity: namely, philosophical, social, political, cultural, historical, psychological and artistic. The book’s interdisciplinary character is testament to the complexity of perspectives and contexts in which the phenomenon of solidarity can be described today in the social sciences and the humanities. As such, it contains chapters devoted to the history of ideas; international relations and political conflicts in the modern world; national minorities; racism and anti-Semitism; and twentieth-century crimes against humanity, as well as psychological case studies, experimental research on mechanisms of social behaviour, and analyses of works of art. The contributors to this volume represent academic centres from Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe. They are deeply concerned with fighting against any forms of discrimination, and, as such, their respective chapters mark a contribution to the constant search for the improvement of the fate of societies and individuals in different corners of the globe. Consequently, this book has an ethical dimension, in addition to its cognitive side, inspiring its readers to undertake efforts to help victims of social exclusion, persecution and crime.
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Is Eating People Wrong?

Great Legal Cases and How they Shaped the World

Author: Allan C. Hutchinson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139495275

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 2573

Great cases are those judicial decisions around which the common law develops. This book explores eight exemplary cases from the United Kingdom, the United States and Australia that show the law as a living, breathing and down-the-street experience. It explores the social circumstances in which the cases arose and the ordinary people whose stories influenced and shaped the law as well as the characters and institutions (lawyers, judges and courts) that did much of the heavy lifting. By examining the consequences and fallout of these decisions, the book depicts the common law as an experimental, dynamic, messy, productive, tantalizing and bottom-up process, thereby revealing the diverse and uncoordinated attempts by the courts to adapt the law to changing conditions and shifting demands. Great cases are one way to glimpse the workings of the common law as an untidy but stimulating exercise in human judgment and social accomplishment.
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