Die Psychologie der Entscheidung

Eine Einführung

Author: Hans-Rüdiger Pfister,Helmut Jungermann,Katrin Fischer

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662530384

Category: Psychology

Page: 457

View: 2431

Dieses Lehrbuch beschreibt, wie sich Menschen entscheiden, und erklärt, warum Menschen manchmal zu Beurteilungen und Entscheidungen kommen, die aus der Perspektive rationaler Entscheidungen nicht optimal sind. Das allgemein verständlich geschriebene Werk richtet sich an Studierende, an Wissenschaftler und an alle Leser, die an den psychologischen Prozessen interessiert sind, die unsere Urteile und Entscheidungen beeinflussen. Leser lernen hier die wichtigsten psychologischen Theorien und Forschungsergebnisse der Entscheidungspsychologie kennen: Wie entstehen Präferenzen, wie gehen Menschen mit Zielkonflikten und mit Unsicherheit um, und welche Rolle spielen Emotion und Intuition beim Entscheiden. Auch erfahren Sie über Entscheidungen in interessanten Anwendungsfeldern: Entscheidungen an der Börse, im Cockpit und im Gesundheitswesen. In dieser 4. Auflage wurden alle Kapitel komplett überarbeitet und auf den neuesten Stand gebracht. Zwei zusätzliche Kapitel erweitern das Themenspektrum, zum einen geht es um die Rolle von Emotionen bei Entscheidungen, zum anderen um die Integration von Entscheidungsprozessen in übergreifende kognitive Theorien. Die Entscheidungspsychologie ist Prüfungsstoff im Fach Allgemeine Psychologie, in der Sozialpsychologie und in der Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie. Sie spielt eine wesentliche Rolle in den Wirtschaftswissenschaften (Behavioral Economics) und in anderen Sozialwissenschaften wie der Soziologie und den politischen Wissenschaften. In Bereichen wie der Medizin und dem Gesundheitswesen oder bei der Analyse technischer und gesellschaftlicher Risiken finden entscheidungspsychologische Faktoren zunehmend Beachtung.
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Psychology

Author: David G. Myers,C. Nathan DeWall

Publisher: Worth Publishers

ISBN: 9781464140815

Category: Psychology

Page: 912

View: 3076

David Myers’ new partnership with coauthor C. Nathan DeWall matches two dedicated educators and scholars, each passionate about teaching psychological science through writing and interactive media. With this new edition of the #1 bestselling Psychology, Myers and DeWall take full advantage of what an integrated text/media learning combination can do. New features move students from reading the chapter to actively learning online: How Would You Know puts students in the role of scientific researcher and includes tutorials on key research design principles; Assess Your Strengths self-tests help students learn a little more about themselves, and include tips about nurturing key strengths. These and other innovations rest on the same foundations that have always distinguished a new David Myers edition—exhaustive updating (hundreds of new citations), captivating writing, and the merging of rigorous science with a broad human perspective that engages both the mind and heart. This edition of Psychology is accompanied by its own dedicated version of Worth Publishers’ breakthrough online course space, featuring a fully integrated e-Book, LearningCurve adaptive quizzing, a rich collection of student media resources, and easy setup, assessment, and course management options for instructors.
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Efficiency, Sustainability, and Justice to Future Generations

Author: Klaus Mathis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400718692

Category: Law

Page: 240

View: 2787

Fifty years after the famous essay “The Problem of Social Cost” (1960) by the Nobel laureate Ronald Coase, Law and Economics seems to have become the lingua franca of American jurisprudence, and although its influence on European jurisprudence is only moderate by comparison, it has also gained popularity in Europe. A highly influential publication of a different nature was the Brundtland Report (1987), which extended the concept of sustainability from forestry to the whole of the economy and society. According to this report, development is sustainable when it “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. A key requirement of sustainable development is justice to future generations. It is still a matter of fact that the law as well as the theories of justice are generally restricted to the resolution of conflicts between contemporaries and between people living in the same country. This in turn raises a number of questions: what is the philosophical justification for intergenerational justice? What bearing does sustainability have on the efficiency principle? How do we put a policy of sustainability into practice, and what is the role of the law in doing so? The present volume is devoted to these questions. In Part One, “Law and Economics”, the role of economic analysis and efficiency in law is examined more closely. Part Two, “Law and Sustainability”, engages with the themes of sustainable development and justice to future generations. Finally, Part Three, “Law, Economics and Sustainability”, addresses the interrelationships between the different aspects.
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Basis und Einflussfaktoren der Entscheidungsfindung: Problemlösestrategien und Aviation-Decision-Making

Author: Christian Kohnz

Publisher: Diplomica Verlag

ISBN: 395850597X

Category: Psychology

Page: 96

View: 5272

Das Ziel des vorliegenden Buches ist es herauszufinden, wie Menschen Entscheidungen treffen. Dabei sollen emotionale Entscheidungsfaktoren genauso berücksichtigt werden wie die mit der Entscheidung einhergehende Ungewissheit über mögliche Konsequenzen. Wann spricht man von einer richtigen oder falschen Entscheidung? Auf welchen Informationen basieren Entscheidungen? Welche Phasen existieren im Rahmen der Problemlösung? Die gewonnenen theoretischen Erkenntnisse werden auf das Themenfeld des Aviation-Decision-Making übertragen und mit verschiedenen Strategien verglichen, die sich ein Pilot im Rahmen seiner Tätigkeit zunutze macht und auf denen entsprechende Entscheidungen basieren. Die Studie diskutiert abschließend Überlegungen zur Verbesserung der Problemlösung und gibt einen Überblick über verschiedene Problemlösestrategien aus der allgemeinen Psychologie.
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European Perspectives on Behavioural Law and Economics

Author: Klaus Mathis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319116355

Category: Law

Page: 271

View: 3898

This anthology highlights the theoretical foundations as well as the various applications of Behavioural Law and Economics in European legal culture. By the same token, it fosters the dialogue between European and American Law and Economics scholars. The traditional neo-classical microeconomic theory explains human behaviour by using Rational Choice. According to this model, people tend to maximize the difference between expected utility and cost (“expected utility theory”). This theory includes three assumptions: (1) unbounded rationality, (2) unbounded self-interest, and (3) unbounded willpower. Behavioural Economics questions these assumptions and endeavours to render economic analysis more realistic by underpinning it with psychological insights. In recent years, the influence of Behavioural Economics on the Economic Analysis of Law has gained momentum. Behavioural Law and Economics generates a better theoretical understanding of legal phenomena and offers a multitude of applications in legislation and legal adjudication. This volume is testament to the growing and thriving Law and Economics movement in Europe. The European Law and Economics community has steadily grown and the yearly Law and Economics Conference at the law faculty of the University of Lucerne has successfully become a guiding star in the vast sky of Law and Economics.
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Logistics Management

Products, Actors, Technology - Proceedings of the German Academic Association for Business Research, Bremen, 2013

Author: Jan Dethloff,Hans-Dietrich Haasis,Herbert Kopfer,Herbert Kotzab,Jörn Schönberger

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331913177X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 527

View: 5023

This book gathers papers presented at the Logistik-Management-Konferenz 2013, which was organized by the VHB Wissenschaftliche Kommission Logistik and held in Bremen, Germany. The papers reflect the current state-of-the-art in logistics and supply chain management, focusing on environmental sustainability in logistics and supply chain network dynamics and control. The target audience primarily consists of researchers and practitioners in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
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Land Ownership and Land Use Development

he Integration of Past, Present, and Future in Spatial Planning and Land Management Policies

Author: Erwin Hepperle,Robert Dixon-Gough,Reinfried Mansberger,Jenny Paulsson,Józef Hernik,Thomas Kalbro

Publisher: vdf Hochschulverlag AG

ISBN: 3728138037

Category:

Page: 370

View: 2657

Across Europe, land is constantly the subject of enormous and widely varied pressures. The land we have is shrinking in area due to numerous reasons, including those that are directly related to climate change and migration. In fact all disciplines that have responsibilities for the husbandry use, management, and administration of the land are forced to address the problems of how to plan and how to utilise this increasingly valuable resource. The papers contained within this book emerge from two symposia held in 2014 and 2015, which now have been arranged along four general themes reflecting the multi-disciplinary nature of the disciplines concerned with land. The first part is dedicated to the interpretation of key terms in their context and the dissimilar conceptual approaches in the governance of different states. It is followed by papers that identify the process of decision-taking: how to organize and co-operate. One large section addresses the identification of land pattern changes and the reason for it. The papers in the final cluster deal with the general theme of strategies and measures used to steer future evolution in land policies. The publication addresses various needs that have to be balanced: the tasks of living space in the face of societal and demographic changes, infrastructure supply, challenges of an increasingly urbanised region, food production, ‘green energy’, natural hazards, habitats and cultural landscapes protection.
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New Approaches in Translation Process Research

Author: Fabio Alves,Inger M. Mees

Publisher: Samfundslitteratur

ISBN: 9788759314777

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 152

View: 7949

The Copenhagen Studies in Language Series includes studies of language for general purposes and also language for special purposes (LSP). It covers grammar, semantics, pragmatics, text linguistics and translation, both from theoretical and applied perspectives. It is editorial policy to bring out the journal in the form of a series of thematic volumes. Although produced from the Copenhagen Business School, the journal welcomes contributions from linguists based at other institutions either in Denmark or the wider world. This volume brings together five papers presented at the 1st International Research Workshop "Methodology in Translation Process Research" held from April 6 to 8, 2009, at the University of Graz, Austria. The first three articles provide insights into the methods employed in the TransComp project at the University of Graz and discuss some of the findings this longitudinal study has yielded so far. The fourth presents results from another longitudinal study, the CTP project ("Capturing Translation Processes"), conducted at Zurich University of Applied Sciences. The collection concludes with a contribution which bridges methodology in translation and interpreting process research.
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Professional Learning: Gaps and Transitions on the Way from Novice to Expert

Author: Henny P.A. Boshuizen,Rainer Bromme,Hans Gruber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402020945

Category: Education

Page: 308

View: 5342

About the Book Series The idea for the Book Series “Innovation and Change in Professional Education” (ICPE) was born in 1996. While working on another publication in this area, we noticed that professional educators faced similar problems without even knowing from each other. It was this observation that resulted in examining the possibilities for a new publication platform about professional education with input from different professions. We wanted to develop a publication source that would bring together educators and researchers to exchange ideas and knowledge about theory, research and professional practice. But we were not only striving for a book series informing readers about important themes in the professions. A second goal was to focus on processes of change and innovation. We were heavily involved in innovations going on in our institutions, and were convinced that a better understanding was needed in a wide range of issues critically important to the future of professional education. It was our belief that scholarly publications about innovation processes may support fundamental change in professional education. ICPE reflects our view that professional education deserves such a publication platform. It aims to approach critical questions of educational innovations, and to examine dynamics of educational change in various professional domains in the context of innovation processes. The books will include contributions from frontline practitioners, leading researchers, or distinguished scholars in professional education, delivering reports of empirical or theoretical research, reviews, interpretations of evaluation studies, or descriptions of innovative approaches.
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Risk Savvy

How to Make Good Decisions

Author: Gerd Gigerenzer

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0143127101

Category: Psychology

Page: 336

View: 1096

"First published in United States of America by Viking Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) LLC, 2014."--Title page verso.
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Risk, Uncertainty and Rational Action

Author: Carlo C. Jaeger,Thomas Webler,Eugene A. Rosa,Ortwin Renn

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134203020

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 6839

Risk as we now know it is a wholly new phenomenon, the by-product of our ever more complex and powerful technologies. In business, policy making, and in everyday life, it demands a new way of looking at technological and environmental uncertainty. In this definitive volume, four of the world's leading risk researchers present a fundamental critique of the prevailing approaches to understanding and managing risk - the 'rational actor paradigm'. They show how risk studies must incorporate the competing interests, values, and rationalities of those involved and find a balance of trust and acceptable risk. Their work points to a comprehensive and significant new theory of risk and uncertainty and of the decision making process they require. The implications for social, political, and environmental theory and practice are enormous. Winner of the 2000-2002 Outstanding Publication Award of the Section on Environment and Technology of the American Sociological Association
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Adaptive Thinking

Rationality in the Real World

Author: Gerd Gigerenzer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190286768

Category: Philosophy

Page: 432

View: 1947

Where do new ideas come from? What is social intelligence? Why do social scientists perform mindless statistical rituals? This vital book is about rethinking rationality as adaptive thinking: to understand how minds cope with their environments, both ecological and social. Gerd Gigerenzer proposes and illustrates a bold new research program that investigates the psychology of rationality, introducing the concepts of ecological, bounded, and social rationality. His path-breaking collection takes research on thinking, social intelligence, creativity, and decision-making out of an ethereal world where the laws of logic and probability reign, and places it into our real world of human behavior and interaction. Adaptive Thinking is accessibly written for general readers with an interest in psychology, cognitive science, economics, sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, and animal behavior. It also teaches a practical audience, such as physicians, AIDS counselors, and experts in criminal law, how to understand and communicate uncertainties and risks.
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How Children Develop

Author: Robert S. Siegler,Judy S. DeLoache,Nancy Eisenberg

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 1429217901

Category: Psychology

Page: 600

View: 7832

The authors emphasize the fundamental principles and enduring themes underlying children's development and focus on key research. This new edition also contains a new chapter on gender, as well as recent work on conceptual development.
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Psychologie der Finanzmärkte

Eine Einführung

Author: Urs Kargl

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3656272069

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 36

View: 9294

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2012 im Fachbereich VWL - Finanzwissenschaft, Note: 1,3, Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften im Harz; Halberstadt (Institut für Wirtschaftspsychologie), Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Spricht man jemanden auf die Rolle der Psychologie in Finanzmärkte an, so darf man sich über große Augen mit hochgezogenen Augenbrauen nicht wundern. Grundsätzlich ist dieses Verhalten gar nicht abwegig, denn eigentlich stellt die Börse nach Kirchler (2011) einen reinen Markt dar - das Idealbild effizienter Märkte: Es gibt viele Marktteilnehmer, die sofort und gleichzeitig alle kostenlosen Informationen über das Marktgeschehen zur Verfügung haben. Die Verarbeitung der Informationen läuft vollständig und schnell ab und zeigt sich schlussendlich in rationalen und zielorientierten Verhaltensweisen; d. h. die Marktteilnehmer kaufen und verkaufen einzig auf Grund des jeweiligen Kurses ohne nennenswerte Transaktionskosten. Auf Grundlage dieser Tatsache lässt sich schlussfolgern, dass Börsenakteure in ihrem Verhalten stark dem Wirtschafts-Musterknaben Homo Oeconomicus1 ähneln müssen - zumindest auf einer aggregierten Ebene. Doch warum haben dann Faktoren wie die eigene Gefühlswelt des Händlers, Berichte über Flugzeugabstürze oder Gewaltverbrechen und Entscheidungsheuristiken einen messbaren Einfluss auf die Finanzwirtschaft und somit direkt auch auf die Kurse an den Märkten? Gibt es unter den Börsenakteuren also doch keinen Homo Oeconomicus? Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wird der Fokus auf die Börse als Marktplatz gerichtet. Es werden grundlegende Definitionen zur einfacheren Abgrenzung aufgeführt, in verschiedene Ausprägungen der Börse eingeführt, ein Einblick in unterschiedliche Aktien- und Anlageformen gegeben und relevante Begriffe aus dem Börsenhandel beleuchtet. Der zweite Teil der Arbeit widmet sich gezielt der Psychologie an Finanzmärkten. Genauer werden verschiedene Forschungsansätze und Erklärungsmodelle betrachtet, die als Erklärungsgrundlage für das Verhalten an Börsen herangezogen werden. Weiter wird versucht, im Laufe der Arbeit mit praxisnahen Beispielen in typische Probleme der Händler einzuführen. Hierdurch soll ein Transfer zwischen psychologischer Theorie und verhaltensökonomischer Realität an Börsen hergestellt werden. An den verhaltensökonomischen Ansatz anknüpfend folgen ergänzend noch die Sieben Todsünden des Fondsmanagements. Die kritische Würdigung und Reflexion bilden den Abschluss der Arbeit über die Psychologie der Finanzmärkte.
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Wille als Sprechakt und Entscheidung

die psycho-physischen Grundlagen des Handelns bei Nietzsche

Author: Henry Kerger

Publisher: Königshausen & Neumann

ISBN: 9783826011061

Category: Will

Page: 401

View: 8763

Nietzsche und Freud stimmen u.a. darin überein, daß das Verhältnis von psychologischen und physiologischen Vorgängen nicht im Verhältnis der Kausalität zueinander steht. Mit seinem interdisziplinären Ansatz klärt der Autor einerseits den Einfluß der Lehre Schopenhauers vom Willen als der "Objektivation des Leibes", andererseits Nietzsches Abkehr von der metaphysischen Lehre Schopenhauers aufgrund von Einsichten, welche zu den wesentlichen Grundlagen der "Vergleichenden Verhaltensforschung" (Lorenz), der Anthropologie (Gehlen), der Gestaltpsychologie (Köhler) sowie der Soziologie und der Rechtstheorie zählen.
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