Wissenschaftstheorie, Sprachkritik und Wittgenstein

In memoriam Elisabeth und Werner Leinfellner

Author: Walter Feigl,Sascha Windholz

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 311031987X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 273

View: 2093

Die Gedenkschrift zu Ehren von Elisabeth und Werner Leinfellner spannt einen Bogen von aktuellen philosophischen Diskursen zum Werk und Leben des 2010 verstorbenen Wissenschaftler-Ehepaares. Für viele sind beide untrennbar mit der Österreichischen Ludwig Wittgenstein Gesellschaft (ÖLWG) und dem Internationalen Wittgenstein Symposien in Kirchberg am Wechsel verbunden. Die Artikel in diesem Band befassen sich mit aktueller Wittgensteinforschung und der Sprachkritik (Mauthner und Wittgenstein) ebenso wie dem Wirken von Elisabeth und Werner Leinfellner. Darüber hinaus geben sie Einblicke in das Werden der ÖLWG und das österreichische Geistesleben in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jhdts. Mitarbeiter des Buches: Marco Bastianelli, Christian Erbacher, Johann Götschl, Peter Kampits, Christian Kanzian, Peter Keicher, Eckehart Köhler, Camilla R. Nielsen, Klaus Puhl, Mary Snell-Hornby, Ilse Somavilla, Joseph Wang, Anja Weiberg, Paul Weingartner und Franz M. Wuketits. Herausgeber sind Sascha Windholz und Walter Feigl.
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Decision Making and Change in Human Affairs

Proceedings of the Fifth Research Conference on Subjective Probability, Utility, and Decision Making, Darmstadt, 1–4 September, 1975

Author: H. Jungermann,G. De Zeeuw

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401012768

Category: Social Science

Page: 528

View: 6146

It is only just recently that people have the tools to judge how well they are doing when making decisions. These tools were conceptualized in the seventeenth century. Since then many people have worked to sharpen the concepts, and to explore how these can be applied further. The problems of decision-making and the theory developed correspondingly have drawn the interest of mathematicians, psychologists, statisticians, economists, philosophers, organizational experts, sociologists, not only for their general relevance, but also for a more intrinsic fascination. There are quite a few institutionalized activities to disseminate results and stimulate research in decision-making. For about a decade now a European organizational structure, centered mainly around the psy chological interest in decision-making. There have been conferences in Hamburg, Amsterdam, Uxbridge, Rome and Darmstadt. Conference papers have been partly published+. The organization has thus stabilized, and its re latively long history makes it interesting to see what kind of developments occurred, within the area of interest.
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Social Action

Author: Gottfried Seebaß,R. Tuomela

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400952635

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 7936

The papers contained in this volume are based on the contributions to an international, interdisciplinary Symposium entitled 'Analytical and Sociologi cal Action Theories' which took place in Berlin (West) on September 1-3, 1982. Each part comprises a main paper followed by two (in Part IV three) papers commenting on it. On the whole there is an equal division into philo sophical and sociological papers. In particular each main paper receives both inter- and innerdisciplinary comments. The Berlin Symposium was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Bonn) and, to a smaller extent, by the Freie UniversiHit Berlin; both grants are acknowledged gratefully. Berlin and Helsinki, May 1984 GOTTFRIED SEEBASS RAIMO TUOMELA vii GOTTFRIED SEEBASS INTRODUCTION I. It is a striking fact that the extended efforts of both sociologists and analytical philosophers to work out what is termed a 'theory of action' have taken little, if any, account of each other. Yet of the various reasons for this that come to mind none appears to be such as to foil any hopes for fruitful interdisciplinary exchange. Being concerned, apparently, with the same set of phenomena, viz. individual and social actions, the two theories can reasonably be expected to be partially overlapping as well as competitive and complementary. Accordingly each can eventually be shown by the other to need completion or revision. Whether or to what extent this is the case is subject to inquiry and discussion.
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Social System Accounts

Linking Social and Economic Indicators through Tangible Behavior Settings

Author: K. Fox

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400953828

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 8630

This book results from a research program on which I have spent most of my time since 1974. It addresses two of the major problems facing social system account ing: how to measure and account for nonmarket activities and how to combine social and economic indicators. The solution I propose is accounts based on behavior settings, a concept originated by Roger G. Barker more than thirty years ago. Behavior settings are the natural units of social activity into which people sort themselves to get on with the busi ness of daily life--grocery stores, school classes, reI i gious services, meetings, athletic events, and so on. The descriptive power of behavior settings has been established in surveys of complete communities in the United States and England, of high schools ranging in size from fewer than 100 to more than 2000 students, of rehabilitation centers in hospitals, and of several other types of organizations. Behavior settings are empirical facts of everyday life. A description of a community or an organization in terms of behavior settings corresponds to common experi ence. In many cases, small establishments are behavior settings; the paid roles in behavior settingsare occupa tions; and the buildings and equipment of establishments are the buildings and equipment of behavior settings.
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Essays on Ethics, Social Behaviour, and Scientific Explanation

Author: J.C. Harsanyi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940109327X

Category: Social Science

Page: 278

View: 4087

When John Harsanyi came to Stanford University as a candidate for the Ph.D., I asked him why he was bothering, since it was most un likely that he had anything to learn from us. He was already a known scho lar; in addition to some papers in economics, the first two papers in this vol ume had already been published and had dazzled me by their originality and their combination of philosophical insight and technical competence. However, I am very glad I did not discourage him; whether he learned any thing worthwhile I don't know, but we all learned much from him on the foundations of the theory of games and specifically on the outcome of bar gaining. The central focus of Harsanyi's work has continued to be in the theory of games, but especially on the foundations and conceptual problems. The theory of games, properly understood, is a very broad approach to social interaction based on individually rational behavior, and it connects closely with fundamental methodological and substantive issues in social science and in ethics. An indication of the range of Harsanyi's interest in game the ory can be found in the first paper of Part B -though in fact his owncontri butions are much broader-and in the second paper the applications to the methodology of social science. The remaining papers in that section show more specifically the richness of game theory in specific applications.
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Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences

Author: Alexander L. George,Andrew Bennett,Sean M. Lynn-Jones,Steven E. Miller

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262572224

Category: Political Science

Page: 331

View: 2244

A text that emphasizes the importance of case studies in social science scholarship and shows how to make case study practices more rigorous.
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Politics as Rational Action

Essays in Public Choice and Policy Analysis

Author: L. Lewin,E. Vedung

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400989555

Category: Social Science

Page: 276

View: 5405

One of the most promising trends in modem political science is the develop ment of a theory of politics as rational action. Focussing on choice as the central topic of study, rational choice theorists set out to specify what alter native an actor should prefer if he has some given knowledge of the conse quences of each alternative and wants to see his preference system as fully realized as possible. But rational choice theory is not confmed to the norma tive sphere of science. It can also be used for explanatory purposes. Then, the alternatives actually chosen are specified and the task is to explain the decisions by fmding out what considerations lay behind them. The starting point for an emerging research program at the Department of Government, Uppsala University, on 'Politics as Rational Action' is to describe the major choices in fifteen different policy areas of Swedish domes tic politics and explain why they were made.
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Methodology of Social Sciences

Max Weber

Author: Henry A. Finch

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412843839

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 7733

Max Weber wrote these methodological essays in the closest intimacy with actual research and against a background of constant and intensive meditation on substantive problems in the theory and strategy of the social sciences. They were written between 1903 and 1917, the most productive of Max Weber's life, when he was working on his studies in the sociology of religion and Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Weber had done important work in economic and legal history and had taught economic theory. On the basis of original investigations, he had acquired a specialist's knowledge of the details of German economic and social structure. His always vital concern for the political prosperity of Germany among the nations thrust him deeply into discussion of political ideals and programs. Weber's methodology still holds interest for us. Some of its shortcomings, from the contemporary viewpoint, may be attributed to the fact that some of the methodological problems that he treated could not be satisfactorily resolved prior to certain actual developments in research technique. These few qualifications aside, the work remains a pioneering work in large scale social research, from one of the field's masters.
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Determinants and Controls of Scientific Development

Author: K.D. Knorr,H. Strasser,H.G. Zilian

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401018316

Category: Social Science

Page: 460

View: 2810

This book constitutes the outcome of an international conference held at the Otto-Mobes-Volkswirtschaftsschule, Graz-Stifting( Austria), from June 16 to 22, 1974. The conference was initiated by a project group working on determinants and controls of social science development at the In stitute for Advanced Studies and Scientific Research in Vienna and or ganized by the editors of this volume. It was held under the auspices of the Austrian Ministry of Science and Research. The main topics of the conference were those at the forefront of the 'state of argumentation' (to borrow from one of our contributors) in philosophy and sociology of science ever since the controversy between Thomas S. Kuhn and Sir Karl R. Popper has sharpened our awareness for the methodological and substantial presuppositions involved with questions of growth and development in science. Let us give two examples of those topics. The borderline between sociology of science and philo sophy of science has become more and more unclear; while the work of at least some philosophers of science comes to have an empirical flavour, sociologists of science are increasingly apt to include logical and methodo logical components of the research process as their objects of examina tion. Papers included in this volume testify to both tendencies.
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Decision Theory

Principles and Approaches

Author: Giovanni Parmigiani,Lurdes Inoue

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047074667X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 402

View: 4985

Decision theory provides a formal framework for making logical choices in the face of uncertainty. Given a set of alternatives, a set of consequences, and a correspondence between those sets, decision theory offers conceptually simple procedures for choice. This book presents an overview of the fundamental concepts and outcomes of rational decision making under uncertainty, highlighting the implications for statistical practice. The authors have developed a series of self contained chapters focusing on bridging the gaps between the different fields that have contributed to rational decision making and presenting ideas in a unified framework and notation while respecting and highlighting the different and sometimes conflicting perspectives. This book: Provides a rich collection of techniques and procedures. Discusses the foundational aspects and modern day practice. Links foundations to practical applications in biostatistics, computer science, engineering and economics. Presents different perspectives and controversies to encourage readers to form their own opinion of decision making and statistics. Decision Theory is fundamental to all scientific disciplines, including biostatistics, computer science, economics and engineering. Anyone interested in the whys and wherefores of statistical science will find much to enjoy in this book.
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Instrumental Reasoning and Systems Methodology

An Epistemology of the Applied and Social Sciences

Author: Richard Mattessich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027708373

Category: Social Science

Page: 396

View: 2861

This book has been written primarily for the applied and social scientist and student who longs for an integrated picture of the foundations on which his research must ultimately rest; but hopefully the book may also serve philosophers interested in applied disciplines and in systems methodology. If integration was the major motto, the need for a method ology, appropriate to the teleological peculiarities of all applied sciences, was the main impetus behind the conception of the present work. This need I felt a long time ago in my own area of analytical and empirical research in accounting theory and management science; later I had the opportunity to teach, for almost a decade, graduate seminars in Methodology which offered particular insight into the methodological needs of students of such applied disciplines as business administration, education, engineering, infor matics, etc. Out of this effort grew the present book which among other things tries, on one side, to illuminate the difference and relationship between methods of cognition and methods of decision and on the other, to sketch a framework suitable for depicting means-end relationships in a holistic setting. I believe that a systems methodology which incorporates recent endeavours of deontic logic, decision theory, information economics and related areas would be eminently suited to break the ground for such a future framework. Yet systems theory has two major shortcomings which might prevent it from evolving into the desired methodology of applied science.
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Recent Developments in the Foundations of Utility and Risk Theory

Author: L. Daboni,Aldo M. Montesano,M. Lines

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400946163

Category: Social Science

Page: 406

View: 4211

The Second International Conference on Foundations of Utility and Risk Theory was held in Venice, June 1984. This volume presents some of the papers delivered at FUR-84. (The First International Conference, FUR-82, was held in Oslo and some of the papers presented on that occasion were published by Reidel in the volume Foundations of Utility and Risk Theory with Applications, edited by Bernt P. Stigum and Fred Wenst~p). The theory of choice under uncertainty involves a vast range of controversial issues in many fields like economics, philosophy, psychology, mathematics and statistics. The idea of discussing these problems in international conferences has been successful: two conferences have been held and others will follow. The climate of the debate has changed in the meantime, partly as a result of these conferences. It is no more only a question of attacking or defending the neo-Bernoullian assumptions, but also of proposing wider generalizations and including new elements in the analysis of the decision process. For instance Amartya Sen - comparing the two current notions of rationality, internal consistency and self-interest pursuit introduces the concept of reasoning and considers the irrationality which may result from the failure of a positive correspondence between reasoning and choice or from a limited capacity of reasoning. Rationality is also considered with respect to the controversial axiom of strong independence. John C. Harsanyi introduces the concept of practical certainty, i. e.
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Theory and Decision

Essays in Honor of Werner Leinfellner

Author: G. Eberlein,H.A. Berghel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400938950

Category: Social Science

Page: 325

View: 8502

This collection of articles contains contributions from a few of Werner Leinfellner's many friends and colleagues. Some of them are former students of Werner's. Others were colleagues of his at various American and European universities. Further, some have come to know Werner through his research, his long-standing editorship of Theory and Deci sion and his extensive participation in international conferences and congresses. The following articles are new to this volume. The areas covered are those in which Werner continues to play an active professional role. We offer them as a tribute to the many and multi-faceted contributions to the scientific enterprise for which Werner Leinfellner is so widely known. We believe such a festschrift to be fitting and long overdue. Because of the breadth of Werner's professional associations, it was difficult to select representatives from among his many spheres of influence. We apologize to the many scholars who could not be in cluded because of time and space considerations. Finally, we wish to express appreciation to Dean John Guilds of the University of Arkansas for providing financial support early on in the evolution of this project, to Jennifer Bauman for her bravura performance in copy-editing the manuscripts, and to our publisher at Reidel for bringing this volume to press.
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Navigating the Maze of Research - E-Book

Enhancing Nursing and Midwifery Practice

Author: Sally Borbasi,Debra Jackson

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0729580903

Category: Medical

Page: 288

View: 5668

A new third edition of this essential research E-book for Australian and New Zealand nursing and midwifery students. This third edition of Navigating the Maze of Research: Enhancing Nursing and Midwifery Practice is the ideal tool for nursing and midwifery students in Australia and New Zealand. Learning to access, evaluate and apply research findings in everyday clinical practice can be difficult. This excellent introductory E-book presents concepts in an accessible and engaging manner; demonstrating how to use research and, importantly, which research to use. Authors Sally Borbasi and Debra Jackson have also introduced a wealth of new content while continuing to provide the E-book’s inimitable balance of theory and activities. All chapters have been significantly revised and updated to reflect current nursing and midwifery research theory and practice, and midwifery students will welcome the increased focus on midwifery specific research. Additional new content in this E-edition of Navigating the Maze of Research includes an increased focus on developing an evidence-based culture in the nursing workplace; a new chapter on applying the research process; a more explicit discussion of nursing ethics; case studies linking practice to research; and increased detail on sampling techniques and reliability and validity. Additional online resources are available for lecturers and students via Elsevier’s Evolve platform. Content is presented in an accessible and engaging manner. Consistent format that makes the text easy to navigate Chapter features include: - Abstract - Key terms - Hints - Student Challenges - Tips for International Students - Other boxed information - Evolve icons indicated throughout the text Resources kit References Evolve eBook and online resources including Power point slides, test banks, activities and weblinks An increased focus on evidence-based practice throughout An increased focus on research specific to Midwives A more explicit discussion of ethical principles A new chapter on Applying the Research Process More detail on sampling techniques, reliability and validity Case studies linking research to practice
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Neurobiology of Psychiatric Disorders

Author: Thomas E Schlaepfer,Charles B. Nemeroff

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444535004

Category: Science

Page: 762

View: 4674

This new volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology presents a comprehensive review of the fundamental science and clinical treatment of psychiatric disorders. Advances in neuroscience have allowed for dramatic advances in the understanding of psychiatric disorders and treatment. Brain disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia, are the leading cause of disability worldwide. It is estimated that over 25% of the adult population in North America are diagnosed yearly with at least one mental disorder and similar results hold for Europe. Now that neurology and psychiatry agree that all mental disorders are in fact, "brain diseases," this volume provides a foundational introduction to the science defining these disorders and details best practices for psychiatric treatment. Provides a comprehensive review of the scientific foundations of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric treatment Includes detailed results from genetics, molecular biology, brain imaging, and neuropathological, immunological, epidemiological, metabolic, therapeutic and historical aspects of the major psychiatric disorders A "must have" reference and resource for neuroscientists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and clinical psychologists as well as all research scientists investigating disorders of the brain
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Patterns of Discovery in the Social Sciences

Author: Paul Diesing

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 0202367800

Category: Political Science

Page: 350

View: 7198

Social scientists are often vexed because their work does not satisfy the criteria of "scientific" methodology developed by philosophers of science and logicians who use the natural sciences as their model. In this study, Paul Diesing defines science not by reference to these arbitrary norms delineated by those outside the field but in terms of norms implicit in what social scientists actually do in their everyday work. Patterns of Discovery in the Social Sciences is a detailed and systematic report on the full range of methods and procedures as they are actually practiced. Neither a how-to-do-it handbook nor a lofty philosophical treatise, this is a truly interdisciplinary study of the basic modes of procedure in scientific inquiry, with a special emphasis on normative politics. Diesing treats scientific methods as inductive logics of discovery in continuous evolution. He emphasizes the variety of methods available, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of specific methods, and, in particular, provides an account of mathematical modeling and of participant observation. The book will be of immense interest to all working social scientists, graduate students in any of the social science disciplines, and philosophers of science. It can also be employed as a text or supplement in courses in sociological methods and philosophy of science. This book is also a noteworthy companion to Diesing's major work on Science and Ideology in the Policy Sciences. Paul Diesing is professor emeritus of political science at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He did his graduate studies in philosophy from the University of Chicago and has taught at that university, the University of Illinois, and the University of Colorado. Diesing has also been a faculty associate at the Buffalo Center for International Conflict Studies, where he participated in the Center's program of researching in bargaining theory and international crises. He is the author of Reason in Society: Five Types of Decisions and Their Social Conditions and Science and Ideology in the Policy Sciences.
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The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Social Development

Author: Peter K. Smith,Craig H. Hart

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444390919

Category: Psychology

Page: 712

View: 9425

The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Social Development, Second Edition presents an authoritative and up-to-date overview of research and theory concerning a child's social development from pre-school age to the onset of adolescence. Presents the most up-to-date research and theories on childhood social development Features chapters by an international cast of leaders in their fields Includes comprehensive coverage of a range of disciplinary perspectives Offers all new chapters on children and the environment, cultural influences, history of childhood, interventions, and neuro-psychological perspectives Represents an essential resource for students and researchers of childhood social development
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Politics and Change in Developing Countries

Studies in the Theory and Practice of Development

Author: Colin Leys

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521144483

Category: Political Science

Page: 302

View: 2583

This 1969 work gathers together essays on Third World development by nine social scientists with diverse academic interests. These contributions are united by a relative uncertainty in relation to development, derived from the contemporary critical reappraisal of the area, together with a need to create fresh methodologies for the advancement of their respective fields.
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Modelling and Simulation in the Social Sciences from the Philosophy of Science Point of View

Author: R. Hegselmann,Ulrich Mueller,Klaus G. Troitzsch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401586861

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 3622

Model building in the social sciences can increasingly rely on well elaborated formal theories. At the same time inexpensive large computational capacities are now available. Both make computer-based model building and simulation possible in social science, whose central aim is in particular an understanding of social dynamics. Such social dynamics refer to public opinion formation, partner choice, strategy decisions in social dilemma situations and much more. In the context of such modelling approaches, novel problems in philosophy of science arise which must be analysed - the main aim of this book. Interest in social simulation has recently been growing rapidly world- wide, mainly as a result of the increasing availability of powerful personal computers. The field has also been greatly influenced by developments in cellular automata theory (from mathematics) and in distributed artificial intelligence which provided tools readily applicable to social simulation. This book presents a number of modelling and simulation approaches and their relations to problems in philosophy of science. It addresses sociologists and other social scientists interested in formal modelling, mathematical sociology, and computer simulation as well as computer scientists interested in social science applications, and philosophers of social science.
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