Designing Experimental Research in Archaeology

Examining Technology Through Production and Use

Author: Jeffrey R. Ferguson

Publisher: University Press of Colorado

ISBN: 9781607320234

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 9437

Designing Experimental Research in Archaeology is a guide for the design of archaeological experiments for both students and scholars. Experimental archaeology provides a unique opportunity to corroborate conclusions with multiple trials of repeatable experiments and can provide data otherwise unavailable to archaeologists without damaging sites, remains, or artifacts. Each chapter addresses a particular classification of material culture-ceramics, stone tools, perishable materials, composite hunting technology, butchering practices and bone tools, and experimental zooarchaeology-detailing issues that must be considered in the development of experimental archaeology projects and discussing potential pitfalls. The experiments follow coherent and consistent research designs and procedures and are placed in a theoretical context, and contributors outline methods that will serve as a guide in future experiments. This degree of standardization is uncommon in traditional archaeological research but is essential to experimental archaeology. The field has long been in need of a guide that focuses on methodology and design. This book fills that need not only for undergraduate and graduate students but for any archaeologist looking to begin an experimental research project.
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Exploring and Explaining Diversity in Agricultural Technology

Author: Annelou van Gijn,John Whittaker,Patricia C. Anderson

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 1842175157

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 9070

This volume is the outcome of collaborative European research among archaeologists, archaeobotanists, ethnographers, historians and agronomists, and frequently uses experiments in archaeology. It aims to establish new common ground for integrating different approaches and for viewing agriculture from the standpoint of the human actors involved. Each chapter provides an interdisciplinary overview of the skills used and the social context of the pursuit of agriculture, highlighting examples of tools, technologies and processes from land clearance to cereal processing and food preparation. This is the second of three volumes in the EARTH monograph series, The dynamics of non-industrial agriculture: 8,000 years of resilience and innovation , which shows the great variety of agricultural practices in human terms, in their social, political, cultural and legal contexts.
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Principles of Geoarchaeology

A North American Perspective

Author: Michael R. Waters

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816517701

Category: Science

Page: 398

View: 1571

Geoarchaeological studies can significantly enhance interpretations of human prehistory by allowing archaeologists to decipher from sediments and soils the effects of earth processes on the evidence of human activity. While a number of previous books have provided broad geographic and temporal treatments of geoarchaeology, this new volume presents a single author's view intended for North American archaeologists. Waters deals with those aspects of geoarchaeologyÑstratigraphy, site formation processes, and landscape reconstructionÑmost fundamental to archaeology, and he focuses on the late Quaternary of North America, permitting in-depth discussions of the concepts directly applicable to that research. Assuming no prior geologic knowledge on the part of the reader, Waters provides a background in fundamental geological processes and the basic tools of geoarchaeology. He then proceeds to relate specific physical processes, microenvironments, deposits, and landforms associated with riverine, desert, lake, glacial, cave, coastal, and other environments to archaeological site formation, location, and context. This practical volume illustrates the contributions of geoarchaeological investigations and demonstrates the need to make such studies an integral part of archaeological research. The text is enhanced by more than a hundred line drawings and photographs. CONTENTS 1. Research Objectives of Geoarchaeology 2. Geoarchaeological Foundations: The Archaeological Site Matrix: Sediments and Soils / Stratigraphy / The Geoarchaeological Interpretation of Sediments, Soils, and Stratigraphy 3. Alluvial Environments: Streamflow / Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition / Alluvial Environments: Rivers, Arroyos, Terraces, and Fans / Alluvial Landscapes Evolution and the Archaeological Record / Alluvial Landscape Reconstruction 4. Eolian Environments: Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition / Sand Dunes / Loess and Dust / Stone Pavements / Eolian Erosion / Volcanic Ash (Tephra) 5. Springs, Lakes, Rockshelters, and Other Terrestrial Environments: Springs / Lakes / Slopes / Glaciers / Rockshelters and Caves 6. Coastal Environments: Coastal Processes / Late Quaternary Sea Level Changes / Coastal Environments / Coastal Landscape Evolution and the Archaeological Record / Coastal Landscape Reconstruction 7. The Postburial Disturbance af Archaeological Site Contexts: Cryoturbation / Argilliturbation / Graviturbation / Deformation / Other Physical Disturbances / Floralturbation / Faunalturbation 8. Geoarchaeological Research Appendix A: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating the Effects of Fluvial Landscape Evolution on the Archaeological Record Appendix B: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating Site-Specific Synchronic and Diachronic Alluvial Landscape Reconstructions Appendix C: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating Regional Synchronic and Diachronic Alluvial Landscape Reconstructions
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Experimentation and Interpretation

The Use of Experimental Archaeology in the Study of the Past

Author: Dana C. E. Millson

Publisher: Oxbow Books Limited

ISBN: 9781842173992

Category: Social Science

Page: 142

View: 8834

Experimental archaeology is today forging new links between archaeological scientists and theorists. Many of the best archaeological projects today are those which use methodology and interpretation from both the sciences and the arts. The papers presented here reflect this interdisciplinary approach and focus on sites and material culture spanning from the Mesolithic to the Late Medieval periods. They range from the history of experimentation in archaeology and its place within the field today, to the theory behind `the experiment', to several projects which have used controlled experimentation to test hypotheses about archaeological remains, past actions, and the scientific processes we use. Now that archaeology has moved beyond the focus of the Processual/Post-Processual debates of the 1970s and 80s, which pitted science against the arts, archaeologists have more freedom to choose how to `do archaeology'. The contributions to this book reflect this as problems are approached in creative ways, which move back and forth between science and theory in a hermeneutic fashion, and hypotheses are challenged and new theories formed.
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Practicing Primitive

A Handbook of Aboriginal Skills

Author: Steven M. Watts

Publisher: Gibbs Smith

ISBN: 9781586852993

Category: History

Page: 225

View: 2033

Practicing Primitive: A Handbook of Aboriginal Skills is a collection of information and images put together over a twenty-year period in a search for hands-on communication with our shared Stone Age past. The story of the Stone Age is our story, and primitive technology is a way for anyone who wants to understand that shared history. Watts makes the case that the learning and practice of aboriginal skills helps us connect with our remote past, encourages us to participate in the shared inheritance of primitive ('first') skills. Practicing Primitive includes detailed instructions on how to make or perform over 65 Stone Age objects or skills, covering primitive basics such as making axes and food utensils out of stone, bone, shell, and plant material; bark and reed shelters; bags and ropes made of bark and leaves; watercraft out of reeds or bamboo; and much more. Watts covers the environment, lifestyle, and tool kit of three different stages of human evolution: the Lower Paleolithic of 2.5 million years ago, the Middle Paleolithic of 60 thousand years ago, and the Mesolithic 9 thousand years ago. Steven M. Watts, has directed the Aboriginal Studies Program at the Schiele Museum of Natural History in Gastonia, North Carolina, since 1984. Steve is currently president of the international Society of Primitive Technology, which publishes a biannual journal, The Bulletin of Primitive Technology. He is the author of many articles dealing with culture and technology, and served as a consultant on the 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment movie Cast Away. Steve has an undergraduate degree from Appalachian State University and a master's degree from Duke University.
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Experimental Archaeology

Author: John Morton Coles

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781932846263

Category: Social Science

Page: 286

View: 8679

First published in 1979, this text picks out the major trends in experimental archaeology. However the choice of work described is selective and represents the author's interest in archaeological experiment as an important means of retrieving and explaining evidence about early societies.
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Experiments in Egyptian Archaeology

Stoneworking Technology in Ancient Egypt

Author: Denys A. Stocks

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134400780

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 5051

In this fresh and engaging volume, Denys A. Stocks examines the archaeological and pictorial evidence for masonry in ancient Egypt. Through a series of experiments in which he tests and evaluates over two hundred reconstructed and replica tools, he brings alive the methods and practices of ancient Egyptian craftworking, highlighting the innovations and advances made by this remarkable civilisation. This practical approach to understanding the fundamentals of ancient Egyptian stoneworking shows the evolution of tools and techniques, and how these come together to produce the wonders of Egyptian art and architecture. Comprehensively illustrated with over two hundred photographs and drawings, Experiments in Egyptian Archaeology will bring a fresh perspective to the puzzles of Egyptian craft and technology. By combining the knowledge of a modern engineer with the approach of an archaeologist and historian, Denys Stocks has created a work that will capture the imagination of all Egyptology scholars and enthusiasts
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Spatial Technology and Archaeology

The Archaeological Applications of GIS

Author: David Wheatley,Mark Gillings

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466576618

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 269

View: 5168

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and related spatial technologies have a new and powerful role to play in archaeological interpretation. Beginning with a conceptual approach to the representation of space adopted by GIS, this book examines spatial databases; the acquisition and compilation of data; the analytical compilation of data; the analytical functionality of GIS; and the creation and utilization of critical foundation data layers such as the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The ways in which GIS can most usefully facilitate archaeological analysis and interpretation are then explored particularly as a tool for the management of archaeological resources. Formal analysis of archaeological material, and the use of trend surface, contouring and interpolation procedures are considered along with predictive modeling analysis of visibility and intervisibility. Finally there is a discussion of leading-edge issues, including three-dimensional GIS, object-oriented GIS, the relationship between GIS and 'Virtual Reality' technologies, and the integration of GIS with distributed systems and the Internet. The approach is light, and technical detail is kept to a minimum, recognizing that most readers are simply interested in using GIS effectively. The text is carefully illustrated with worked case-studies using archaeological data. Spatial Technology and Archaeology provides a single reference source for archaeologists, students, professionals, and academics in archaeology as well as those in anthropology and related disciplines.
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Modern Material Culture

The Archaeology of Us

Author: Richard A. Gould,Michael B. Schiffer

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483299201

Category: Social Science

Page: 347

View: 1404

Modern Material Culture
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Collaborative Media

Production, Consumption, and Design Interventions

Author: Jonas Löwgren,Bo Reimer

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262318458

Category: Computers

Page: 208

View: 910

With many new forms of digital media--including such popular social media as Facebook, Twitter, and Flickr -- the people formerly known as the audience no longer only consume but also produce and even design media. Jonas Löwgren and Bo Reimer term this phenomenon collaborative media, and in this book they investigate the qualities and characteristics of these forms of media in terms of what they enable people to do. They do so through an interdisciplinary research approach that combines the social sciences and humanities traditions of empirical and theoretical work with practice-based, design-oriented interventions. Löwgren and Reimer offer analysis and a series of illuminating case studies -- examples of projects in collaborative media that range from small multidisciplinary research experiments to commercial projects used by millions of people. Löwgren and Reimer discuss the case studies at three levels of analysis: society and the role of collaborative media in societal change; institutions and the relationship of collaborative media with established media structures; and tribes, the nurturing of small communities within a large technical infrastructure. They conclude by advocating an interventionist turn within social analysis and media design.
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Making

Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture

Author: Tim Ingold

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136763678

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 2256

Making creates knowledge, builds environments and transforms lives. Anthropology, archaeology, art and architecture are all ways of making, and all are dedicated to exploring the conditions and potentials of human life. In this exciting book, Tim Ingold ties the four disciplines together in a way that has never been attempted before. In a radical departure from conventional studies that treat art and architecture as compendia of objects for analysis, Ingold proposes an anthropology and archaeology not of but with art and architecture. He advocates a way of thinking through making in which sentient practitioners and active materials continually answer to, or ‘correspond’, with one another in the generation of form. Making offers a series of profound reflections on what it means to create things, on materials and form, the meaning of design, landscape perception, animate life, personal knowledge and the work of the hand. It draws on examples and experiments ranging from prehistoric stone tool-making to the building of medieval cathedrals, from round mounds to monuments, from flying kites to winding string, from drawing to writing. The book will appeal to students and practitioners alike, with interests in social and cultural anthropology, archaeology, architecture, art and design, visual studies and material culture.
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Lines Drawn Upon the Water

First Nations and the Great Lakes Borders and Borderlands

Author: Karl S. Hele

Publisher: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press

ISBN: 1554580048

Category: History

Page: 351

View: 5386

Proceedings of a conference held at University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., Feb. 11-12, 2005.
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Lithic raw material variability and the reduction of short-term-use implements

an example from northwestern New Mexico

Author: Harry Joseph Lerner

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Ltd

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 170

View: 4416

"Chipped stone tools are a truly dynamic medium of material culture. From initial reduction to contemporary excavation, lithic artifacts undergo continuous change. The role of the properties of raw materials in determining rates of use-wear accrual is poorly understood and has rarely been assessed quantitatively. This study offers such quantification regarding four materials exploited for the production of short-term use implements at the Late Archaic FA2-13 site located just outside the city of Farmington, New Mexico. Both experimental and archaeological use-wear evidence was assessed in separate but related ways. Digital image analysis of use-wear invasiveness using ClemexVision PE and GIS analysis of use-wear homogeneity using Idrisi Kilimanjaro yielded distinct but highly complementary results. Direct testing of material properties of non-archaeological samples using a Hysitron Triboindenter served to further clarify these findings in terms of the complex relationship between raw material surface hardness and roughness. The results of the present study show that there are significant differences between rates of wear accrual among the four materials. Analysis of tools from FA2-13 indicates that while scraping activities likely did predominate, it mayalso be feasible to generate more detailed assessments regarding the kinds of scraping activities that were undertaken and the respective intensities with which they were performed. This increased insight can then be extrapolated for application to long-term use technologies and their more complex life histories"--Publisher's web site.
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Mesoamerican Lithic Technology

Experimentation and Interpretation

Author: Kenn Hirth

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780874807653

Category: History

Page: 350

View: 8835

Any overview of prehispanic society in the Americas would identify its obsidian core-blade production as a unique and highly inventive technology. Normally termed prismatic blades, these long, parallel-sided flakes are among the sharpest cutting tools ever produced by humans. Their standardized form permitted interchangeable use, and such blades became the cutting tool of choice throughout Mesoamerica between 600-800 B.C. Because considerable production skill is required, increased demand may have stimulated the appearance of craft specialists who played an integral role in Mesoamerican society. Some investigators have argued that control over obsidian also had a significant effect on the development and organization of chiefdom and state-level societies. While researchers have long recognized the potential of obsidian studies, recent work has focused primarily on compositional analysis to reconstruct trade and distribution networks. Study of blade production has received much less attention, and many aspects of this highly evolved craft are still lost. This volume seeks to identify current research questions in Mesoamerican lithic technology and to demonstrate that replication studies coupled with experimental research design are valuable analytical approaches to such questions.
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The Oxford Handbook of Information and Communication Technologies

Author: Robin Mansell

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199266234

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 620

View: 5758

The production and consumption of Information and Communication Technologies (or ICTs) have become embedded within our societies. This handbook is about the many challenges presented by ICTs. It sets out an intellectual agenda that examines the implications of ICTs for individuals, organisations, democracy, and the economy
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Beyond Imported Magic

Essays on Science, Technology, and Society in Latin America

Author: Eden Medina,Ivan da Costa Marques,Christina Holmes,Marcos Cueto

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262325519

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 410

View: 2100

The essays in this volume study the creation, adaptation, and use of science and technology in Latin America. They challenge the view that scientific ideas and technology travel unchanged from the global North to the global South -- the view of technology as "imported magic." They describe not only alternate pathways for innovation, invention, and discovery but also how ideas and technologies circulate in Latin American contexts and transnationally. The contributors' explorations of these issues, and their examination of specific Latin American experiences with science and technology, offer a broader, more nuanced understanding of how science, technology, politics, and power interact in the past and present.The essays in this book use methods from history and the social sciences to investigate forms of local creation and use of technologies; the circulation of ideas, people, and artifacts in local and global networks; and hybrid technologies and forms of knowledge production. They address such topics as the work of female forensic geneticists in Colombia; the pioneering Argentinean use of fingerprinting technology in the late nineteenth century; the design, use, and meaning of the XO Laptops created and distributed by the One Laptop per Child Program; and the development of nuclear energy in Argentina, Mexico, and Chile.ContributorsPedro Ignacio Alonso, Morgan G. Ames, Javiera Barandiarán, João Biehl, Anita Say Chan, Amy Cox Hall, Henrique Cukierman, Ana Delgado, Rafael Dias, Adriana Díaz del Castillo H., Mariano Fressoli, Jonathan Hagood, Christina Holmes, Matthieu Hubert, Noela Invernizzi, Michael Lemon, Ivan da Costa Marques, Gisela Mateos, Eden Medina, María Fernanda Olarte Sierra, Hugo Palmarola, Tania Pérez-Bustos, Julia Rodriguez, Israel Rodríguez-Giralt, Edna Suárez Díaz, Hernán Thomas, Manuel Tironi, Dominique Vinck
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Experiments Past

Histories of Experimental Archaeology

Author: Jodi Reeves Flores,Roeland Paardekooper

Publisher: Sidestone Press

ISBN: 9088902526

Category: Social Science

Page: 275

View: 9747

With Experiments Past the important role that experimental archaeology has played in the development of archaeology is finally uncovered and understood. Experimental archaeology is a method to attempt to replicate archaeological artefacts and/or processes to test certain hypotheses or discover information about those artefacts and/or processes. It has been a key part of archaeology for well over a century, but such experiments are often embedded in wider research, conducted in isolation or never published or reported. Experiments Pasts provides readers with a glimpse of experimental work and experience that was previously inaccessible due to language, geographic and documentation barriers, while establishing a historical context for the issues confronting experimental archaeology today. This volume contains formal papers on the history of experimental methodologies in archaeology, as well as personal experiences of the development of experimental archaeology from early leaders in the field, such as Hans-Ole Hansen. Also represented in these chapters are the histories of experimental approaches to taphonomy, the archaeology of boats, building structures and agricultural practices, as well as narratives on how experimental archaeology has developed on a national level in several European countries and its role in encouraging a wide-scale interest and engagement with the past.
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Intersecting Art and Technology in Practice

Techne/Technique/Technology

Author: Camille C Baker,Kate Sicchio

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317390148

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 242

View: 7107

This book focuses on the artistic process, creativity and collaboration, and personal approaches to creation and ideation, in making digital and electronic technology-based art. Less interested in the outcome itself – the artefact, artwork or performance – contributors instead highlight the emotional, intellectual, intuitive, instinctive and step-by-step creation dimensions. They aim to shine a light on digital and electronic art practice, involving coding, electronic gadgetry and technology mixed with other forms of more established media, to uncover the practice-as-research processes required, as well as the collaborative aspects of art and technology practice.
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Archaeological Obsidian Studies

Method and Theory

Author: M. Steven Shackley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 147579276X

Category: Social Science

Page: 244

View: 9195

This volume is the third in the Advances in Archaeological and Museum Science series sponsored by the Society for Archaeological Sciences (SAS). The purpose of this series is to provide summaries of advances in various topics in ar chaeometry, archaeological science, environmental archaeology, preservation technology, and museum conservation. The SAS exists to encourage interdisciplinary collaboration between archaeologists and colleagues in the natural and physical sciences. SAS mem bers are drawn from many disciplinary fields. However, they all share a common belief that physical science techniques and methods constitute an essential component of contemporary archaeological field and laboratory studies. The series editors wish to thank the reviewers of each of the chapters in this volume for their excellent comments and suggestions. We also wish to thank Chriss jones for her invaluable assistance in the preparation of the texts for submission to the publisher. xi Preface As noted in the introductory chapter, this volume is the second major review of research progress in the study of archaeological obsidian. An earlier book, Advances in Obsidian Glass Studies: Archaeological and Geochemical Perspectives, appeared in 1976. A comparison of the treatment of topics reflected in this earlier work and that contained in this volume not only highlights important advances in the quality and depth of research on archaeological obsidian over more than a quarter of a century but also illustrates more generally some characteristics of developments in the archaeological science field in general.
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