Degraded Forests in Eastern Africa

Management and Restoration

Author: Frans Bongers,Timm Tennigkeit

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136532358

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 6653

Forest degradation as a result of logging, shifting cultivation, agriculture and urban development is a major issue throughout the tropics. It leads to loss in soil fertility, water resources and biodiversity, as well as contributes to climate change. Efforts are therefore required to try to minimize further degradation and restore tropical forests in a sustainable way. This is the first research-based book to examine this problem in East Africa. The specific focus is on the forests of Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda, but the lessons learned are shown to be applicable to neighbouring countries and others in the tropics. A wide range of forest types are covered, from dry Miombo forest and afromontane forests, to forest-savannah mosaics and wet forest types. Current management practices are assessed and examples of good practice presented. The role of local people is also emphasized. The authors describe improved management and restoration through silviculture, plantation forestry and agroforestry, leading to improvements in timber production, biodiversity conservation and the livelihoods of local people.
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The context of REDD+ in Ethiopia

Drivers, agents and institutions

Author: Melaku Bekele ,Yemiru Tesfaye,Zerihun Mohammed,Solomon Zewdie,Yibeltal Tebikew ,Maria Brockhaus,Habtemariam Kassa

Publisher: CIFOR

ISBN: 6023870031

Category:

Page: 78

View: 807

Specifically, the paper identifies and analyzes several direct drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Ethiopia including: forest clearance for both subsistence and large-scale agriculture; illegal and unsustainable extraction of wood mainly for charcoal and firewood; overgrazing; and recurrent forest fires. It also reviews underlying drivers including: rapid population increase and the associated growing demand for land and energy; extensive legal and institutional gaps including lack of stable and equitable forest tenure; lack of stakeholder participation in forest management and benefit-sharing schemes; and weak law enforcement. These drivers and the dominant actors behind them – ranging from small-scale subsistence farmers to national and global investors – are discussed in the context of the political economy, including the policy and institutional framework of the country. The implications of the overall forest condition to the objectives and requirements of REDD+ are evaluated, and key issues that need to be addressed for efficient, effective and equitable implementation of REDD+ are discussed. These key issues include: reconciling the apparently contradictory policies and programs, particularly those that negatively affect the forestry sector; improving the forest tenure and governance system; augmenting economic return from forests to communities and individuals; creating more efficient and effective forest institutions at all levels; and enhancing sectoral and regional coordination among implementing agencies.
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Dryland Forests

Management and Social Diversity in Africa and Asia

Author: Purabi Bose,Han van Dijk

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319194054

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 167

View: 7297

This volume provides new insights and conceptual understandings of the human and gender dimension of vulnerability in relation to the dynamics of tenure reforms in the dryland forests of Asia and Africa. The book analyzes the interaction between biophysical factors such as climate variability (e.g. droughts) with socio-political processes (e.g. new institutions and authority) and gender dimensions at various temporal and spatial scales. The book presents a number of case studies based on empirical research on forest tenure reform and it consequences on forest-dependent people. In particular, it highlights the interaction between legal, policy and institutional reform and the inclusion and/or exclusion of local people from deriving benefits from forest resources in the drylands. The book focuses on the questions how land tenure reform and natural resource governance impacts upon marginal groups (along individual, collective and gender dimensions); how do forest-dependent people prepare for and respond to vulnerability; and what is the effect of forest tenure policy reform on the human rights, gender and citizenship issues in relation to the use and management of forest resources and on conflict in forest zones. These issues are approached from the perspective of marginalized groups (gender and social diversity such as indigenous peoples and herders) in vulnerable dryland forests with a high risk of being exposed to climate variability.
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Governing the Provision of Ecosystem Services

Author: Roldan Muradian,Laura Rival

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400751761

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 484

View: 2003

Founded on the core notion that we have reached a turning point in the governance, and thus the conservation, of ecosystems and the environment, this edited volume features more than 20 original chapters, each informed by the paradigm shift in the sector over the last decade. Where once the emphasis was on strategies for conservation, enacted through instruments of control such as planning and ‘polluter pays’ legislation, more recent developments have shown a shift towards incentive-based arrangements aimed at those responsible for providing the environmental services enabled by such ecosystems. Encouraging shared responsibility for watershed management, developed in Costa Rica, is a prime example, and the various interests involved in its instauration in Java are one of the subjects examined here.
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Community Forestry in Nepal

Adapting to a Changing World

Author: Richard Thwaites,Robert Fisher,Mohan Poudel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131544514X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 204

View: 3035

Community forestry focuses on the link between forest resources and livelihoods and contributes to forest conservation and reforestation. It is widespread in Nepal, with a very high proportion of the rural population involved, and is widely recognized as one of the most successful examples of community forestry in Asia. Through a combination of literature reviews and original research, this volume explores key experiences and outcomes of community forestry in Nepal over the last four decades as a model for improving forest management and supporting local livelihoods. The book takes a critical approach, recognizing successes, especially in forest conservation and restoration, along with mixed outcomes in terms of poverty reduction and benefits to forest users. It recognizes the way that community forestry has continued to evolve to meet new challenges, including the global challenges of climate change, environmental degradation and conservation, as well as national demographic and social changes due to large-scale labour migration and the growing remittance economy. In addition to examining the changes and responses, the book explores ways that community forestry in Nepal might move forward. Lessons from Nepal have relevance to community forestry and community-based approaches to natural resource management around the world that are also experiencing global pressures and opportunities.
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Governing Africa's Forests in a Globalized World

Author: Laura A. German,Anne-Marie Tiani

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 184977451X

Category: Political Science

Page: 445

View: 9604

Many countries around the world are engaged in decentralization processes, and most African countries face serious problems with forest governance, from benefits sharing to illegality and sustainable forest management. This book summarizes experiences to date on the extent and nature of decentralization and its outcomes, most of which suggest an underperformance of governance reforms, and explores the viability of different governance instruments in the context of weak governance and expanding commercial pressures over forests. Findings are grouped into two thematic areas: decentralization, livelihoods and sustainable forest management; and international trade, finance and forest sector governance reforms. The authors examine diverse forces shaping the forest sector, including the theory and practice of decentralization, usurpation of authority, corruption and illegality, inequitable patterns of benefits capture and expansion of international trade in timber and carbon credits, and discuss related outcomes on livelihoods, forest condition and equity. The book builds on earlier volumes exploring different dimensions of decentralization and perspectives from other world regions, and distills dimensions of forest governance that are both unique to Africa and representative of broader global patterns. Authors ground their analysis in relevant theory while attempting to distill implications of their findings for policy and practice.
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Ecosystem Goods and Services from Plantation Forests

Author: Jürgen Bauhus,Peter van der Meer,Markku Kanninen

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 1849776415

Category: Science

Page: 254

View: 8569

Plantation forests often have a negative image. They are typically assumed to be poor substitutes for natural forests, particularly in terms of biodiversity conservation, carbon storage, provision of clean drinking water and other non-timber goods and services. Often they are monocultures that do not appear to invite people for recreation and other direct uses. Yet as this book clearly shows, they can play a vital role in the provision of ecosystem services, when compared to agriculture and other forms of land use or when natural forests have been degraded. This is the first book to examine explicitly the non-timber goods and services provided by plantation forests, including soil, water and biodiversity conservation, as well as carbon sequestration and the provision of local livelihoods. The authors show that, if we require a higher provision of ecosystem goods and services from both temperate and tropical plantations, new approaches to their management are required. These include policies, methods for valuing the services, the practices of small landholders, landscape approaches to optimise delivery of goods and services, and technical issues about how to achieve suitable solutions at the scale of forest stands. While providing original theoretical insights, the book also gives guidance for plantation managers, policy-makers, conservation practitioners and community advocates, who seek to promote or strengthen the multiple-use of forest plantations for improved benefits for society. Published with CIFOR
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Gender and Forests

Climate Change, Tenure, Value Chains and Emerging Issues

Author: Carol J. Pierce Colfer,Bimbika Sijapati Basnett,Marlène Elias

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317355660

Category: Social Science

Page: 362

View: 9119

This enlightening book brings together the work of gender and forestry specialists from various backgrounds and fields of research and action to analyse global gender conditions as related to forests. Using a variety of methods and approaches, they build on a spectrum of theoretical perspectives to bring depth and breadth to the relevant issues and address timely and under-studied themes. Focusing particularly on tropical forests, the book presents both local case studies and global comparative studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as well as the US and Europe. The studies range from personal histories of elderly American women’s attitudes toward conservation, to a combined qualitative / quantitative international comparative study on REDD+, to a longitudinal examination of oil palm and gender roles over time in Kalimantan. Issues are examined across scales, from the household to the nation state and the global arena; and reach back to the past to inform present and future considerations. The collection will be of relevance to academics, researchers, policy makers and advocates with different levels of familiarity with gender issues in the field of forestry.
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Investing in Trees and Landscape Restoration in Africa

What, Where and How

Author: Peter Dewees,Susan J. Scherr,Chris Buss,Frank Place

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780985519537

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 8865

This report includes examples of tree-based technologies that are likely to generate private investment interest, descriptions of partnerships and places where tree planting has been successful, and a look at the constraints and opportunities that are driving private sector investment.
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Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity

Good practices for in situ and on-farm conservation

Author: Bhuwon Sthapit,Hugo Lamers,Ramanatha Rao,Arwen Bailey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131763621X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 456

View: 3495

Farmers have developed a range of agricultural practices to sustainably use and maintain a wide diversity of crop species in many parts of the world. This book documents good practices innovated by farmers and collects key reviews on good practices from global experts, not only from the case study countries but also from Brazil, China and other parts of Asia and Latin America. A good practice for diversity is defined as a system, organization or process that, over time and space, maintains, enhances and creates crop genetic diversity, and ensures its availability to and from farmers and other users. Drawing on experiences from a UNEP-GEF project on "Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wild and Cultivated Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity for Promoting Livelihoods, Food Security and Ecosystem Services", with case studies from India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, the authors show how methods for identifying good practices are still evolving and challenges in scaling-up remain. They identify key principles effective as a strategy for mainstreaming good practice into development efforts. Few books draw principles and lessons learned from good practices. This book fills this gap by combining good practices from the research project on tropical fruit trees with chapters from external experts to broaden its scope and relevance.
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Restoring Tropical Forests

A Practical Guide

Author: Stephen Elliott,David Blakesley,Kate Hardwick

Publisher: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

ISBN: 9781842464427

Category: Nature

Page: 344

View: 4615

Restoring Tropical Forests is a user-friendly guide to restoring forests throughout the tropics. Based on the concepts, knowledge and innovative techniques developed at Chiang Mai University’s Forest Restoration Research Unit, this book will enable improvements in existing forest restoration projects and provide a key resource for new ones. The book presents three aspects of the restoration of tropical forest ecosystems: the concepts of tropical forest dynamics and regeneration that are relevant to tropical forest restoration, proven restoration techniques and case studies of their successful application, and research methods to refine such techniques and adapt them to local ecological and socio-economic conditions.
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Silviculture in the Tropics

Author: Sven Günter,Michael Weber,Bernd Stimm,Reinhard Mosandl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642199868

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 560

View: 2788

This book integrates the latest global developments in forestry science and practice and their relevance for the sustainable management of tropical forests. The influence of social dimensions on the development of silvicultural concepts is another spotlight. Ecology and silvicultural options form all tropical continents, and forest formations from dry to moist forests and from lowland to mountain forests are covered. Review chapters which guide readers through this complex subject integrate numerous illustrative and quantitative case studies by experts from all over the world. On the basis of a cross-sectional evaluation of the case studies presented, the authors put forward possible silvicultural contributions towards sustainability in a changing world. The book is addressed to a broad readership from forestry and environmental disciplines.
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Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Beyond Planting Trees

Author: Stephanie Mansourian,Daniel Vallauri

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387291121

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 2135

This book, published in cooperation with WWF International, integrates the restoration of forest functions into landscape conservation plans. The contents represent the collective body of knowledge and experience of WWF and its many partners - collected here for the first time. This guide will serve as a first stop for practitioners and researchers in many organizations and regions, and as a key reference on the subject.
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Managing Natural Resources for Development in Africa

A Resource Book

Author: Washington Odongo Ochola,P. C. Sanginga,Isaac Bekalo

Publisher: IDRC

ISBN: 9966792090

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 538

View: 3338

The complex and dynamic interlinks between natural resource management (NRM) and development have long been recognized by national and international research and development organizations and have generated voluminous literature. However, much of what is available in the form of university course books, practical learning manuals and reference materials in NRM is based on experiences from outside Africa. Managing Natural Resources for Development in Africa: A Resource Book provides an understanding of the various levels at which NRM issues occur and are being addressed scientifically, economically, socially and politically. The book's nine chapters present state-of-the-art perspectives within a holistic African context. The book systematically navigates the tricky landscape of integrated NRM, with special reference to Eastern and Southern Africa, against the backdrop of prevailing local, national, regional and global social, economic and environmental challenges. The authors' wide experience, the rich references made to emerging challenges and opportunities, and the presentation of different tools, principles, approaches, case studies and processes make the book a rich and valuable one-stop resource for postgraduate students, researchers, policymakers and NRM practitioners. The book is designed to help the reader grasp in-depth NRM perspectives and presents innovative guidance for research design and problem solving, including review questions, learning activities and recommended further reading. The book was developed through a writeshop process by a multi-disciplinary team of lecturers from the University of Nairobi, Egerton University, Kenyatta University, the University of Zimbabwe, the University of Malawi, Makerere University and the University of Dar es Salam. In addition, selected NRM experts from regional and international research organizations including the World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF), the Africa Forest Forum, RUFORUM, IIRR and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) participated in the writeshop and contributed material to the book.
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Linking Conservation and Poverty Reduction

Landscapes, People and Power

Author: Robert Fisher,Stewart Maginnis,William Jackson,Edmund Barrow,Sally Jeanrenaud

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136562176

Category: Law

Page: 160

View: 6918

'This book aims to inspire the conservation community not to regard poverty reduction as someone else's job but to take responsibility for it as part of ecosystem restoration. Though no solutions are perfect,the text and examples given offer encouraging and useful guidance.' Gill Shepherd, poverty and landscapes thematic leader, IUCN Forest Conservation Programme. 'This book could be the catalyst for a real paradigm shift - not just in capital cities and international conference centres, but also on the ground in locations where poor people are struggling to make a living.' Policy Matters (praise for the first edition). High levels of rural poverty in many of the world's ecosystems make it an ethical and practical imperative to find more equitable and realistic ways of achieving conservation. Livelihoods of the rural poor and options for conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity are so intimately entwined that they are better addressed through an integrated approach, irrespective of whether the primary motivation is one of development or one of conservation. This highly accessible book, a revised edition of the 2005 book Poverty and Conservation: Landscapes, People and Power, offers a grand overview of the issues and a conceptual framework for addressing poverty reduction in the context of conservation, and conservation in the context of poverty reduction. It will appeal to professionals working in the field as well as to students across the fields of conservation, development and sustainability. It looks at the rationale for addressing the links between conservation and poverty reduction, arguing that such a focus is both ethically essential and a source of opportunities. It alsoreviews experiences in dealing with people and conservation and identifies some key lessons and concepts. The book presents cases studies illustrating various approaches and a discussion of some of the issues that appear when implementing combined conservation and poverty reduction. The book emphasizes the importance of multiple spatial scales and negotiating trade-offs between scales. It also tackles the complex issue of institutional landscapes and the way in which changes at various institutional levels can lead to different and often more positive outcomes. The Final part summarizes some of the main features of the authors' integrated approach and identifies some of the challenges involved in efforts to combine conservation and poverty reduction. Published with IUCN - The World Conservation Union.
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REDD, Forest Governance and Rural Livelihoods

The Emerging Agenda

Author: Oliver Springate-Baginski,Eva Wollenberg

Publisher: CIFOR

ISBN: 6028693154

Category: Forest management

Page: 279

View: 4697

Experiences from incentive-based forest management are examined for their effects on the livelihoods of local communities. In the second section, country case studies provide a snapshot of REDD developments to date and identify design features for REDD that would support benefits for forest communities.
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Rangeland Systems

Processes, Management and Challenges

Author: David D. Briske

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319467093

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 661

View: 9054

This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book provides an unprecedented synthesis of the current status of scientific and management knowledge regarding global rangelands and the major challenges that confront them. It has been organized around three major themes. The first summarizes the conceptual advances that have occurred in the rangeland profession. The second addresses the implications of these conceptual advances to management and policy. The third assesses several major challenges confronting global rangelands in the 21st century. This book will compliment applied range management textbooks by describing the conceptual foundation on which the rangeland profession is based. It has been written to be accessible to a broad audience, including ecosystem managers, educators, students and policy makers. The content is founded on the collective experience, knowledge and commitment of 80 authors who have worked in rangelands throughout the world. Their collective contributions indicate that a more comprehensive framework is necessary to address the complex challenges confronting global rangelands. Rangelands represent adaptive social-ecological systems, in which societal values, organizations and capacities are of equal importance to, and interact with, those of ecological processes. A more comprehensive framework for rangeland systems may enable management agencies, and educational, research and policy making organizations to more effectively assess complex problems and develop appropriate solutions.
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The Contesting Aspirations in the Forests

Actors, Interests and Power in Community Forestry in Java, Indonesia

Author: Ahmad Maryudi

Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen

ISBN: 3941875949

Category: Community forestry

Page: 207

View: 5441

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Mangrove Ecosystems: A Global Biogeographic Perspective

Structure, Function, and Services

Author: Victor H. Rivera-Monroy,Shing Yip Lee,Erik Kristensen,Robert R. Twilley

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319622064

Category: Science

Page: 399

View: 3956

This book presents a comprehensive overview and analysis of mangrove ecological processes, structure, and function at the local, biogeographic, and global scales and how these properties interact to provide key ecosystem services to society. The analysis is based on an international collaborative effort that focuses on regions and countries holding the largest mangrove resources and encompasses the major biogeographic and socio-economic settings of mangrove distribution. Given the economic and ecological importance of mangrove wetlands at the global scale, the chapters aim to integrate ecological and socio-economic perspectives on mangrove function and management using a system-level hierarchical analysis framework. The book explores the nexus between mangrove ecology and the capacity for ecosystem services, with an emphasis on thresholds, multiple stressors, and local conditions that determine this capacity. The interdisciplinary approach and illustrative study cases included in the book will provide valuable resources in data, information, and knowledge about the current status of one of the most productive coastal ecosystem in the world.
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The Forest Landscape Restoration Handbook

Author: Jennifer Rietbergen-McCracken,Stewart Maginnis,Alastair Sarre

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 1849773017

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 190

View: 2695

Forest loss and degradation have caused a decline in the quality of ecosystem services around the world. But fixing the problem takes more than just planting trees; practitioners increasingly realize that a landscape approach is essential. This handbook, authored and edited by international authorities in the field of forestry, is the first practical guide to using forest landscape restoration (FLR) to repair the damage done to forest lands by poor land management practice. Using research backed by respected institutions such as ITTO and the World Conservation Union (IUCN), it explains how to increase the resilience of landscapes and the communities they support through FLR.The main aim of FLR is not to re-establish pristine forest, even if this were possible; rather, the objective is to make landscapes more resilient and thereby keep future management options open. It also aims to support communities as they strive to increase and sustain the benefits they derive from land management. This book explains the concept of FLR and guides the reader through the steps that must be taken to put it into practice. It is an indispensable aid for practitioners in all aspects of forestry and natural resource management.
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