Cyber War

Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts

Author: Claire Finkelstein,Jens David Ohlin,Kevin Govern

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198717504

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 8124

Cyber weapons and cyber warfare have become one of the most dangerous innovations of recent years, and a significant threat to national security. Cyber weapons can imperil economic, political, and military systems by a single act, or by multifaceted orders of effect, with wide-ranging potential consequences. Unlike past forms of warfare circumscribed by centuries of just war tradition and Law of Armed Conflict prohibitions, cyber warfare occupies a particularly ambiguous status in the conventions of the laws of war. Furthermore, cyber attacks put immense pressure on conventional notions of sovereignty, and the moral and legal doctrines that were developed to regulate them. This book, written by an unrivalled set of experts, assists in proactively addressing the ethical and legal issues that surround cyber warfare by considering, first, whether the Laws of Armed Conflict apply to cyberspace just as they do to traditional warfare, and second, the ethical position of cyber warfare against the background of our generally recognized moral traditions in armed conflict. The book explores these moral and legal issues in three categories. First, it addresses foundational questions regarding cyber attacks. What are they and what does it mean to talk about a cyber war? The book presents alternative views concerning whether the laws of war should apply, or whether transnational criminal law or some other peacetime framework is more appropriate, or if there is a tipping point that enables the laws of war to be used. Secondly, it examines the key principles of jus in bello to determine how they might be applied to cyber-conflicts, in particular those of proportionality and necessity. It also investigates the distinction between civilian and combatant in this context, and studies the level of causation necessary to elicit a response, looking at the notion of a 'proximate cause'. Finally, it analyzes the specific operational realities implicated by particular regulatory regimes. This book is unmissable reading for anyone interested in the impact of cyber warfare on international law and the laws of war.
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Cyber War

Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts

Author: Claire Oakes Finkelstein,Jens David Ohlin,Kevin Govern

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198717490

Category: Law

Page: 274

View: 4419

Cyber warfare has become more pervasive and more complex in recent years. It is difficult to regulate, as it holds an ambiguous position within the laws of war. This book investigates the legal and ethical ramifications of cyber war, considering which sets of laws apply to it, and how it fits into traditional ideas of armed conflict.
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Cyber War

Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts

Author: Jens David Ohlin,Kevin Govern,Claire Finkelstein

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191027014

Category: Law

Page: 360

View: 5210

Cyber weapons and cyber warfare have become one of the most dangerous innovations of recent years, and a significant threat to national security. Cyber weapons can imperil economic, political, and military systems by a single act, or by multifaceted orders of effect, with wide-ranging potential consequences. Unlike past forms of warfare circumscribed by centuries of just war tradition and Law of Armed Conflict prohibitions, cyber warfare occupies a particularly ambiguous status in the conventions of the laws of war. Furthermore, cyber attacks put immense pressure on conventional notions of sovereignty, and the moral and legal doctrines that were developed to regulate them. This book, written by an unrivalled set of experts, assists in proactively addressing the ethical and legal issues that surround cyber warfare by considering, first, whether the Laws of Armed Conflict apply to cyberspace just as they do to traditional warfare, and second, the ethical position of cyber warfare against the background of our generally recognized moral traditions in armed conflict. The book explores these moral and legal issues in three categories. First, it addresses foundational questions regarding cyber attacks. What are they and what does it mean to talk about a cyber war? The book presents alternative views concerning whether the laws of war should apply, or whether transnational criminal law or some other peacetime framework is more appropriate, or if there is a tipping point that enables the laws of war to be used. Secondly, it examines the key principles of jus in bello to determine how they might be applied to cyber-conflicts, in particular those of proportionality and necessity. It also investigates the distinction between civilian and combatant in this context, and studies the level of causation necessary to elicit a response, looking at the notion of a 'proximate cause'. Finally, it analyses the specific operational realities implicated by particular regulatory regimes. This book is unmissable reading for anyone interested in the impact of cyber warfare on international law and the laws of war.
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Inside Cyber Warfare

Mapping the Cyber Underworld

Author: Jeffrey Carr

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449325459

Category: Computers

Page: 318

View: 3410

When the Stuxnet computer worm damaged the Iranian nuclear program in 2010, the public got a small glimpse into modern cyber warfare—without truly realizing the scope of this global conflict. Inside Cyber Warfare provides fascinating and disturbing details on how nations, groups, and individuals throughout the world increasingly rely on Internet attacks to gain military, political, and economic advantages over their adversaries. This updated second edition takes a detailed look at the complex domain of cyberspace, and the players and strategies involved. You’ll discover how sophisticated hackers working on behalf of states or organized crime patiently play a high-stakes game that could target anyone, regardless of affiliation or nationality. Discover how Russian investment in social networks benefits the Kremlin Learn the role of social networks in fomenting revolution in the Middle East and Northern Africa Explore the rise of anarchist groups such as Anonymous and LulzSec Look inside cyber warfare capabilities of nations including China and Israel Understand how the U.S. can legally engage in covert cyber operations Learn how the Intellectual Property war has become the primary focus of state-sponsored cyber operations Jeffrey Carr, the founder and CEO of Taia Global, Inc., is a cyber intelligence expert and consultant who specializes in the investigation of cyber attacks against governments and infrastructures by state and non-state hackers.
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Cyber Warfare

Techniques, Tactics and Tools for Security Practitioners

Author: Jason Andress,Steve Winterfeld

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124166334

Category: Computers

Page: 324

View: 5763

Cyber Warfare, Second Edition, takes a comprehensive look at how and why digital warfare is waged. The book explores the participants, battlefields, and the tools and techniques used in today's digital conflicts. The concepts discussed gives students of information security a better idea of how cyber conflicts are carried out now, how they will change in the future, and how to detect and defend against espionage, hacktivism, insider threats and non-state actors such as organized criminals and terrorists. This book provides concrete examples and real-world guidance on how to identify and defend a network against malicious attacks. It probes relevant technical and factual information from an insider's point of view, as well as the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber war and how computer criminal law may change as a result. Logical, physical, and psychological weapons used in cyber warfare are discussed. This text will appeal to information security practitioners, network security administrators, computer system administrators, and security analysts. Provides concrete examples and real-world guidance on how to identify and defend your network against malicious attacks Dives deeply into relevant technical and factual information from an insider's point of view Details the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber war and how computer criminal law may change as a result
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Ethics and Cyber Warfare

The Quest for Responsible Security in the Age of Digital Warfare

Author: George Lucas

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190276525

Category:

Page: 256

View: 953

From North Korea's recent attacks on Sony to perpetual news reports of successful hackings and criminal theft, cyber conflict has emerged as a major topic of public concern. Yet even as attacks on military, civilian, and commercial targets have escalated, there is not yet a clear set of ethical guidelines that apply to cyber warfare. Indeed, like terrorism, cyber warfare is commonly believed to be a war without rules. Given the prevalence cyber warfare, developing a practical moral code for this new form of conflict is more important than ever. In Ethics and Cyber Warfare, internationally-respected ethicist George Lucas delves into the confounding realm of cyber conflict. Comparing "state-sponsored hacktivism" to the transformative impact of "irregular warfare" in conventional armed conflict, Lucas offers a critique of legal approaches to governance, and outlines a new approach to ethics and "just war" reasoning. Lucas draws upon the political philosophies of Alasdair MacIntyre, John Rawls, and Jurgen Habermas to provide a framework for understanding these newly-emerging standards for cyber conflict, and ultimately presents a professional code of ethics for a new generation of "cyber warriors." Lucas concludes with a discussion of whether preemptive self-defense efforts - such as the massive government surveillance programs revealed by Edward Snowden - can ever be justified, addressing controversial topics such as privacy, anonymity, and public trust. Well-reasoned and timely, Ethics and Cyber Warfare is a must-read for anyone with an interest in philosophy, ethics, or cybercrime. "
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Cyber Warfare and the Laws of War

Author: Heather Harrison Dinniss

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107011086

Category: Law

Page: 331

View: 5860

An analysis of the status of computer network attacks in international law.
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Understanding Cyber Conflict

Fourteen Analogies

Author: George Perkovich,Ariel E. Levite

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1626164983

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 5519

Cyber weapons and the possibility of cyber conflict—including interference in foreign political campaigns, industrial sabotage, attacks on infrastructure, and combined military campaigns—require policymakers, scholars, and citizens to rethink twenty-first-century warfare. Yet because cyber capabilities are so new and continually developing, there is little agreement about how they will be deployed, how effective they can be, and how they can be managed. Written by leading scholars, the fourteen case studies in this volume will help policymakers, scholars, and students make sense of contemporary cyber conflict through historical analogies to past military-technological problems. The chapters are divided into three groups. The first—What Are Cyber Weapons Like?—examines the characteristics of cyber capabilities and how their use for intelligence gathering, signaling, and precision striking compares with earlier technologies for such missions. The second section—What Might Cyber Wars Be Like?—explores how lessons from several wars since the early nineteenth century, including the World Wars, could apply—or not—to cyber conflict in the twenty-first century. The final section—What Is Preventing and/or Managing Cyber Conflict Like?—offers lessons from past cases of managing threatening actors and technologies.
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Cyberspace and National Security

Threats, Opportunities, and Power in a Virtual World

Author: Derek S. Reveron

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1589019199

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 388

In a very short time, individuals and companies have harnessed cyberspace to create new industries, a vibrant social space, and a new economic sphere that are intertwined with our everyday lives. At the same time, individuals, subnational groups, and governments are using cyberspace to advance interests through malicious activity. Terrorists recruit, train, and target through the Internet, hackers steal data, and intelligence services conduct espionage. Still, the vast majority of cyberspace is civilian space used by individuals, businesses, and governments for legitimate purposes. Cyberspace and National Security brings together scholars, policy analysts, and information technology executives to examine current and future threats to cyberspace. They discuss various approaches to advance and defend national interests, contrast the US approach with European, Russian, and Chinese approaches, and offer new ways and means to defend interests in cyberspace and develop offensive capabilities to compete there. Policymakers and strategists will find this book to be an invaluable resource in their efforts to ensure national security and answer concerns about future cyberwarfare.
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Targeted Killings

Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World

Author: Claire Finkelstein,Jens David Ohlin,Andrew Altman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199646481

Category: Law

Page: 496

View: 4995

The controversy surrounding targeted killings represents a crisis of conscience for policymakers, lawyers, philosophers and leading military experts grappling with the moral and legal limits of the war on terror. The book examines the legal and philosophical issues raised by government efforts to target suspected terrorists without giving them the safeguards of a fair trial.
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The Virtual Battlefield

Perspectives on Cyber Warfare

Author: Christian Czosseck,Kenneth Geers

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1607500604

Category: Computers

Page: 305

View: 9852

"All political and military conflicts now have a cyber dimension, the size and impact of which are difficult to predict. Internet-enabled propaganda, espionage, and attacks on critical infrastructure can target decision makers, weapons systems, and citizens in general, during times of peace or war. Traditional threats to national security now have a digital delivery mechanism which would increase the speed, diffusion, and power of an attack. There have been no true cyber wars to date, but cyber battles of great consequence are easy to find. This book is divided into two sections--Strategic viewpoints and Technical challenges & solutions--and highlights the growing connection between computer security and national security"--P. 4 of cover.
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International Humanitarian Law and the Changing Technology of War

Author: Dan Saxon

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004229493

Category: Law

Page: 376

View: 5660

"This book, edited by Dan Saxon, formerly of Cambridge University, is an important contribution to the literature on the relationship between law, war, and technology" (From the Foreword by Professor Michael N. Schmitt).
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Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations

Author: N.A

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316828646

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 4158

Tallinn Manual 2.0 expands on the highly influential first edition by extending its coverage of the international law governing cyber operations to peacetime legal regimes. The product of a three-year follow-on project by a new group of twenty renowned international law experts, it addresses such topics as sovereignty, state responsibility, human rights, and the law of air, space, and the sea. Tallinn Manual 2.0 identifies 154 'black letter' rules governing cyber operations and provides extensive commentary on each rule. Although Tallinn Manual 2.0 represents the views of the experts in their personal capacity, the project benefitted from the unofficial input of many states and over fifty peer reviewers.
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Cybersecurity

What Everyone Needs to Know

Author: Peter W. Singer,Allan Friedman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199918112

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 306

View: 5175

An authoritative, single-volume introduction to cybersecurity addresses topics ranging from phishing and electrical-grid takedowns to cybercrime and online freedom, sharing illustrative anecdotes to explain how cyberspace security works and what everyday people can do to protect themselves. Simultaneous.
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The Assault on International Law

Author: Jens David Ohlin

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199987408

Category: Law

Page: 289

View: 5359

International law presents a conceptual riddle. Why comply with it when there is no world government to enforce it? The United States has a long history of skepticism towards international law, but 9/11 ushered in a particularly virulent phase of American exceptionalism. Torture becameofficial government policy, President Bush denied that the Geneva Conventions applied to the war against al-Qaeda, and the US drifted away from international institutions like the International Criminal Court and the United Nations. Although American politicians and their legal advisors are often the public face of this attack, the root of this movement is a coordinated and deliberate attack by law professors hostile to its philosophical foundations, including Eric Posner, Jack Goldsmith, Adrian Vermeule, and John Yoo. In aseries of influential writings they have claimed that since states are motivated primarily by self-interest, compliance with international law is nothing more than high-minded talk. These abstract arguments then provide a foundation for dangerous legal conclusions: that international law is largelyirrelevant to determining how and when terrorists can be captured or killed; that the US President alone should be directing the War on Terror without significant input from Congress or the judiciary; that US courts should not hear lawsuits alleging violations of international law; and that the USshould block any international criminal court with jurisdiction over Americans. Put together, these polemical accounts had an enormous impact on how politicians conduct foreign policy and how judges decide cases - ultimately triggering America's pernicious withdrawal from international cooperation. In The Assault on International Law, Jens Ohlin exposes the mistaken assumptions of these "New Realists," in particular their impoverished utilization of rational choice theory. In contrast, he provides an alternate vision of international law based on a truly innovative theory of human rationality.According to Ohlin, rationality requires that agents follow through on their plans even when faced with opportunities for defection. Seen in this light, international law is the product of nation-states cooperating to escape a brutish State of Nature - a result that is not only legally binding butalso in each state's self-interest.
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Cyberspace and International Relations

Theory, Prospects and Challenges

Author: Jan-Frederik Kremer,Benedikt Müller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642374816

Category: Political Science

Page: 284

View: 8046

Cyberspace is everywhere in today’s world and has significant implications not only for global economic activity, but also for international politics and transnational social relations. This compilation addresses for the first time the “cyberization” of international relations - the growing dependence of actors in IR on the infrastructure and instruments of the internet, and the penetration of cyberspace into all fields of their activities. The volume approaches this topical issue in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary fashion, bringing together scholars from disciplines such as IR, security studies, ICT studies and philosophy as well as experts from everyday cyber-practice. In the first part, concepts and theories are presented to shed light on the relationship between cyberspace and international relations, discussing implications for the discipline and presenting fresh and innovative theoretical approaches. Contributions in the second part focus on specific empirical fields of activity (security, economy, diplomacy, cultural activity, transnational communication, critical infrastructure, cyber espionage, social media, and more) and address emerging challenges and prospects for international politics and relations.
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Cyber War

The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It

Author: Richard A. Clarke,Robert Knake

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0061992399

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 9582

Author of the #1 New York Times bestseller Against All Enemies, former presidential advisor and counter-terrorism expert Richard A. Clarke sounds a timely and chilling warning about America’s vulnerability in a terrifying new international conflict—Cyber War! Every concerned American should read this startling and explosive book that offers an insider’s view of White House ‘Situation Room’ operations and carries the reader to the frontlines of our cyber defense. Cyber War exposes a virulent threat to our nation’s security. This is no X-Files fantasy or conspiracy theory madness—this is real.
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Cybersecurity Ethics

An Introduction

Author: Mary Manjikian

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351766554

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 5445

This new textbook offers an accessible introduction to the topic of cybersecurity ethics. The book is split into three parts. Part I provides an introduction to the field of ethics, philosophy and philosophy of science, three ethical frameworks – virtue ethics, utilitarian ethics and communitarian ethics – and the notion of ethical hacking. Part II applies these frameworks to particular issues within the field of cybersecurity, including privacy rights, intellectual property and piracy, surveillance, and cyberethics in relation to military affairs. The third part concludes by exploring current codes of ethics used in cybersecurity. The overall aims of the book are to: provide ethical frameworks to aid decision making; present the key ethical issues in relation to computer security; highlight the connection between values and beliefs and the professional code of ethics. The textbook also includes three different features to aid students: ‘Going Deeper’ provides background information on key individuals and concepts; ‘Critical Issues’ features contemporary case studies; and ‘Applications’ examine specific technologies or practices which raise ethical issues. The book will be of much interest to students of cybersecurity, cyberethics, hacking, surveillance studies, ethics and information science.
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