Curved Spaces

From Classical Geometries to Elementary Differential Geometry

Author: P. M. H. Wilson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139510436

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 3527

This self-contained 2007 textbook presents an exposition of the well-known classical two-dimensional geometries, such as Euclidean, spherical, hyperbolic, and the locally Euclidean torus, and introduces the basic concepts of Euler numbers for topological triangulations, and Riemannian metrics. The careful discussion of these classical examples provides students with an introduction to the more general theory of curved spaces developed later in the book, as represented by embedded surfaces in Euclidean 3-space, and their generalization to abstract surfaces equipped with Riemannian metrics. Themes running throughout include those of geodesic curves, polygonal approximations to triangulations, Gaussian curvature, and the link to topology provided by the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. Numerous diagrams help bring the key points to life and helpful examples and exercises are included to aid understanding. Throughout the emphasis is placed on explicit proofs, making this text ideal for any student with a basic background in analysis and algebra.
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Elementary Differential Geometry

Author: Andrew Pressley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852331528

Category: Mathematics

Page: 332

View: 1359

Curves and surfaces are objects that everyone can see, and many of the questions that can be asked about them are natural and easily understood. Differential geometry is concerned with the precise mathematical formulation of some of these questions, and with trying to answer them using calculus techniques. It is a subject that contains some of the most beautiful and profound results in mathematics yet many of these are accessible to higher-level undergraduates. Elementary Differential Geometrypresents the main results in the differential geometry of curves and surfaces while keeping the prerequisites to an absolute minimum. Nothing more than first courses in linear algebra and multivariate calculus are required, and the most direct and straightforward approach is used at all times. Numerous diagrams illustrate both the ideas in the text and the examples of curves and surfaces discussed there. The book will provide an invaluable resource to all those taking a first course in differential geometry, for their lecturers, and for all others interested in the subject. Andrew Pressley is Professor of Mathematics at Kings College London, UK. The Springer Undergraduate Mathematics Series (SUMS) is a series designed for undergraduates in mathematics and the sciences worldwide. From core foundational material to final year topics, SUMS books take a fresh and modern approach and are ideal for self-study or for a one- or two-semester course. Each book includes numerous examples, problems and fully worked solutions.
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Geometry and Topology

Author: Miles Reid,Balazs Szendroi

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521848893

Category: Mathematics

Page: 196

View: 3781

Geometry provides a whole range of views on the universe, serving as the inspiration, technical toolkit and ultimate goal for many branches of mathematics and physics. This book introduces the ideas of geometry, and includes a generous supply of simple explanations and examples. The treatment emphasises coordinate systems and the coordinate changes that generate symmetries. The discussion moves from Euclidean to non-Euclidean geometries, including spherical and hyperbolic geometry, and then on to affine and projective linear geometries. Group theory is introduced to treat geometric symmetries, leading to the unification of geometry and group theory in the Erlangen program. An introduction to basic topology follows, with the Möbius strip, the Klein bottle and the surface with g handles exemplifying quotient topologies and the homeomorphism problem. Topology combines with group theory to yield the geometry of transformation groups,having applications to relativity theory and quantum mechanics. A final chapter features historical discussions and indications for further reading. With minimal prerequisites, the book provides a first glimpse of many research topics in modern algebra, geometry and theoretical physics. The book is based on many years' teaching experience, and is thoroughly class-tested. There are copious illustrations, and each chapter ends with a wide supply of exercises. Further teaching material is available for teachers via the web, including assignable problem sheets with solutions.
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Geometry of Möbius Transformations

Elliptic, Parabolic and Hyperbolic Actions of SL2(R)(With DVD-ROM)

Author: Vladimir V Kisil

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1908977604

Category: Mathematics

Page: 208

View: 6266

This book is a unique exposition of rich and inspiring geometries associated with Möbius transformations of the hypercomplex plane. The presentation is self-contained and based on the structural properties of the group SL2(R). Starting from elementary facts in group theory, the author unveils surprising new results about the geometry of circles, parabolas and hyperbolas, using an approach based on the Erlangen programme of F Klein, who defined geometry as a study of invariants under a transitive group action. The treatment of elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic Möbius transformations is provided in a uniform way. This is possible due to an appropriate usage of complex, dual and double numbers which represent all non-isomorphic commutative associative two-dimensional algebras with unit. The hypercomplex numbers are in perfect correspondence with the three types of geometries concerned. Furthermore, connections with the physics of Minkowski and Galilean space-time are considered. Sample Chapter(s) Chapter 1: Erlangen Programme: Preview (267 KB) Contents:Erlangen Programme: PreviewGroups and Homogeneous SpacesHomogeneous Spaces from the Group SL2(R)The Extended Fillmore–Springer–Cnops ConstructionIndefinite Product Space of CyclesJoint Invariants of Cycles: OrthogonalityMetric Invariants in Upper Half-PlanesGlobal Geometry of Upper Half-PlanesInvariant Metric and GeodesicsConformal Unit DiskUnitary Rotations Readership: Undergraduate and graduate students in geometry and algebra. Keywords:SL2(R);Elliptic;Parabolic;Hyperbolic;Complex Numbers;Dual Numbers;Double Numbers;Split-Complex Numbers;Möbius Transformations;Geometry;Hyperbola;Parabola;Circle;Symmetry;Group;Geodesics;Invariant;Orthogonality;Conic Sections;Distance;Length
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Matrix Mathematics

Theory, Facts, and Formulas (Second Edition)

Author: Dennis S. Bernstein

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691140391

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1139

View: 9299

Each chapter in this book describes relevant background theory followed by specialized results. Hundreds of identitites, inequalities, and matrix facts are stated clearly with cross references, citations to the literature, and illuminating remarks.
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Scalar, Vector, and Matrix Mathematics

Theory, Facts, and Formulas

Author: Dennis S. Bernstein

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400888255

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1600

View: 6601

The essential reference book on matrices—now fully updated and expanded, with new material on scalar and vector mathematics Since its initial publication, this book has become the essential reference for users of matrices in all branches of engineering, science, and applied mathematics. In this revised and expanded edition, Dennis Bernstein combines extensive material on scalar and vector mathematics with the latest results in matrix theory to make this the most comprehensive, current, and easy-to-use book on the subject. Each chapter describes relevant theoretical background followed by specialized results. Hundreds of identities, inequalities, and facts are stated clearly and rigorously, with cross-references, citations to the literature, and helpful comments. Beginning with preliminaries on sets, logic, relations, and functions, this unique compendium covers all the major topics in matrix theory, such as transformations and decompositions, polynomial matrices, generalized inverses, and norms. Additional topics include graphs, groups, convex functions, polynomials, and linear systems. The book also features a wealth of new material on scalar inequalities, geometry, combinatorics, series, integrals, and more. Now more comprehensive than ever, Scalar, Vector, and Matrix Mathematics includes a detailed list of symbols, a summary of notation and conventions, an extensive bibliography and author index with page references, and an exhaustive subject index. Fully updated and expanded with new material on scalar and vector mathematics Covers the latest results in matrix theory Provides a list of symbols and a summary of conventions for easy and precise use Includes an extensive bibliography with back-referencing plus an author index
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Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces

Revised and Updated Second Edition

Author: Manfredo P. do Carmo

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 0486806995

Category: Mathematics

Page: 512

View: 9982

One of the most widely used texts in its field, this volume introduces the differential geometry of curves and surfaces in both local and global aspects. The presentation departs from the traditional approach with its more extensive use of elementary linear algebra and its emphasis on basic geometrical facts rather than machinery or random details. Many examples and exercises enhance the clear, well-written exposition, along with hints and answers to some of the problems. The treatment begins with a chapter on curves, followed by explorations of regular surfaces, the geometry of the Gauss map, the intrinsic geometry of surfaces, and global differential geometry. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics, this text's prerequisites include an undergraduate course in linear algebra and some familiarity with the calculus of several variables. For this second edition, the author has corrected, revised, and updated the entire volume.
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Compact Riemann Surfaces

An Introduction to Contemporary Mathematics

Author: Jürgen Jost

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540330677

Category: Mathematics

Page: 282

View: 7859

This book is novel in its broad perspective on Riemann surfaces: the text systematically explores the connection with other fields of mathematics. The book can serve as an introduction to contemporary mathematics as a whole, as it develops background material from algebraic topology, differential geometry, the calculus of variations, elliptic PDE, and algebraic geometry. The book is unique among textbooks on Riemann surfaces in its inclusion of an introduction to Teichmüller theory. For this new edition, the author has expanded and rewritten several sections to include additional material and to improve the presentation.
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Differential Geometry

Author: Erwin Kreyszig

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486318621

Category: Mathematics

Page: 384

View: 3637

An introductory textbook on the differential geometry of curves and surfaces in 3-dimensional Euclidean space, presented in its simplest, most essential form. With problems and solutions. Includes 99 illustrations.
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Differential Geometry

Cartan's Generalization of Klein's Erlangen Program

Author: R.W. Sharpe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387947327

Category: Mathematics

Page: 421

View: 2601

Cartan geometries were the first examples of connections on a principal bundle. They seem to be almost unknown these days, in spite of the great beauty and conceptual power they confer on geometry. The aim of the present book is to fill the gap in the literature on differential geometry by the missing notion of Cartan connections. Although the author had in mind a book accessible to graduate students, potential readers would also include working differential geometers who would like to know more about what Cartan did, which was to give a notion of "espaces giniralisis" (= Cartan geometries) generalizing homogeneous spaces (= Klein geometries) in the same way that Riemannian geometry generalizes Euclidean geometry. In addition, physicists will be interested to see the fully satisfying way in which their gauge theory can be truly regarded as geometry.
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Elementary Differential Geometry

Author: Christian Bär

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521896711

Category: Mathematics

Page: 317

View: 6885

This easy-to-read introduction takes the reader from elementary problems through to current research. Ideal for courses and self-study.
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Lectures on Classical Differential Geometry

Author: Dirk Jan Struik

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486656090

Category: Mathematics

Page: 232

View: 7313

Elementary, yet authoritative and scholarly, this book offers an excellent brief introduction to the classical theory of differential geometry. It is aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students who will find it not only highly readable but replete with illustrations carefully selected to help stimulate the student's visual understanding of geometry. The text features an abundance of problems, most of which are simple enough for class use, and often convey an interesting geometrical fact. A selection of more difficult problems has been included to challenge the ambitious student. Written by a noted mathematician and historian of mathematics, this volume presents the fundamental conceptions of the theory of curves and surfaces and applies them to a number of examples. Dr. Struik has enhanced the treatment with copious historical, biographical, and bibliographical references that place the theory in context and encourage the student to consult original sources and discover additional important ideas there. For this second edition, Professor Struik made some corrections and added an appendix with a sketch of the application of Cartan's method of Pfaffians to curve and surface theory. The result was to further increase the merit of this stimulating, thought-provoking text — ideal for classroom use, but also perfectly suited for self-study. In this attractive, inexpensive paperback edition, it belongs in the library of any mathematician or student of mathematics interested in differential geometry.
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Geometry of Surfaces

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461209293

Category: Mathematics

Page: 236

View: 1682

The geometry of surfaces is an ideal starting point for learning geometry, for, among other reasons, the theory of surfaces of constant curvature has maximal connectivity with the rest of mathematics. This text provides the student with the knowledge of a geometry of greater scope than the classical geometry taught today, which is no longer an adequate basis for mathematics or physics, both of which are becoming increasingly geometric. It includes exercises and informal discussions.
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Projective Geometry

From Foundations to Applications

Author: Albrecht Beutelspacher,Ute Rosenbaum

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521483643

Category: Mathematics

Page: 258

View: 4441

A textbook on projective geometry that emphasises applications in modern information and communication science.
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Introduction to Möbius Differential Geometry

Author: Udo Hertrich-Jeromin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521535694

Category: Mathematics

Page: 413

View: 3401

An introduction, at a basic level, to the conformal differential geometry of surfaces and submanifolds is given. That is, the book discusses those aspects of the geometry of surfaces that does only refer to an angle measurement but not to a length measurement. Different methods (models) to think about their geometry as well as to do computations are presented. Various applications to areas of current research interest are discussed, including discrete net theory and certain relations between differential geometry and integrable systems theory.
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Applied Differential Geometry

A Modern Introduction

Author: Vladimir G. Ivancevic,Tijana T. Ivancevic

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812706143

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1311

View: 5897

This graduate-level monographic textbook treats applied differential geometry from a modern scientific perspective. Co-authored by the originator of the world's leading human motion simulator ? ?Human Biodynamics Engine?, a complex, 264-DOF bio-mechanical system, modeled by differential-geometric tools ? this is the first book that combines modern differential geometry with a wide spectrum of applications, from modern mechanics and physics, via nonlinear control, to biology and human sciences. The book is designed for a two-semester course, which gives mathematicians a variety of applications for their theory and physicists, as well as other scientists and engineers, a strong theory underlying their models.
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Lectures on Hyperbolic Geometry

Author: Riccardo Benedetti,Carlo Petronio

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642581587

Category: Mathematics

Page: 330

View: 5054

Focussing on the geometry of hyperbolic manifolds, the aim here is to provide an exposition of some fundamental results, while being as self-contained, complete, detailed and unified as possible. Following some classical material on the hyperbolic space and the Teichmüller space, the book centers on the two fundamental results: Mostow's rigidity theorem (including a complete proof, following Gromov and Thurston) and Margulis' lemma. These then form the basis for studying Chabauty and geometric topology; a unified exposition is given of Wang's theorem and the Jorgensen-Thurston theory; and much space is devoted to the 3D case: a complete and elementary proof of the hyperbolic surgery theorem, based on the representation of three manifolds as glued ideal tetrahedra.
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Elliptic Curves

Number Theory and Cryptography, Second Edition

Author: Lawrence C. Washington

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420071474

Category: Mathematics

Page: 536

View: 8842

Like its bestselling predecessor, Elliptic Curves: Number Theory and Cryptography, Second Edition develops the theory of elliptic curves to provide a basis for both number theoretic and cryptographic applications. With additional exercises, this edition offers more comprehensive coverage of the fundamental theory, techniques, and applications of elliptic curves. New to the Second Edition Chapters on isogenies and hyperelliptic curves A discussion of alternative coordinate systems, such as projective, Jacobian, and Edwards coordinates, along with related computational issues A more complete treatment of the Weil and Tate–Lichtenbaum pairings Doud’s analytic method for computing torsion on elliptic curves over Q An explanation of how to perform calculations with elliptic curves in several popular computer algebra systems Taking a basic approach to elliptic curves, this accessible book prepares readers to tackle more advanced problems in the field. It introduces elliptic curves over finite fields early in the text, before moving on to interesting applications, such as cryptography, factoring, and primality testing. The book also discusses the use of elliptic curves in Fermat’s Last Theorem. Relevant abstract algebra material on group theory and fields can be found in the appendices.
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Cartan for Beginners

Differential Geometry Via Moving Frames and Exterior Differential Systems

Author: Thomas Andrew Ivey,J. M. Landsberg

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821833758

Category: Mathematics

Page: 378

View: 2033

This book is an introduction to Cartan's approach to differential geometry. Two central methods in Cartan's geometry are the theory of exterior differential systems and the method of moving frames. This book presents thorough and modern treatments of both subjects, including their applications to both classic and contemporary problems. It begins with the classical geometry of surfaces and basic Riemannian geometry in the language of moving frames, along with an elementary introduction to exterior differential systems. Key concepts are developed incrementally with motivating examples leading to definitions, theorems, and proofs. Once the basics of the methods are established, the authors develop applications and advanced topics.One notable application is to complex algebraic geometry, where they expand and update important results from projective differential geometry. The book features an introduction to $G$-structures and a treatment of the theory of connections. The Cartan machinery is also applied to obtain explicit solutions of PDEs via Darboux's method, the method of characteristics, and Cartan's method of equivalence. This text is suitable for a one-year graduate course in differential geometry, and parts of it can be used for a one-semester course. It has numerous exercises and examples throughout. It will also be useful to experts in areas such as PDEs and algebraic geometry who want to learn how moving frames and exterior differential systems apply to their fields.
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