The Credential Society

An Historical Sociology of Education and Stratification

Author: Randall Collins

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231549784

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 8592

The Credential Society by Randall Collins is a classic on higher education and its role in American society. Forty years later, its controversial claim that the expansion of American education has not increased social mobility, but created a cycle of credential inflation, has proven remarkably prescient.
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Dynamik der Gewalt

Eine mikrosoziologische Theorie

Author: Randall Collins

Publisher: Hamburger Edition HIS

ISBN: 3868546707

Category: Social Science

Page: 740

View: 1495

Obwohl es Zeiten gibt, in denen uns Gewalt allgegenwärtig erscheint, hält Randall Collins den tatsächlichen Ausbruch von gewalttätigen Handlungen für eine Ausnahme. In seiner Analyse der Dynamik der Gewalt legt der renommierte amerikanische Soziologe den Fokus auf die situative Interaktion zwischen den Kontrahenten. Ob eine spannungsgeladene Situation zu gewalttätigen Handlungen führt, hängt seiner Untersuchung zufolge nicht in erster Linie von der sozialen Herkunft, der Ethnie oder dem kulturellen Hintergrund der Beteiligten ab, sondern häufig von der Situation, in der sie stattfindet.
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Die Theorie sozialer Schließung

Tradition, Analysen, Perspektiven

Author: Jürgen Mackert

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663079120

Category: Social Science

Page: 275

View: 9389

Die Theorie sozialer Schließung ist ein ungleichheits-, konflikt- und machttheoretischer Ansatz zur Analyse des Auschlusses von Individuen von jeglicher Art sozialer Systeme und deren Kampf um Inklusion. Der Sammelband vereinigt klassische Texte und aktuelle schließungstheoretische Analysen der politischen, ökonomischen, sozialen und kulturellen Partizipation von Individuen in modernen Gesellschaften. Mit Beiträgen von Frank Parkin, Randall Collins, Raymond Murphy, Loïc Wacquant, Sighard Neckel, Sylvia Wilz, Heinz Bude, June Edmunds, Bryan S. Turner, Phillip Brown, Jürgen Mackert
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Die Lewittowner

Soziographie einer „Schlafstadt“

Author: Herbert J. Gans

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3035601887

Category: Architecture

Page: N.A

View: 8079

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Bildung – Arbeit – Erwachsenwerden

Ein interdisziplinärer Blick auf die Transition im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter

Author: Manfred Max Bergman,Sandra Hupka-Brunner,Thomas Meyer,Robin Samuel

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3531184873

Category: Social Science

Page: 270

View: 1672

Der Übergang von der Schule ins Erwachsenen- und Erwerbsleben ist eine entscheidende und kritische Lebensphase. Vieles deutet darauf hin, dass diese Transitionen in modernen Gesellschaften länger, anforderungsreicher, unübersichtlicher und risikoreicher geworden sind. Der vorliegende Band beleuchtet diese Transitionen aus Sicht der Ökonomie, Pädagogik, Psychologie und Soziologie. Dazu werden disziplinäre und interdisziplinäre Beiträge sowie aktuelle empirische Zugänge präsentiert, die die biografische Phase von der Grundbildung bis ins Erwerbsleben abdecken. Manfred Max Bergman ist Professor für Sozialforschung und Methodologie, Universität Basel, und Visiting Professor, University of Johannesburg und Witwatersrand. Forschungsschwerpunkte: inter- und intragenerationale Ungleichheitstransfers, Bildung und Arbeit, Mixed Methods Designs. Sandra Hupka-Brunner hat die Ko-Leitung des Projektes TREE inne und ist am Lehrstuhl für Sozialforschung und Methodologie, Universität Basel, tätig. Forschungsschwerpunkte: Bildungsforschung, soziale Ungleichheit, Migration. Thomas Meyer ist Ko-Leiter des Projektes TREE und arbeitet am Lehrstuhl für Sozialforschung und Methodologie, Universität Basel. Forschungsschwerpunkte: Bildungssoziologie, school-to-work transitions. Robin Samuel ist Forscher am Lehrstuhl für Sozialforschung und Methodologie, Universität Basel. Forschungsschwerpunkte: Soziale Mobilität, soziale Ungleichheit, Bildung und Arbeit, Wohlbefinden, Analyse longitudinaler Daten.
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Determinanten der Schulwahl

Elterliche Motive für oder gegen Privatschulen

Author: Peter Suter

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3531197290

Category: Education

Page: 200

View: 3370

Privatschulen sind sowohl in Politik und den Medien als auch bei Lehrpersonen und Eltern immer wieder Gegenstand heftiger Diskussionen. Dennoch gibt es zu diesem Thema kaum empirische Forschungen. Peter Suter analysiert in der Schweiz Motive und Hintergründe, die Eltern dazu veranlassen ihr Kind auf eine private Primarschule zu schicken. Er zeigt, dass die Qualität und das Leistungsniveau der Schule für die Wahl sekundär ist – obwohl diese Aspekte als die zentralen Gütekriterien einer guten Schule genannt werden. Eltern, die sich für eine Privatschule entscheiden, sind meist Expatriate mit hohem sozioökonomischen Status, die sich vorwiegend für eine zweisprachige Ausbildung und ein umfassendes Betreuungsangebot interessieren. Insgesamt belegen die Resultate, dass die Schulwahl in erster Linie habituell geleitet und nicht das Resultat einer rationalen Entscheidung ist.
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Flucht nach vorn

Die Erfolgskultur der Marktgesellschaft

Author: Sighard Neckel

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 3593387581

Category: Social Science

Page: 210

View: 4180

In der Gesellschaft der Gegenwart hat die »Pflicht zum Erfolg« eine allgemeine Kulturbedeutung angenommen – in privaten Lebenswelten, im beruflichen Alltag, in der heutigen Ökonomie. Unfähig, die gesellschaftlichen Probleme zu lösen, welche der Markt hinterlässt, tritt der kulturelle Kapitalismus unserer Zeit im Erfolgskult die Flucht nach vorn in eine Lebensform an, in der das Ökonomische mehr oder minder subtil das Handeln, die Gefühle und die Sinnwelten regiert. Doch kehren im neuen Gewand auch alte Gegensätze zurück: Erfolg und Scheitern, Arm und Reich, Gewinner und Verlierer. Und hinter der allgegenwärtigen Rede von »Leistung« verbirgt sich der Vorrang des reinen Marktprinzips. Sighard Neckel rückt der Vermarktlichung der Gesellschaft mit kultursoziologischen Studien zu Leibe, die vor allem die Selbsttäuschungen und Paradoxien der heutigen Erfolgskultur aufdecken.
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Education, Work and Identity

Themes and Perspectives

Author: Michael Tomlinson

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1441147977

Category: Education

Page: 208

View: 4673

Education, Work and Identity explores changing patterns of education and work, the dynamic relationship between these two institutions, and the wider social and economic contexts shaping them. It locates this in processes of social and economic change, in particular the shift towards globalization and the post-industrial economy. The book examines how these changes have reshaped individuals' educational, transitional and labour market experiences. It also explores key themes and approaches in understanding the education and labour market interplay, and the way in which education and work institutions shape people's orientations and identities around work.
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Welfare, Ethnicity and Altruism

New Data and Evolutionary Theory

Author: Frank Salter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135772320

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 4926

Welfare, Ethnicity, and Altruism applies the controversial theory of 'Ethnic Nepotism', first formulated by Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt and Pierre van den Berghe, to the modern welfare state (both are authors in this volume). This theory states that ethnic groups resemble large families whose members are prone to cooperate due to 'kin altruism'. Recent empirical findings in economics and political science offer confirmatory evidence. The book presents two separate studies that compare welfare expenditures around the world, both indicating that the more ethnically mixed a population becomes, the greater is its resistance to redistributive policies. These results point to profound inconsistencies within ideologies of both left and right regarding ethnicity.
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Ethnicity and Social Divisions

Contemporary Research in Sociology

Author: Karin Halldén,Elias le Grand,Zenia Hellgren

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443809233

Category: Social Science

Page: 270

View: 1349

The anthology “Ethnicity and Social Divisions: Contemporary Research in Sociology” is a collection of studies presented at the annual Aage Sørensen Memorial Conferences in 2006 and 2007. The volume reflects a number of important tendencies in contemporary social research: the increasing interest in questions that concern ethnicity and immigration on the one hand, the remaining centrality of social stratification and class analysis on the other hand, and the intersection between these fields. Eight young sociologists, all PhD Candidates at the universities of Harvard, Oxford or Stockholm at the time they wrote their contributions, participate in this volume. Representing a new generation of social scientists, they have conducted empirical research on social inequality related to class and ethnicity from different perspectives.
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Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy

Author: D. C. Phillips

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483364755

Category: Education

Page: 952

View: 5839

Education is a field sometimes beset by theories-of-the-day and with easy panaceas that overpromise the degree to which they can alleviate pressing educational problems. The two-volume Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy introduces readers to theories that have stood the test of time and those that have provided the historical foundation for the best of contemporary educational theory and practice. Drawing together a team of international scholars, this invaluable reference examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them and presents them in the context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, this work offers essays on cutting-edge research and concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Features: Over 300 signed entries by trusted experts in the field are organized into two volumes and overseen by a distinguished General Editor and an international Editorial Board. Entries are followed by cross references and further reading suggestions. A Chronology of Theory within the field of education highlights developments over the centuries; a Reader’s Guide groups entries thematically, and a master Bibliography facilitates further study. The Reader’s Guide, detailed index, and cross references combine for strong search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic version. Available in a choice of print or electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy is an ideal reference for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary educational theory.
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The Social Organization of Schools

New Conceptualizations of the Learning Process

Author: Maureen T. Hallinan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489904689

Category: Education

Page: 228

View: 5817

This volume addresses key issues in the sociology of education concerning how schools are organized for instruction and what processes link school organization and instruction to educa tional achievement. The content of the chapters represents a shift in focus from traditional and even recent themes in soci ology of education, including the study of school effects and of classroom processes, to a concern with the social organization of schools and its consequences for student outcomes. Rather than reviewing or evaluating existing research, the chapters present new and developing conceptualizations of the school ing process and provide theoretical models to guide future empirical work on schools. A unique feature of this book is its heavy emphasis on theory. Each chapter presents a theoretical model or argument concerning an issue of central importance in sociology of edu cation. The empirical analyses and simulations that are included are often more for illustrative purposes than for rigorous hypothesis testing, and some chapters have no data analysis at all. The major strength of the volume, therefore, lies in the new conceptualizations and reconceptualizations it provides of fundamental processes relating school organization to student learning. Theoretical work such as this is exactly what is needed in an area that has traditionally been, for the most part, empir ical and atheoretical. Another important feature of this volume is the various approaches it presents to the study of school organization.
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Schooling, Childhood, and Bureaucracy

Bureaucratizing the Child

Author: T. Waters

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137269723

Category: Social Science

Page: 255

View: 9160

In exploring the relationship between bureaucratic schooling and the individual child, Waters describes the persistence of educational inequality, child development, and the nature of bureaucracy. The conclusions point out how education bureaucracies frame both schooling and childhood as they relentlessly seek to create ever more perfect children.
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Contradictions of Control

School Structure and School Knowledge

Author: Linda M. McNeil

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135209286

Category: Education

Page: 234

View: 4205

McNeil traces the poor quality of high school instruction t the tensions between the social control purposes of schooling and the schools' educational goals.
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War and Peace and War

The Rise and Fall of Empires

Author: Peter Turchin

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101126912

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 6977

Like Jared Diamond in Guns, Germs, and Steel, Peter Turchin in War and Peace and War uses his expertise in evolutionary biology to make a highly original argument about the rise and fall of empires. Turchin argues that the key to the formation of an empire is a society’s capacity for collective action. He demonstrates that high levels of cooperation are found where people have to band together to fight off a common enemy, and that this kind of cooperation led to the formation of the Roman and Russian empires, and the United States. But as empires grow, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer, conflict replaces cooperation, and dissolution inevitably follows. Eloquently argued and rich with historical examples, War and Peace and War offers a bold new theory about the course of world history.
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The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences

Author: Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic,Sophie von Stumm,Adrian Furnham

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444343113

Category: Psychology

Page: 632

View: 4237

The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of recent research, current perspectives, practical applications, and likely future developments in individual differences. Brings together the work of the top global researchers within the area of individual differences, including Philip L. Ackerman, Ian J. Deary, Ed Diener, Robert Hogan, Deniz S. Ones and Dean Keith Simonton Covers methodological, theoretical and paradigm changes in the area of individual differences Individual chapters cover core areas of individual differences including personality and intelligence, biological causes of individual differences, and creativity and emotional intelligence
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Dem Anderen begegnen

Eigene und fremde Repräsentationen in sozialen Gemeinschaften

Author: Jörg Baberowski,David Feest

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 3593387220

Category: History

Page: 293

View: 2262

Soziale Gemeinschaften vergegenwärtigen, bestätigen und verändern durch Repräsentationen die Ordnung, in der sie leben. In der Begegnung mit anderen werden diese verteidigt oder mit neuer Bedeutung versehen. An Beispielen aus Europa, Südamerika, Afrika und Asien wird in diesem Band untersucht, wie Repräsentationen als Praktiken der Weltauslegung das Beharren, aber auch den Wandel sozialer Ordnungen beeinflussen und wie Einzelne und Gruppen durch sie klären, wer sie selbst sind und was das Andere ist.
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Labor Movement

How Migration Regulates Labor Markets

Author: Harald Bauder

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019020835X

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 9853

Throughout the industrialized world, international migrants serve as nannies, construction workers, gardeners and small-business entrepreneurs. Labor Movement suggests that the international migration of workers is necessary for the survival of industrialized economies. The book thus turns the conventional view of international migration on its head: it investigates how migration regulates labor markets, rather than labor markets shaping migration flows. Assuming a critical view of orthodox economic theory, the book illustrates how different legal, social and cultural strategies towards international migrants are deployed and coordinated within the wider neo-liberal project to render migrants and immigrants vulnerable, pushing them into performing distinct economic roles and into subordinate labor market situations. Drawing on social theories associated with Pierre Bourdieu and other prominent thinkers, Labor Movement suggests that migration regulates labor markets through processes of social distinction, cultural judgement and the strategic deployment of citizenship. European and North American case studies illustrate how the labor of international migrants is systematically devalued and how popular discourse legitimates the demotion of migrants to subordinate labor. Engaging with various immigrant groups in different cities, including South Asian immigrants in Vancouver, foreigners and Sp?taussiedler in Berlin, and Mexican and Caribbean offshore workers in rural Ontario, the studies seek to unravel the complex web of regulatory labor market processes related to international migration. Recognizing and understanding these processes, Bauder argues, is an important step towards building effective activist strategies and for envisioning new roles for migrating workers and people. The book is a valuable resource to researchers and students in economics, ethnic and migration studies, geography, sociology, political science, and to frontline activists in Europe, North America and beyond.
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The Democracy Makers

Human Rights and the Politics of Global Order

Author: Nicolas Guilhot

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231504195

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 5175

Has the international movement for democracy and human rights gone from being a weapon against power to part of the arsenal of power itself? Nicolas Guilhot explores this question in his penetrating look at how the U.S. government, the World Bank, political scientists, NGOs, think tanks, and various international organizations have appropriated the movement for democracy and human rights to export neoliberal policies throughout the world. His work charts the various symbolic, ideological, and political meanings that have developed around human rights and democracy movements. Guilhot suggests that these shifting meanings reflect the transformation of a progressive, emancipatory movement into an industry, dominated by "experts," ensconced in positions of power. Guilhot's story begins in the 1950s when U.S. foreign policy experts promoted human rights and democracy as part of a "democratic international" to fight the spread of communism. Later, the unlikely convergence of anti-Stalinist leftists and the nascent neoconservative movement found a place in the Reagan administration. These "State Department Socialists," as they were known, created policies and organizations that provided financial and technical expertise to democratic movements, but also supported authoritarian, anti-communist regimes, particularly in Latin America. Guilhot also traces the intellectual and social trajectories of key academics, policymakers, and institutions, including Seymour M. Lipset, Jeane Kirkpatrick, the "Chicago Boys," including Milton Friedman, the National Endowment for Democracy, and the Ford Foundation. He examines the ways in which various individuals, or "double agents," were able to occupy pivotal positions at the junction of academe, national, and international institutions, and activist movements. He also pays particular attention to the role of the social sciences in transforming the old anti-Communist crusades into respectable international organizations that promoted progressive and democratic ideals, but did not threaten the strategic and economic goals of Western governments and businesses. Guilhot's purpose is not to disqualify democracy promotion as a conspiratorial activity. Rather he offers new perspectives on the roles of various transnational human rights institutions and the policies they promote. Ultimately, his work proposes a new model for understanding the international politics of legitimate democratic order and the relation between popular resistance to globalization and the "Washington Consensus."
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