The Credential Society

An Historical Sociology of Education and Stratification

Author: Randall Collins

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231549784

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 1957

The Credential Society by Randall Collins is a classic on higher education and its role in American society. Forty years later, its controversial claim that the expansion of American education has not increased social mobility, but created a cycle of credential inflation, has proven remarkably prescient.
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Interaction Ritual Chains

Author: Randall Collins

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691090276

Category: Social Science

Page: 439

View: 9059

Attempts to develop a "radical microsociology". This book proposes that successful rituals create symbols of group membership and pump up individuals with emotional energy, while failed rituals drain emotional energy.
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Violence

A Micro-sociological Theory

Author: Randall Collins

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400831753

Category: Social Science

Page: 584

View: 9210

In the popular misconception fostered by blockbuster action movies and best-selling thrillers--not to mention conventional explanations by social scientists--violence is easy under certain conditions, like poverty, racial or ideological hatreds, or family pathologies. Randall Collins challenges this view in Violence, arguing that violent confrontation goes against human physiological hardwiring. It is the exception, not the rule--regardless of the underlying conditions or motivations. Collins gives a comprehensive explanation of violence and its dynamics, drawing upon video footage, cutting-edge forensics, and ethnography to examine violent situations up close as they actually happen--and his conclusions will surprise you. Violence comes neither easily nor automatically. Antagonists are by nature tense and fearful, and their confrontational anxieties put up a powerful emotional barrier against violence. Collins guides readers into the very real and disturbing worlds of human discord--from domestic abuse and schoolyard bullying to muggings, violent sports, and armed conflicts. He reveals how the fog of war pervades all violent encounters, limiting people mostly to bluster and bluff, and making violence, when it does occur, largely incompetent, often injuring someone other than its intended target. Collins shows how violence can be triggered only when pathways around this emotional barrier are presented. He explains why violence typically comes in the form of atrocities against the weak, ritualized exhibitions before audiences, or clandestine acts of terrorism and murder--and why a small number of individuals are competent at violence. Violence overturns standard views about the root causes of violence and offers solutions for confronting it in the future.
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Conflict Sociology

A Sociological Classic Updated

Author: Randall Collins,Stephen K. Sanderson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317262174

Category: Social Science

Page: 368

View: 408

This new edition is a substantial abridgment and update of Randall Collins's 1975 classic, Conflict Sociology. The first edition represented the most powerful and comprehensive statement of conflict theory in its time. Here, Sanderson has retained the core chapters and added discussions on Collins's and others' work in recent years. An afterword summarizes Collins's latest forays into microsociological theorizing and attempts to demonstrate how his newer microsociology and older macrosociology are connected.
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Sociological Insight

An Introduction to Non-obvious Sociology

Author: Randall Collins

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195074420

Category: Social Science

Page: 206

View: 8027

Revised and expanded to incorporate recent research, this classic text now offers a more comprehensive introduction to many of sociology's most interesting and elegant ideas, written with a grace and wit that have delighted a generation of students. Beginning with a central problem that distinguishes sociology from most other ways of looking at the world, Randall Collins examines the limits of human rationality and sociological theories of religion, showing how they open up a general theory of social rituals that holds the key to much of the rest of sociology. With these conceptual tools in hand, he invites students to ponder how sociological analysis can illuminate a variety of urgent topics--power, crime, sex, love, and the position of women in society--as it reveals both their visible social symbols and their paradoxical deep structures. In a new final chapter, Collins stakes out an important role for sociology in the information age, while coming full circle to the theories of rationality and ritual with which he began, showing that artificial intelligence can approximate human creativity only if it can take part in ritual interactions. Uniquely engaging, Sociological Insight dramatizes the major issues and concerns of sociology in a way that gets students thinking and talking, and whets their appetites for more.
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Disciplined Minds

A Critical Look at Salaried Professionals and the Soul-battering System that Shapes Their Lives

Author: Jeff Schmidt

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780742516854

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 6432

This book details the battle one must fight to be an independent thinker, showing how an honest reassessment of what it means to be a professional in today's corporate society can be remarkably liberating. Poignant examples from the world of work reveal the workplace as a battleground for the very identity of the individual. Schmidt contends that professional work is inherently political—that the unstated duty of professionals is to maintain strict "ideological discipline." Career dissatisfaction evolves as workers lose control over the political component of their creative work. After reading this insightful book, no one who works for a living will ever think the same way about their job. Jeff Schmidt lives in Washington, D.C., where he is an editor forPhysics Today.
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Education, Work and Identity

Themes and Perspectives

Author: Michael Tomlinson

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1441174117

Category: Education

Page: 231

View: 2761

Explores the interaction between education and work and the wider socio-economic context that shapes this.
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Education and Gender Equality

Author: Julia Wrigley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135427232

Category: Education

Page: 288

View: 4447

First Published in 1992. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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Welfare, Ethnicity and Altruism

New Data and Evolutionary Theory

Author: Frank Salter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135772320

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 976

Welfare, Ethnicity, and Altruism applies the controversial theory of 'Ethnic Nepotism', first formulated by Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt and Pierre van den Berghe, to the modern welfare state (both are authors in this volume). This theory states that ethnic groups resemble large families whose members are prone to cooperate due to 'kin altruism'. Recent empirical findings in economics and political science offer confirmatory evidence. The book presents two separate studies that compare welfare expenditures around the world, both indicating that the more ethnically mixed a population becomes, the greater is its resistance to redistributive policies. These results point to profound inconsistencies within ideologies of both left and right regarding ethnicity.
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Professional Learning in the Knowledge Society

Author: Karen Jensen,Leif Chr. Lahn,Monika Nerland

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9460919944

Category: Education

Page: 228

View: 3470

This book presents an entirely new approach to professional learning based on perspectives of the knowledge society and, in particular, an interpretation of Knorr Cetina’s work on scientific ‘epistemic cultures’. Starting with a conceptual chapter and followed by a suite of empirical studies from accountancy, education, nursing and software engineering, the book elaborates how: a) knowledge production and circulation take distinct forms in those fields; b) how the knowledge objects of practice in those fields engross and engage professionals and, in the process, people and knowledge are transformed by this engagement. By foregrounding an explicit concern for the role of knowledge in professional learning, the book goes much farther than the current fashion for describing ‘practice-based learning’. It will therefore be of considerable interest to the research, policy, practitioner and student communities involved with professional education/learning or interested in innovation and knowledge development in the professions.
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Revisiting Institutionalism in Sociology

Putting the “Institution” Back in Institutional Analysis

Author: Seth Abrutyn

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134463499

Category: Social Science

Page: 228

View: 2931

There may not be a concept so central to sociology, yet so vaguely defined in its contemporary usages, than institution. In Revisiting Institutionalism in Sociology, Abrutyn takes an in-depth look at what institutions are by returning to some of the insights of classical theorists like Max Weber and Herbert Spencer, the functionalisms of Talcott Parsons and S.N. Eisenstadt, and the more recent evolutionary institutionalisms of Gerhard Lenski and Jonathan Turner. Returning to the idea that various levels of social reality shape societies, Abrutyn argues that institutions are macro-level structural and cultural spheres of action, exchange, and communication. They have emergent properties and dynamics that are not reducible to other levels of social reality. Rather than fall back on old functionalist solutions, Abrutyn offers an original and synthetic theory of institutions like religion or economy; the process by which they become autonomous, or distinct cultural spaces that shape the color and texture of action, exchange, and communication embedded within them; and how they gain or lose autonomy by theorizing about institutional entrepreneurship. Finally, Abrutyn lays bare the inner workings of institutions, including their ecology, the way structure and culture shape lower-levels of social reality, and how they develop unique patterns of stratification and inequality founded on their ecology, structure, and culture. Ultimately, Abrutyn offers a refreshing take on macrosociology that brings functionalist, conflict, and cultural sociologies together, while painting a new picture of how the seemingly invisible macro-world influences the choices humans make and the goals we set.
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Ethnicity and Social Divisions

Contemporary Research in Sociology

Author: Karin Halldén,Elias le Grand,Zenia Hellgren

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443809233

Category: Social Science

Page: 270

View: 4089

The anthology “Ethnicity and Social Divisions: Contemporary Research in Sociology” is a collection of studies presented at the annual Aage Sørensen Memorial Conferences in 2006 and 2007. The volume reflects a number of important tendencies in contemporary social research: the increasing interest in questions that concern ethnicity and immigration on the one hand, the remaining centrality of social stratification and class analysis on the other hand, and the intersection between these fields. Eight young sociologists, all PhD Candidates at the universities of Harvard, Oxford or Stockholm at the time they wrote their contributions, participate in this volume. Representing a new generation of social scientists, they have conducted empirical research on social inequality related to class and ethnicity from different perspectives.
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The Social Organization of Schools

New Conceptualizations of the Learning Process

Author: Maureen T. Hallinan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489904689

Category: Education

Page: 228

View: 2088

This volume addresses key issues in the sociology of education concerning how schools are organized for instruction and what processes link school organization and instruction to educa tional achievement. The content of the chapters represents a shift in focus from traditional and even recent themes in soci ology of education, including the study of school effects and of classroom processes, to a concern with the social organization of schools and its consequences for student outcomes. Rather than reviewing or evaluating existing research, the chapters present new and developing conceptualizations of the school ing process and provide theoretical models to guide future empirical work on schools. A unique feature of this book is its heavy emphasis on theory. Each chapter presents a theoretical model or argument concerning an issue of central importance in sociology of edu cation. The empirical analyses and simulations that are included are often more for illustrative purposes than for rigorous hypothesis testing, and some chapters have no data analysis at all. The major strength of the volume, therefore, lies in the new conceptualizations and reconceptualizations it provides of fundamental processes relating school organization to student learning. Theoretical work such as this is exactly what is needed in an area that has traditionally been, for the most part, empir ical and atheoretical. Another important feature of this volume is the various approaches it presents to the study of school organization.
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Schooling, Childhood, and Bureaucracy

Bureaucratizing the Child

Author: T. Waters

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137269723

Category: Social Science

Page: 255

View: 977

In exploring the relationship between bureaucratic schooling and the individual child, Waters describes the persistence of educational inequality, child development, and the nature of bureaucracy. The conclusions point out how education bureaucracies frame both schooling and childhood as they relentlessly seek to create ever more perfect children.
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Degrees of Inequality

Culture, Class, and Gender in American Higher Education

Author: Ann L. Mullen

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801899126

Category: Education

Page: 264

View: 5230

Moving interviews with 100 students at the two institutions highlight how American higher education reinforces the same inequities it has been aiming to transcend.
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Contradictions of Control

School Structure and School Knowledge

Author: Linda M. McNeil

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135209286

Category: Education

Page: 234

View: 1355

McNeil traces the poor quality of high school instruction t the tensions between the social control purposes of schooling and the schools' educational goals.
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The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences

Author: Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic,Sophie von Stumm,Adrian Furnham

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444343113

Category: Psychology

Page: 632

View: 1492

The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of recent research, current perspectives, practical applications, and likely future developments in individual differences. Brings together the work of the top global researchers within the area of individual differences, including Philip L. Ackerman, Ian J. Deary, Ed Diener, Robert Hogan, Deniz S. Ones and Dean Keith Simonton Covers methodological, theoretical and paradigm changes in the area of individual differences Individual chapters cover core areas of individual differences including personality and intelligence, biological causes of individual differences, and creativity and emotional intelligence
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The Institute of Accounts

Author: Stephen E. Loeb,Paul J. Miranti

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134441525

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 128

View: 427

This book focuses upon the Institute of Accounts (IA), an organization to which the modern United States accounting profession can trace its roots. The IA was organized in the early 1880s in New York City and, as discussed in this book, attracted a diverse membership that included some of the leading accounting thinkers of the period. The Institute of Accounts describes the association's early development, its usefulness to the needs of bookkeepers and accountants in the late nineteenth century, and its historical importance.
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On Becoming a Rock Musician

Author: H. Stith Bennett

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231544405

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 7718

In the 1960s and 1970s, becoming a rock musician was fundamentally different than playing other kinds of music. It was a learned rather than a taught skill. In On Becoming a Rock Musician, sociologist H. Stith Bennett observes what makes someone a rock musician and what persuades others to take him seriously in this role. The book explores how bands form; the backstage and onstage reality of playing in a band; how bands promote themselves and interact with audiences and music professionals like DJs; and the role of performance.
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