Cortical Areas

Unity and Diversity

Author: Almut Schuez,Robert Miller

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203299296

Category: Science

Page: 526

View: 6493

The study of areas in the cerebral cortex has a long history, bringing empirical data into close relation with fundamental conceptual issues about the cortex. The subject is currently being revitalized with the advent of new experimental methods and this book brings a modern perspective to the study of these areas. Cortical Areas: Unity and Diversity explores the correspondence of different methods of mapping areas, the correlation between connectivity and areas, interspecies variations and the developmental origin of areal differences. Cortical areas are also discussed in relation to functional evidence, discussing for instance similarities in cybernetic function between different sensory areas. The book also considers morphological substrates for integration between areas before exploring fundamental questions often asked in neurobiology and brain theory.

Functional Connections of Cortical Areas

A New View from the Thalamus

Author: S. Murray Sherman,R. W. Guillery

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262315009

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 1498

In this book, two leading authorities on the thalamus and its relationship to cortex build on their earlier findings to arrive at new ways of thinking about how the brain relates to the world, to cognition, and behavior. Based on foundations established earlier in their book Exploring the Thalamus and Its Role in Cortical Function, the authors consider the implications of these ground rules for thalamic inputs, thalamocortical connections, and cortical outputs. The authors argue that functional and structural analyses of pathways connecting thalamus and cortex point beyond these to lower centers and through them to the body and the world. Each cortical area depends on the messages linking it to body and world. These messages relate to the way we act and think; each cortical area receives thalamic inputs and has outputs to motor centers. Sherman and Guillery go on to discuss such topics as the role of branching axons that carry motor instructions as well as copies of these motor instructions for relay to cortex under the control of the thalamic gate. This gate allows the thalamus to control the passage of information on the basis of which cortex relates to the rest of the nervous system.

Sensory-Motor Areas and Aspects of Cortical Connectivity

Volume 5: Sensory-Motor Areas and Aspects of Cortical Connectivity

Author: Edward G. Jones,Alan Peters

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461321492

Category: Medical

Page: 510

View: 9094

Volume 5 of Cerebral Cortex completes the sequence of three volumes on the individual functional areas of the cerebral cortex by covering the somatosensory and motor areas. However, the chapters on these areas lead naturally to a series of others on patterns of connectivity in the cortex, intracortical and subcortical, so that the volume as a whole achieves a much broader viewpoint. The individual chapters on the sensory-motor areas reflect the considerable diversity of interest within the field, for each of the authors has given his or her chapter a different emphasis, reflecting in part topical interest and in part the body of data resulting from work in a particular species. In considering the functional organization of the somatosensory cortex, Robert Dykes and Andre Ruest have chosen to concentrate on the nature of the mapping process and its significance. Harold Burton, in his chapter on the somatosensory fields buried in the sylvian fissure, shows how critical is an understanding of this mapping process in the functional subdivision of the cortex. A frequently overlooked subdivision of the cortex, the vestibular region, is given the emphasis it deserves in a chapter by John Fredrickson and Allan Rubin. The further functional subdivisions that occur within the first somatosensory area are given an anatom ical basis in the review by Edward Jones of connectivity in the primate sensory motor cortex.

Cortical Sensory Organization

Multiple Somatic Areas

Author: Clinton N. Woolsey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461258111

Category: Medical

Page: 245

View: 3778

In April 1979 a symposium on "Multiple Somatic Sensory Motor, Visual and Auditory Areas and Their Connectivities" was held at the FASEB meeting in Dallas, Texas. The papers presented at that symposium are the basis of most of the substantially augmented, updated chapters in the three volumes of Cortical Sensory Organi zation. Only the material in chapter 8 of volume 3 was not pre sented in one form or another at that meeting. The aim of the symposium was to review the present status of the field of cortical representation in the somatosensory, visual and auditory systems. Since the early 1940s, the number of recognized cortical areas related to each of these systems has been increasing until at present the number of visually related areas exceeds a dozen. Although the number is less for the somatic and auditory systems, these also are more numerous than they were earlier and are likely to increase still further since we may expect each system to have essentially the same number of areas related to it.

Motor Areas of the Cerebral Cortex

Author: CIBA Foundation Symposium

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470513551

Category: Medical

Page: 332

View: 1698

Comprises the proceedings of a symposium held at the Ciba Foundation, London, February 1987. Addresses main issues and new techniques in the study of motor areas of the cerebral cortex in humans and animals. Reviews the historical development of the study of cortical structure and function, examines anatomical connections of motor areas, and surveys physiological studies of cortical areas in conscious primates. Also considers the effects of cortical lesions, and discusses clinical and experimental results on disorders of motor control.

Estimation of Cortical Connectivity in Humans

Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

Author: Laura Astolfi,Fabio Babiloni

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1598295322

Category: Medical

Page: 93

View: 1210

In the last ten years many different brain imaging devices have conveyed a lot of information about the brain functioning in different experimental conditions. In every case, the biomedical engineers, together with mathematicians, physicists and physicians are called to elaborate the signals related to the brain activity in order to extract meaningful and robust information to correlate with the external behavior of the subjects. In such attempt, different signal processing tools used in telecommunications and other field of engineering or even social sciences have been adapted and re-used in the neuroscience field. The present book would like to offer a short presentation of several methods for the estimation of the cortical connectivity of the human brain. The methods here presented are relatively simply to implement, robust and can return valuable information about the causality of the activation of the different cortical areas in humans using non invasive electroencephalographic recordings. The knowledge of such signal processing tools will enrich the arsenal of the computational methods that a engineer or a mathematician could apply in the processing of brain signals.Table of Contents: Introduction / Estimation of the Effective Connectivity from Stationary Data by Structural Equation Modeling / Estimation of the Functional Connectivity from Stationary Data by Multivariate Autoregressive Methods / Estimation of Cortical Activity by the use of Realistic Head Modeling / Application: Estimation of Connectivity from Movement-Related Potentials / Application to High-Resolution EEG Recordings in a Cognitive Task (Stroop Test) / Application to Data Related to the Intention of Limb Movements in Normal Subjects and in a Spinal Cord Injured Patient / The Instantaneous Estimation of the Time-Varying Cortical Connectivity by Adaptive Multivariate Estimators / Time-Varying Connectivity from Event-Related Potentials

Multimodal Brain Image Analysis

Third International Workshop, MBIA 2013, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2013, Nagoya, Japan, September 22, 2013, Proceedings

Author: Li Shen,Tianming Liu,Pew-Thian Yap,Heng Huang,Dinggang Shen,Carl-Fredrik Westin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319021265

Category: Computers

Page: 260

View: 7514

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Multimodal Brain Image Analysis, MBIA 2013, held in Nagoya, Japan, on September 22, 2013 in conjunction with the 16th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, MICCAI. The 24 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 35 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on analysis, methodologies, algorithms, software systems, validation approaches, benchmark datasets, neuroscience and clinical applications.

Wiring Principles of Cerebral Cortex

Author: Julian Budd, Zoltán F. Kisvárday

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889196925


Page: N.A

View: 6353

Cerebral cortex is probably the most complex biological network. Here many millions of individual neurons, the functional units of cortex, are interconnected through a massive yet highly organized pattern of axonal and dendritic wiring. This wiring enables both near and distant cells to coordinate their responses and generate a rich variety of cognitions and behaviours. When the wiring is damaged through disease or trauma it may reorganize but this may lead to characteristic pathological behaviours. While there have been significant advances in mapping cortical connectivity, the organizing principles and function of this connectivity are not well understood. On the one hand, there appears to be general design constraints governing cortical wiring, as first recognised by Rámon y Cajal's in his laws of conduction, material, and volume conservation. Yet on the other hand, particular patterns of cortical wiring exist to serve specific functions. There is a wide gap in understanding how the response and connectivity properties of a single neuron contribute to emergent network functions such as in detecting perceptually relevant features. Unravelling this intimate causal relationship represents one of the major challenges in neuroscience. This Research Topic will examine progress in understanding cortical wiring principles. This Research Topic aims to draw together recent advances in methods and understanding as well as recent challenges to existing ideas about how cerebral cortex is wired. This is particularly timely because new automated techniques may soon yield huge datasets in need of explanation. Recent studies have, for instance, empirically evaluated Rámon y Cajal's conservation laws for cerebral cortex, while others have shown some unexpected connectivity features that may refine the traditional view of how corticocortical connections are organised with regard to functional representations of auditory, somatosensory and visual cortices. Understanding these data will help improve the fidelity of neural models of cerebral cortical function and take into account the diversity of connections at both micro- and mesoscopic scales not seen at such a depth before.

Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Telencephalon, with Special Reference to the Mammalian Neocortex

Author: Francisco Aboitiz,J. Montiel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540497617

Category: Medical

Page: 121

View: 6827

How could a structure as complex as the vertebrate brain develop from the simplest multicellular animals? Natural selection offers an impeccable mechanism for the gradual transformation of species, but even Darwin sometimes expressed doubts about the origin of highly complex structures. Following an approach that has been termed "developmental evolutionary genetics," this book seeks to establish a correspondence between embryological processes and the phylogenetic history of an organism.

Handbook of Life-Span Development

Author: Lawerence K.W. Berg, PhD, Esq.,Karen L. Fingerman, PhD,Jacqui Smith, PhD,Cynthia Berg, PhD

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826110800

Category: Psychology

Page: 650

View: 5889

"The handbook is an impressive collection of research studies and theories provided by knowledgeable contributors on life-span development from conception to old age."--Anthropology and Aging Quarterly The doubling of our average life span since the turn of the 20th century is considered by many scholars to be one of the most important changes in human existence. This definitive text is the only volume to fully address, through a multidisciplinary perspective, the biological, cognitive, and psychological development that occurs from infancy through old age, and how the sociocultural and institutional factors interface with these changes. Edited by leading research scholars in the field of life-span development, the volume also includes contributions of specialists in behavioral genetics, socioemotional selectivity theory, neuroscience, ecological models, and more. It examines the dynamics of close relationships and informal ties among the elderly population, child-parent attachment relationships as a life-span phenomenon, developmental tasks across the lifespan, continuity and discontinuity in temperament and personality, the sociocultural context of cognition across the life span, and variability in approaches to social problem solving from early to later life. Given the number of recent demographic shifts, it also explores issues related to fertility, life expectancy, environmental contexts, technology, immigration, and public policy. Key Features: Integrates the full life span from infancy through old age in each chapter Considers multidisciplinary perspectives that address personal relationships, cognitive development, and social, emotional, and physical health across the life span Situates life-span development in ecological contexts (e.g., socioeconomic, neighborhood, and immigration status) Provides a concise but thorough resource for graduate seminars in life-span-related studies Highlights future issues in all areas of life-span study

Cortical Connectivity

Brain Stimulation for Assessing and Modulating Cortical Connectivity and Function

Author: Robert Chen,john rothwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642327664

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 5729

This book covers modulation of cortical connectivity and changing connections in motor learning and grasping activities in primates, non-invasive stimulation for studying the human brain, changes in connectivity in disease and potential new treatments.

Neuroanatomy of Language Regions of the Human Brain

Author: Michael Petrides

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124059317

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 8597

Many studies of the neural bases of language processes are now conducted with functional and structural neuroimaging. Research is often compromised because of difficulties in identifying the core structures in the face of the complex morphology of these regions of the brain. Although there are many books on the cognitive aspects of language and also on neurolinguistics and aphasiology, Neuroanatomy of Language Regions of the Human Brain is the first anatomical atlas that focuses on the core regions of the cerebral cortex involved in language processing. This atlas is a richly illustrated guide for scientists interested in the gross morphology of the sulci and gyri of the core language regions, in the cytoarchitecture of the relevant cortical areas, and in the connectivity of these areas. Data from diffusion MRI and resting-state connectivity are integrated iwth critical experimental anatomical data about homologous areas in the macaque monkey to provide the latest information on the connectivity of the language-relevant cortical areas of the brain. Although the anatomical connectivity data from studies on the macaque monkey provide the most detailed information, they are often neglected because of difficulties in interpreting the terminology used and in making the monkey-to-human comparison. This atlas helps investigators interpret this important source of information. Neuroanatomy of Language Regions of the Human Brain will assist investigators of the neural bases of language in increasing the anatomical sophistication of their research adn in evaluating studies of language and the brain. Abundantly illustrated with photographs, 3-D MRI reconstructions, and sections to represent the morphology of the sulci and gyri in the frontal, temporal, and parietal regions involved in language processing Photomicrographs showing the cytoarchitecture of cortical areas involved in language processing Series of coronal, sagittal, and horizontal sections identifying the sulci and gyri to assist language investigators using structural and functional neuroimaging techniques All images accompanied by brief commentaries to help users navigate the complexities of the anatomy Integration of data from diffusion MRI and resting-state connectivity with critical experimental anatomical data on the connectivity of homologous areas in the macaque monkey

Local Therapies for Glioma

Present Status and Future Developments

Author: M. Westphal,J.-C. Tonn,Z. Ram

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3709160901

Category: Medical

Page: 186

View: 9678

In addition to surgery and radiotherapy, local treatment modalities for the management of brain tumours are increasingly being developed and clinically tested. This book describes for the first time basic tumour biology as well as all current procedures in progress at the most recent level of knowledge, presented by leading experts in the respective fields. Image guided resection procedures, fluorescence guided surgery, developments in interstitial radiosurgery are addressed, just as intracavitary chemotherapy and all current concepts and studies of interstitial targeted therapy. Owing to its topicality this book will remain for long the standard for this comprehensively treated subject.

The Barrel Cortex of Rodents

Volume 11: The Barrel Cortex of Rodents

Author: Edward G. Jones,Irving T. Diamond

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306448478

Category: Medical

Page: 446

View: 5670

Volume 11 examines the many methodologies that researchers use to investigate the barrel cortex.

Cortical GABAergic neurons: stretching it

Author: Javier DeFelipe,Kathleen S. Rockland

Publisher: Frontiers E-books

ISBN: 2889190374


Page: N.A

View: 894

In the cerebellum and basal ganglia, projection neurons are GABAergic; but in the cerebral cortex, there has been a historically strong dichotomy between glutamatergic projection neurons and GABAergic local circuit neurons. While this dichotomy is overwhelmingly the case, it is now clear that a small population of long-distance projecting GABAergic neurons (positive for somatostatin and nNOS, and negative for parvalbumin) occurs in primates, as well as in cats and rodents. Beyond their well-documented existence, however, the functional significance, ontogeny, and connectivity of this intriguing subpopulation remain obscure.

Microstructural Parcellation of the Human Cerebral Cortex

From Brodmann's Post-Mortem Map to in Vivo Mapping with High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Author: Stefan Geyer,Robert Turner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642378242

Category: Medical

Page: 257

View: 8498

Unraveling the functional properties of structural elements in the brain is one of the fundamental goals of neuroscientific research. In the cerebral cortex this is no mean feat, since cortical areas are defined microstructurally in post-mortem brains but functionally in living brains with electrophysiological or neuroimaging techniques – and cortical areas vary in their topographical properties across individual brains. Being able to map both microstructure and function in the same brains noninvasively in vivo would represent a huge leap forward. In recent years, high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies with spatial resolution below 0.5 mm have set the stage for this by detecting structural differences within the human cerebral cortex, beyond the Stria of Gennari. This provides the basis for an in vivo microanatomical brain map, with the enormous potential to make direct correlations between microstructure and function in living human brains. This book starts with Brodmann’s post-mortem map published in the early 20th century, moves on to the almost forgotten microstructural maps of von Economo and Koskinas and the Vogt-Vogt school, sheds some light on more recent approaches that aim at mapping cortical areas noninvasively in living human brains, and culminates with the concept of “in vivo Brodmann mapping” using high-field MRI, which was introduced in the early 21st century.

The Neuropsychology of Cortical Dementias

Author: Mary Anderson, PhD

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826107273

Category: Psychology

Page: 468

View: 7714

"This book provides an overview of the cognitive and behavioral profiles of the cortical dementias in a readable and clinically relevant manner. Its emphasis on disease entities primarily affecting cortical structures allows for a more comprehensive description of the latest insights into the pathogenesis and assessment of a number of different disease processes... Weighted Numerical Score: 98 - 5 Stars!" Melissa Jones, MD (University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine) Doody's Medical Reviews The Neuropsychology of Cortical Dementias addresses in depth the neuropsychological impact and features of the full range of cortical dementias. It examines the differential neuropathological and pathophysiological bases of these dementias and emphasizes their behavioral and cognitive aspects in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. The book also presents the most advanced techniques and strategies for disease-specific treatment. Important legal/ethical issues and the role of caregivers in treating dementia patients are also covered. Featuring contributions from such diverse disciplines as neuropsychology, neurology, psychiatry, and clinical psychology, this volume provides a broad interdisciplinary perspective for practicing clinical neuropsychologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, gerontologists, and psychologists who work with patients with dementia. Key Features: Includes comprehensive, clinically focused coverage of all major cortical dementias Covers neuroanatomy, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and management of dementia patients, as well as legal and ethical issues Discusses assessment and diagnosis from the perspectives of neuroimaging and cognitive and behavioral symptoms Discusses a range of interventions (pharmacological, cognitive behavioral, etc.) and management issues related to dementia treatment Informed by contributions from such diverse disciplines as neuropsychology, neurology, psychiatry, and clinical psychology