Cortical Areas

Unity and Diversity

Author: Almut Schuez,Robert Miller

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203299296

Category: Medical

Page: 526

View: 4335

The study of areas in the cerebral cortex has a long history, bringing empirical data into close relation with fundamental conceptual issues about the cortex. The subject is currently being revitalized with the advent of new experimental methods and this book brings a modern perspective to the study of these areas. Cortical Areas: Unity and Diversi

Functional Connections of Cortical Areas

A New View from the Thalamus

Author: S. Murray Sherman,R. W. Guillery

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262315009

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 3041

In this book, two leading authorities on the thalamus and its relationship to cortex build on their earlier findings to arrive at new ways of thinking about how the brain relates to the world, to cognition, and behavior. Based on foundations established earlier in their book Exploring the Thalamus and Its Role in Cortical Function, the authors consider the implications of these ground rules for thalamic inputs, thalamocortical connections, and cortical outputs. The authors argue that functional and structural analyses of pathways connecting thalamus and cortex point beyond these to lower centers and through them to the body and the world. Each cortical area depends on the messages linking it to body and world. These messages relate to the way we act and think; each cortical area receives thalamic inputs and has outputs to motor centers. Sherman and Guillery go on to discuss such topics as the role of branching axons that carry motor instructions as well as copies of these motor instructions for relay to cortex under the control of the thalamic gate. This gate allows the thalamus to control the passage of information on the basis of which cortex relates to the rest of the nervous system.

Sensory-Motor Areas and Aspects of Cortical Connectivity

Volume 5: Sensory-Motor Areas and Aspects of Cortical Connectivity

Author: Edward G. Jones,Alan Peters

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461321492

Category: Medical

Page: 510

View: 1534

Volume 5 of Cerebral Cortex completes the sequence of three volumes on the individual functional areas of the cerebral cortex by covering the somatosensory and motor areas. However, the chapters on these areas lead naturally to a series of others on patterns of connectivity in the cortex, intracortical and subcortical, so that the volume as a whole achieves a much broader viewpoint. The individual chapters on the sensory-motor areas reflect the considerable diversity of interest within the field, for each of the authors has given his or her chapter a different emphasis, reflecting in part topical interest and in part the body of data resulting from work in a particular species. In considering the functional organization of the somatosensory cortex, Robert Dykes and Andre Ruest have chosen to concentrate on the nature of the mapping process and its significance. Harold Burton, in his chapter on the somatosensory fields buried in the sylvian fissure, shows how critical is an understanding of this mapping process in the functional subdivision of the cortex. A frequently overlooked subdivision of the cortex, the vestibular region, is given the emphasis it deserves in a chapter by John Fredrickson and Allan Rubin. The further functional subdivisions that occur within the first somatosensory area are given an anatom ical basis in the review by Edward Jones of connectivity in the primate sensory motor cortex.

Cortical Sensory Organization

Multiple Somatic Areas

Author: Clinton N. Woolsey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461258111

Category: Medical

Page: 245

View: 7119

In April 1979 a symposium on "Multiple Somatic Sensory Motor, Visual and Auditory Areas and Their Connectivities" was held at the FASEB meeting in Dallas, Texas. The papers presented at that symposium are the basis of most of the substantially augmented, updated chapters in the three volumes of Cortical Sensory Organi zation. Only the material in chapter 8 of volume 3 was not pre sented in one form or another at that meeting. The aim of the symposium was to review the present status of the field of cortical representation in the somatosensory, visual and auditory systems. Since the early 1940s, the number of recognized cortical areas related to each of these systems has been increasing until at present the number of visually related areas exceeds a dozen. Although the number is less for the somatic and auditory systems, these also are more numerous than they were earlier and are likely to increase still further since we may expect each system to have essentially the same number of areas related to it.

Estimation of Cortical Connectivity in Humans

Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

Author: Laura Astolfi,Fabio Babiloni

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1598295322

Category: Medical

Page: 93

View: 1846

In the last ten years many different brain imaging devices have conveyed a lot of information about the brain functioning in different experimental conditions. In every case, the biomedical engineers, together with mathematicians, physicists and physicians are called to elaborate the signals related to the brain activity in order to extract meaningful and robust information to correlate with the external behavior of the subjects. In such attempt, different signal processing tools used in telecommunications and other field of engineering or even social sciences have been adapted and re-used in the neuroscience field. The present book would like to offer a short presentation of several methods for the estimation of the cortical connectivity of the human brain. The methods here presented are relatively simply to implement, robust and can return valuable information about the causality of the activation of the different cortical areas in humans using non invasive electroencephalographic recordings. The knowledge of such signal processing tools will enrich the arsenal of the computational methods that a engineer or a mathematician could apply in the processing of brain signals.Table of Contents: Introduction / Estimation of the Effective Connectivity from Stationary Data by Structural Equation Modeling / Estimation of the Functional Connectivity from Stationary Data by Multivariate Autoregressive Methods / Estimation of Cortical Activity by the use of Realistic Head Modeling / Application: Estimation of Connectivity from Movement-Related Potentials / Application to High-Resolution EEG Recordings in a Cognitive Task (Stroop Test) / Application to Data Related to the Intention of Limb Movements in Normal Subjects and in a Spinal Cord Injured Patient / The Instantaneous Estimation of the Time-Varying Cortical Connectivity by Adaptive Multivariate Estimators / Time-Varying Connectivity from Event-Related Potentials

Multimodal Brain Image Analysis

Third International Workshop, MBIA 2013, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2013, Nagoya, Japan, September 22, 2013, Proceedings

Author: Li Shen,Tianming Liu,Pew-Thian Yap,Heng Huang,Dinggang Shen,Carl-Fredrik Westin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319021265

Category: Computers

Page: 260

View: 6602

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Multimodal Brain Image Analysis, MBIA 2013, held in Nagoya, Japan, on September 22, 2013 in conjunction with the 16th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, MICCAI. The 24 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 35 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on analysis, methodologies, algorithms, software systems, validation approaches, benchmark datasets, neuroscience and clinical applications.

Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Telencephalon, with Special Reference to the Mammalian Neocortex

Author: Francisco Aboitiz,J. Montiel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540497617

Category: Medical

Page: 121

View: 1772

How could a structure as complex as the vertebrate brain develop from the simplest multicellular animals? Natural selection offers an impeccable mechanism for the gradual transformation of species, but even Darwin sometimes expressed doubts about the origin of highly complex structures. Following an approach that has been termed "developmental evolutionary genetics," this book seeks to establish a correspondence between embryological processes and the phylogenetic history of an organism.

Handbook of Life-Span Development

Author: Lawerence K.W. Berg, PhD, Esq.,Karen L. Fingerman, PhD,Jacqui Smith, PhD,Cynthia Berg, PhD

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826110800

Category: Psychology

Page: 650

View: 9499

"The handbook is an impressive collection of research studies and theories provided by knowledgeable contributors on life-span development from conception to old age."--Anthropology and Aging Quarterly The doubling of our average life span since the turn of the 20th century is considered by many scholars to be one of the most important changes in human existence. This definitive text is the only volume to fully address, through a multidisciplinary perspective, the biological, cognitive, and psychological development that occurs from infancy through old age, and how the sociocultural and institutional factors interface with these changes. Edited by leading research scholars in the field of life-span development, the volume also includes contributions of specialists in behavioral genetics, socioemotional selectivity theory, neuroscience, ecological models, and more. It examines the dynamics of close relationships and informal ties among the elderly population, child-parent attachment relationships as a life-span phenomenon, developmental tasks across the lifespan, continuity and discontinuity in temperament and personality, the sociocultural context of cognition across the life span, and variability in approaches to social problem solving from early to later life. Given the number of recent demographic shifts, it also explores issues related to fertility, life expectancy, environmental contexts, technology, immigration, and public policy. Key Features: Integrates the full life span from infancy through old age in each chapter Considers multidisciplinary perspectives that address personal relationships, cognitive development, and social, emotional, and physical health across the life span Situates life-span development in ecological contexts (e.g., socioeconomic, neighborhood, and immigration status) Provides a concise but thorough resource for graduate seminars in life-span-related studies Highlights future issues in all areas of life-span study

Cortical Connectivity

Brain Stimulation for Assessing and Modulating Cortical Connectivity and Function

Author: Robert Chen,john rothwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642327664

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 5772

This book covers modulation of cortical connectivity and changing connections in motor learning and grasping activities in primates, non-invasive stimulation for studying the human brain, changes in connectivity in disease and potential new treatments.

The Neuropsychology of Cortical Dementias

Author: Mary Anderson, PhD

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826107273

Category: Psychology

Page: 468

View: 1723

"This book provides an overview of the cognitive and behavioral profiles of the cortical dementias in a readable and clinically relevant manner. Its emphasis on disease entities primarily affecting cortical structures allows for a more comprehensive description of the latest insights into the pathogenesis and assessment of a number of different disease processes... Weighted Numerical Score: 98 - 5 Stars!" Melissa Jones, MD (University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine) Doody's Medical Reviews The Neuropsychology of Cortical Dementias addresses in depth the neuropsychological impact and features of the full range of cortical dementias. It examines the differential neuropathological and pathophysiological bases of these dementias and emphasizes their behavioral and cognitive aspects in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. The book also presents the most advanced techniques and strategies for disease-specific treatment. Important legal/ethical issues and the role of caregivers in treating dementia patients are also covered. Featuring contributions from such diverse disciplines as neuropsychology, neurology, psychiatry, and clinical psychology, this volume provides a broad interdisciplinary perspective for practicing clinical neuropsychologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, gerontologists, and psychologists who work with patients with dementia. Key Features: Includes comprehensive, clinically focused coverage of all major cortical dementias Covers neuroanatomy, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and management of dementia patients, as well as legal and ethical issues Discusses assessment and diagnosis from the perspectives of neuroimaging and cognitive and behavioral symptoms Discusses a range of interventions (pharmacological, cognitive behavioral, etc.) and management issues related to dementia treatment Informed by contributions from such diverse disciplines as neuropsychology, neurology, psychiatry, and clinical psychology

Local Therapies for Glioma

Present Status and Future Developments

Author: M. Westphal,J.-C. Tonn,Z. Ram

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3709160901

Category: Medical

Page: 186

View: 8878

In addition to surgery and radiotherapy, local treatment modalities for the management of brain tumours are increasingly being developed and clinically tested. This book describes for the first time basic tumour biology as well as all current procedures in progress at the most recent level of knowledge, presented by leading experts in the respective fields. Image guided resection procedures, fluorescence guided surgery, developments in interstitial radiosurgery are addressed, just as intracavitary chemotherapy and all current concepts and studies of interstitial targeted therapy. Owing to its topicality this book will remain for long the standard for this comprehensively treated subject.

Forebrain Areas Involved in Pain Processing

Author: Jean-Marie Besson,G. Guilbaud,Hélène Ollat

Publisher: John Libbey Eurotext

ISBN: 9782742000937


Page: 276

View: 9410

Our knowledge of the brain and its structures -- such as the thalamus, hypothalamus and cortex -- has made great strides over the past 15 years. As in other fields, this progress has been due to studies based on a multidisciplinary approach combining modern and traditional investigative methods. The new knowledge has highlighted the part played by some fundamental structures in pain processing. This book reviews the data that has been acquired and the new perspectives it has opened up for studying how the brain processes pain, in both humans and animals. For neurologists, neurobiologists and neurosurgeons.

Computer Applications for Communication, Networking, and Digital Contents

International Conferences, FGCN and DCA 2012, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2012, Gangneug, Korea, December 16-19, 2012. Proceedings

Author: Tai-hoon Kim,Dae-sik Ko,Thanos Vasilakos,Adrian Stoica,Jemal Abawajy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642355943

Category: Computers

Page: 378

View: 7293

This volume constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Conferences, FGCN and DCA 2012, held as part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2012, Kangwondo, Korea, in December 2012. The papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and focus on the various aspects of future generation communication and networking, and digital contents and applications.

The Oxford Handbook of Attention

Author: Anna C. Nobre,Sabine Kastner

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191662607

Category: Psychology

Page: 656

View: 3240

During the last three decades there have been enormous advances in our understanding of the neural mechanisms of selective attention at the network as well as the cellular level. The Oxford Handbook of Attention brings together the different research areas that constitute contemporary attention research into one comprehensive and authoritative volume. In 40 chapters, it covers the most important aspects of attention research from the areas of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, human and animal neuroscience, and computational modelling. The book is divided into six main sections. Following an introduction from Michael Posner, The Oxford Handbook of Attention begins by looking at theoretical models of attention. The next two sections are dedicated to spatial attention and non-spatial attention respectively. Within section 4, the authors consider the interactions between attention and other psychological domains. The last two sections focus on attention related disorders and on computational models of attention. A final epilogue chapter written by Nobre and Kastner summarizes the questions, methods, findings, and emerging principles of contemporary attention research. For both scholars and students, The Oxford Handbook of Attention provides a concise and state-of-the-art review of the current literature in this field.

Motor Areas of the Cerebral Cortex

Author: Gregory R. Bock,Maeve O'Connor,Joan Marsh

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470513551

Category: Medical

Page: 332

View: 2971

Comprises the proceedings of a symposium held at the Ciba Foundation, London, February 1987. Addresses main issues and new techniques in the study of motor areas of the cerebral cortex in humans and animals. Reviews the historical development of the study of cortical structure and function, examines anatomical connections of motor areas, and surveys physiological studies of cortical areas in conscious primates. Also considers the effects of cortical lesions, and discusses clinical and experimental results on disorders of motor control.

Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Engineering Applications: A Bioinspired Approach

First International Work-Conference on the Interplay Between Natural and Artificial Computation, IWINAC 2005, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain, June 15-18, 2005, Proceedings

Author: José Mira,José R. Álvarez

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540263197

Category: Computers

Page: 636

View: 776

The two-volume set LNCS 3561 and LNCS 3562 constitute the refereed proceedings of the First International Work-Conference on the Interplay between Natural and Artificial Computation, IWINAC 2005, held in Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain in June 2005. The 118 revised papers presented are thematically divided into two volumes; the first includes all the contributions mainly related with the methodological, conceptual, formal, and experimental developments in the fields of Neurophysiology and cognitive science. The second volume collects the papers related with bioinspired programming strategies and all the contributions related with the computational solutions to engineering problems in different application domains.

Cortical GABAergic neurons: stretching it

Author: Javier DeFelipe,Kathleen S. Rockland

Publisher: Frontiers E-books

ISBN: 2889190374


Page: N.A

View: 924

In the cerebellum and basal ganglia, projection neurons are GABAergic; but in the cerebral cortex, there has been a historically strong dichotomy between glutamatergic projection neurons and GABAergic local circuit neurons. While this dichotomy is overwhelmingly the case, it is now clear that a small population of long-distance projecting GABAergic neurons (positive for somatostatin and nNOS, and negative for parvalbumin) occurs in primates, as well as in cats and rodents. Beyond their well-documented existence, however, the functional significance, ontogeny, and connectivity of this intriguing subpopulation remain obscure.