Combinatorics: Ancient & Modern

Author: John J. Watkins,Ronald Graham

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199656592

Category: Mathematics

Page: 381

View: 7401

Combinatorics is the branch of discrete mathematics that studies (and counts) permutations, combinations, and arrangements of sets of elements. This book constitutes the first book-length survey of the history of combinatorics and uniquely assembles research in the area that would otherwise be inaccessible to the general reader.


A Very Short Introduction

Author: Robin Wilson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198723490

Category: Mathematics

Page: 144

View: 8768

How many possible sudoku puzzles are there? In the lottery, what is the chance that two winning balls have consecutive numbers? Who invented Pascal's triangle? (it was not Pascal) Combinatorics, the branch of mathematics concerned with selecting, arranging, and listing or counting collections of objects, works to answer all these questions. Dating back some 3000 years, and initially consisting mainly of the study of permutations and combinations, its scope has broadened to include topics such as graph theory, partitions of numbers, block designs, design of codes, and latin squares. In this Very Short Introduction Robin Wilson gives an overview of the field and its applications in mathematics and computer theory, considering problems from the shortest routes covering certain stops to the minimum number of colours needed to colour a map with different colours for neighbouring countries. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Number Theory

A Historical Approach

Author: John J. Watkins

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400848741

Category: Mathematics

Page: 592

View: 3011

The natural numbers have been studied for thousands of years, yet most undergraduate textbooks present number theory as a long list of theorems with little mention of how these results were discovered or why they are important. This book emphasizes the historical development of number theory, describing methods, theorems, and proofs in the contexts in which they originated, and providing an accessible introduction to one of the most fascinating subjects in mathematics. Written in an informal style by an award-winning teacher, Number Theory covers prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, and a host of other essential topics in number theory, while also telling the stories of the great mathematicians behind these developments, including Euclid, Carl Friedrich Gauss, and Sophie Germain. This one-of-a-kind introductory textbook features an extensive set of problems that enable students to actively reinforce and extend their understanding of the material, as well as fully worked solutions for many of these problems. It also includes helpful hints for when students are unsure of how to get started on a given problem. Uses a unique historical approach to teaching number theory Features numerous problems, helpful hints, and fully worked solutions Discusses fun topics like Pythagorean tuning in music, Sudoku puzzles, and arithmetic progressions of primes Includes an introduction to Sage, an easy-to-learn yet powerful open-source mathematics software package Ideal for undergraduate mathematics majors as well as non-math majors Digital solutions manual (available only to professors)

Euler's Pioneering Equation

The most beautiful theorem in mathematics

Author: Robin Wilson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192514067

Category: Mathematics

Page: 200

View: 5328

In 1988 The Mathematical Intelligencer, a quarterly mathematics journal, carried out a poll to find the most beautiful theorem in mathematics. Twenty-four theorems were listed and readers were invited to award each a 'score for beauty'. While there were many worthy competitors, the winner was 'Euler's equation'. In 2004 Physics World carried out a similar poll of 'greatest equations', and found that among physicists Euler's mathematical result came second only to Maxwell's equations. The Stanford mathematician Keith Devlin reflected the feelings of many in describing it as "like a Shakespearian sonnet that captures the very essence of love, or a painting which brings out the beauty of the human form that is far more than just skin deep, Euler's equation reaches down into the very depths of existence". What is it that makes Euler's identity, e]iPi + 1 = 0, so special? In Euler's Pioneering Equation Robin Wilson shows how this simple, elegant, and profound formula links together perhaps the five most important numbers in mathematics, each associated with a story in themselves: the number 1, the basis of our counting system; the concept of zero, which was a major development in mathematics, and opened up the idea of negative numbers; π an irrational number, the basis for the measurement of circles; the exponential e, associated with exponential growth and logarithms; and the imaginary number i, the square root of -1, the basis of complex numbers. Following a chapter on each of the elements, Robin Wilson discusses how the startling relationship between them was established, including the several near misses to the discovery of the formula.


The History and Mystery of the World's Greatest Ciphers from Ancient Egypt to Online Secret Societies

Author: Craig P. Bauer

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400884799

Category: Computers

Page: 624

View: 8475

Watch Craig Bauer discuss the Zodiac Killer’s cipher on HISTORY’s new miniseries The Hunt for the Zodiac Killer In 1953, a man was found dead from cyanide poisoning near the Philadelphia airport with a picture of a Nazi aircraft in his wallet. Taped to his abdomen was an enciphered message. In 1912, a book dealer named Wilfrid Voynich came into possession of an illuminated cipher manuscript once belonging to Emperor Rudolf II, who was obsessed with alchemy and the occult. Wartime codebreakers tried—and failed—to unlock the book's secrets, and it remains an enigma to this day. In this lively and entertaining book, Craig Bauer examines these and other vexing ciphers yet to be cracked. Some may reveal the identity of a spy or serial killer, provide the location of buried treasure, or expose a secret society—while others may be elaborate hoaxes. Unsolved! begins by explaining the basics of cryptology, and then explores the history behind an array of unsolved ciphers. It looks at ancient ciphers, ciphers created by artists and composers, ciphers left by killers and victims, Cold War ciphers, and many others. Some are infamous, like the ciphers in the Zodiac letters, while others were created purely as intellectual challenges by figures such as Nobel Prize–winning physicist Richard P. Feynman. Bauer lays out the evidence surrounding each cipher, describes the efforts of geniuses and eccentrics—in some cases both—to decipher it, and invites readers to try their hand at puzzles that have stymied so many others. Unsolved! takes readers from the ancient world to the digital age, providing an amazing tour of many of history's greatest unsolved ciphers.


A Platform for Combinatorial and Geometric Computing

Author: Kurt Mehlhorn,Stefan Näher

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521563291

Category: Computers

Page: 1018

View: 8284

LEDA is a library of efficient data types and algorithms and a platform for combinatorial and geometric computing on which application programs can be built. In each of the core computer science areas of data structures, graph and network algorithms, and computational geometry, LEDA covers all (and more) that is found in the standard textbooks. LEDA is the first such library; it is written in C++ and is available on many types of machine. Whilst the software is freely available worldwide and is installed at hundreds of sites, this is the first book devoted to the library. Written by the main authors of LEDA, it is the definitive account, describing how the system is constructed and operates and how it can be used. The authors supply ample examples from a range of areas to show how the library can be used in practice, making the book essential for all workers in algorithms, data structures and computational geometry.

Mathematical Thought From Ancient to Modern Times

Author: Morris Kline

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199770468

Category: Mathematics

Page: 432

View: 3675

The major creations and developments in mathematics from the beginnings in Babylonia and Egypt through the first few decades of the twentieth century are presented with clarity and precision in this comprehensive historical study.

A Discourse Concerning Algebra

English Algebra to 1685

Author: Jacqueline A. Stedall

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198524951

Category: Mathematics

Page: 294

View: 7497

For historians of mathematics and those interested in the history of science, 'A Discourse Concerning Algebra' provides an new and readable account of the rise of algebra in England from the Medieval period to the later years of the 17th century. Including new research, this is the most detailed study to date of early modern English algebra, which builds on work published in 1685 by John Wallis (Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford) on the history of algebra. Stedall's bookfollows the reception and dissemination of important algebraic ideas and methods from continental Europe (especially those of Viete) and the consequent revolution in the state of English mathematics in the 17th century. The text emphasises the contribution of Wallis, but substantial reference is also provided to other important mathematicans such as Harriot, Oughtred, Pell and Brouncker.

Taking Sudoku Seriously

The Math Behind the World's Most Popular Pencil Puzzle

Author: Jason Rosenhouse,Laura Taalman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199913153

Category: Mathematics

Page: 226

View: 6351

Packed with more than a hundred color illustrations and a wide variety of puzzles and brainteasers, Taking Sudoku Seriously uses this popular craze as the starting point for a fun-filled introduction to higher mathematics. How many Sudoku solution squares are there? What shapes other than three-by-three blocks can serve as acceptable Sudoku regions? What is the fewest number of starting clues a sound Sudoku puzzle can have? Does solving Sudoku require mathematics? Jason Rosenhouse and Laura Taalman show that answering these questions opens the door to a wealth of interesting mathematics. Indeed, they show that Sudoku puzzles and their variants are a gateway into mathematical thinking generally. Among many topics, the authors look at the notion of a Latin square--an object of long-standing interest to mathematicians--of which Sudoku squares are a special case; discuss how one finds interesting Sudoku puzzles; explore the connections between Sudoku, graph theory, and polynomials; and consider Sudoku extremes, including puzzles with the maximal number of vacant regions, with the minimal number of starting clues, and numerous others. The book concludes with a gallery of novel Sudoku variations--just pure solving fun! Most of the puzzles are original to this volume, and all solutions to the puzzles appear in the back of the book or in the text itself. A math book and a puzzle book, Taking Sudoku Seriously will change the way readers look at Sudoku and mathematics, serving both as an introduction to mathematics for puzzle fans and as an exploration of the intricacies of Sudoku for mathematics buffs.

Analytic Number Theory, Modular Forms and q-Hypergeometric Series

In Honor of Krishna Alladi's 60th Birthday, University of Florida, Gainesville, March 2016

Author: George E. Andrews,Frank Garvan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319683764

Category: Mathematics

Page: 736

View: 3213

Gathered from the 2016 Gainesville Number Theory Conference honoring Krishna Alladi on his 60th birthday, these proceedings present recent research in number theory. Extensive and detailed, this volume features 40 articles by leading researchers on topics in analytic number theory, probabilistic number theory, irrationality and transcendence, Diophantine analysis, partitions, basic hypergeometric series, and modular forms. Readers will also find detailed discussions of several aspects of the path-breaking work of Srinivasa Ramanujan and its influence on current research. Many of the papers were motivated by Alladi's own research on partitions and q-series as well as his earlier work in number theory. Alladi is well known for his contributions in number theory and mathematics. His research interests include combinatorics, discrete mathematics, sieve methods, probabilistic and analytic number theory, Diophantine approximations, partitions and q-series identities. Graduate students and researchers will find this volume a valuable resource on new developments in various aspects of number theory.

A Primer for Mathematics Competitions

Author: Alexander Zawaira,Gavin Hitchcock

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191561703

Category: Mathematics

Page: 368

View: 1482

The importance of mathematics competitions has been widely recognised for three reasons: they help to develop imaginative capacity and thinking skills whose value far transcends mathematics; they constitute the most effective way of discovering and nurturing mathematical talent; and they provide a means to combat the prevalent false image of mathematics held by high school students, as either a fearsomely difficult or a dull and uncreative subject. This book provides a comprehensive training resource for competitions from local and provincial to national Olympiad level, containing hundreds of diagrams, and graced by many light-hearted cartoons. It features a large collection of what mathematicians call "beautiful" problems - non-routine, provocative, fascinating, and challenging problems, often with elegant solutions. It features careful, systematic exposition of a selection of the most important topics encountered in mathematics competitions, assuming little prior knowledge. Geometry, trigonometry, mathematical induction, inequalities, Diophantine equations, number theory, sequences and series, the binomial theorem, and combinatorics - are all developed in a gentle but lively manner, liberally illustrated with examples, and consistently motivated by attractive "appetiser" problems, whose solution appears after the relevant theory has been expounded. Each chapter is presented as a "toolchest" of instruments designed for cracking the problems collected at the end of the chapter. Other topics, such as algebra, co-ordinate geometry, functional equations and probability, are introduced and elucidated in the posing and solving of the large collection of miscellaneous problems in the final toolchest. An unusual feature of this book is the attention paid throughout to the history of mathematics - the origins of the ideas, the terminology and some of the problems, and the celebration of mathematics as a multicultural, cooperative human achievement. As a bonus the aspiring "mathlete" may encounter, in the most enjoyable way possible, many of the topics that form the core of the standard school curriculum.

Quantum Physics in One Dimension

Author: Thierry Giamarchi

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198525001

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 424

View: 9813

This volume presents in a pedagogical yet complete way correlated systems in one dimension. After an introduction to the basic concepts of correlated systems, it gives a step-by-step description of the techniques needed to treat one dimension, and discusses the resulting physics.

Proofs that Really Count

The Art of Combinatorial Proof

Author: Arthur T. Benjamin,Jennifer J. Quinn

Publisher: MAA

ISBN: 9780883853337

Category: Mathematics

Page: 194

View: 6559

Demonstration of the use of simple counting arguments to describe number patterns; numerous hints and references.

The Diophantine Frobenius Problem

Author: Jorge L. Ramírez Alfonsín

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198568207

Category: Mathematics

Page: 243

View: 9757

During the early part of the last century, Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917) raised he following problem, known as the Frobenius Problem (FP): given relatively prime positive integers a1,...,an, find the largest natural number (called the Frobenius number and denoted by g(a1,...,an) that is not representable as a nonnegative integer combination of a1,...,an, . At first glance FP may look deceptively specialized. Nevertheless it crops up again and again in the most unexpected places and has been extremely useful in investigating many different problems. A number of methods, from several areas of mathematics, have been used in the hope of finding a formula giving the Frobenius number and algorithms to calculate it. The main intention of this book is to highlight such methods, ideas, viewpoints and applications to a broader audience.

The Archimedes Palimpsest

Author: Reviel Netz,William Noel,Nigel Wilson,Natalie Tchernetska

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107014374

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 5881

The Archimedes Palimpsest is the name given to a Byzantine prayer-book which was written over a number of earlier manuscripts. This volume provides colour images and transcriptions of three of the texts recovered from it. Pride of place goes to the treatises of Archimedes, including the only Greek version of Floating Bodies, and the unique copies of Method and Stomachion. This transcription provides many different readings from those made by Heiberg from what he termed Codex C in his edition of the works of Archimedes of 1910-1915. Secondly, fragments of two previously unattested speeches by the Athenian orator Hyperides, which are the only Hyperides texts ever to have been found in a codex. Thirdly, a fragment from an otherwise unknown commentary on Aristotle's Categories. In each case advanced image-processing techniques have been used to create the images, in order to make the text underneath legible.

Philosophy and Model Theory

Author: Tim Button,Sean Walsh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198790392

Category: Mathematics

Page: 544

View: 2276

Model theory is used in every theoretical branch of analytic philosophy: in philosophy of mathematics, in philosophy of science, in philosophy of language, in philosophical logic, and in metaphysics. But these wide-ranging uses of model theory have created a highly fragmented literature. On the one hand, many philosophically significant results are found only in mathematics textbooks: these are aimed squarely at mathematicians; they typically presuppose that the reader has a serious background in mathematics; and little clue is given as to their philosophical significance. On the other hand, the philosophical applications of these results are scattered across disconnected pockets of papers. The first aim of this book, then, is to explore the philosophical uses of model theory, focusing on the central topics of reference, realism, and doxology. Its second aim is to address important questions in the philosophy of model theory, such as: sameness of theories and structure, the boundaries of logic, and the classification of mathematical structures. Philosophy and Model Theory will be accessible to anyone who has completed an introductory logic course. It does not assume that readers have encountered model theory before, but starts right at the beginning, discussing philosophical issues that arise even with conceptually basic model theory. Moreover, the book is largely self-contained: model-theoretic notions are defined as and when they are needed for the philosophical discussion, and many of the most philosophically significant results are given accessible proofs.

The Mathematics of Paul Erdős II

Author: Ronald L. Graham,Jaroslav Nešetřil,Steve Butler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461472547

Category: Mathematics

Page: 607

View: 2155

This is the most comprehensive survey of the mathematical life of the legendary Paul Erdős (1913-1996), one of the most versatile and prolific mathematicians of our time. For the first time, all the main areas of Erdős' research are covered in a single project. Because of overwhelming response from the mathematical community, the project now occupies over 1000 pages, arranged into two volumes. These volumes contain both high level research articles as well as key articles that survey some of the cornerstones of Erdős' work, each written by a leading world specialist in the field. A special chapter "Early Days", rare photographs, and art related to Erdős complement this striking collection. A unique contribution is the bibliography on Erdős' publications: the most comprehensive ever published. This new edition, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Paul Erdős' birth, contains updates on many of the articles from the two volumes of the first edition, several new articles from prominent mathematicians, a new introduction, and more biographical information about Paul Erdős with an updated list of publications. The second volume contains chapters on graph theory and combinatorics, extremal and Ramsey theory, and a section on infinity that covers Erdős' research on set theory. All of these chapters are essentially updated, particularly the extremal theory chapter that contains a survey of flag algebras, a new technique for solving extremal problems.

Distance-Regular Graphs

Author: Andries E. Brouwer,Arjeh M. Cohen,Arnold Neumaier

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642743412

Category: Mathematics

Page: 495

View: 7346

Ever since the discovery of the five platonic solids in ancient times, the study of symmetry and regularity has been one of the most fascinating aspects of mathematics. Quite often the arithmetical regularity properties of an object imply its uniqueness and the existence of many symmetries. This interplay between regularity and symmetry properties of graphs is the theme of this book. Starting from very elementary regularity properties, the concept of a distance-regular graph arises naturally as a common setting for regular graphs which are extremal in one sense or another. Several other important regular combinatorial structures are then shown to be equivalent to special families of distance-regular graphs. Other subjects of more general interest, such as regularity and extremal properties in graphs, association schemes, representations of graphs in euclidean space, groups and geometries of Lie type, groups acting on graphs, and codes are covered independently. Many new results and proofs and more than 750 references increase the encyclopaedic value of this book.

Discrete Mathematics with Applications

Author: Thomas Koshy

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080477343

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1042

View: 684

This approachable text studies discrete objects and the relationsips that bind them. It helps students understand and apply the power of discrete math to digital computer systems and other modern applications. It provides excellent preparation for courses in linear algebra, number theory, and modern/abstract algebra and for computer science courses in data structures, algorithms, programming languages, compilers, databases, and computation. * Covers all recommended topics in a self-contained, comprehensive, and understandable format for students and new professionals * Emphasizes problem-solving techniques, pattern recognition, conjecturing, induction, applications of varying nature, proof techniques, algorithm development and correctness, and numeric computations * Weaves numerous applications into the text * Helps students learn by doing with a wealth of examples and exercises: - 560 examples worked out in detail - More than 3,700 exercises - More than 150 computer assignments - More than 600 writing projects * Includes chapter summaries of important vocabulary, formulas, and properties, plus the chapter review exercises * Features interesting anecdotes and biographies of 60 mathematicians and computer scientists * Instructor's Manual available for adopters * Student Solutions Manual available separately for purchase (ISBN: 0124211828)

Graphs, Colourings and the Four-Colour Theorem

Author: Robert A. Wilson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019158360X


Page: 150

View: 8793

The four-colour theorem is one of the famous problems of mathematics, that frustrated generations of mathematicians from its birth in 1852 to its solution (using substantial assistance from electronic computers) in 1976. The theorem asks whether four colours are sufficient to colour all conceivable maps, in such a way that countries with a common border are coloured with different colours. The book discusses various attempts to solve this problem, and some of the mathematics which developed out of these attempts. Much of this mathematics has developed a life of its own, and forms a fascinating part of the subject now known as graph theory. The book is designed to be self-contained, and develops all the graph-theoretical tools needed as it goes along. It includes all the elementary graph theory that should be included in an introduction to the subject, before concentrating on specific topics relevant to the four-colour problem. Part I covers basic graph theory, Euler's polyhedral formula, and the first published false `proof' of the four-colour theorem. Part II ranges widely through related topics, including map-colouring on surfaces with holes, the famous theorems of Kuratowski, Vizing, and Brooks, the conjectures of Hadwiger and Hajos, and much more besides. In Part III we return to the four-colour theorem, and study in detail the methods which finally cracked the problem.