Combinatorics: Ancient & Modern

Author: John J. Watkins,Ronald Graham

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199656592

Category: Mathematics

Page: 381

View: 7910

Combinatorics is the branch of discrete mathematics that studies (and counts) permutations, combinations, and arrangements of sets of elements. This book constitutes the first book-length survey of the history of combinatorics and uniquely assembles research in the area that would otherwise be inaccessible to the general reader.
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Combinatorics

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Robin Wilson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198723490

Category: Mathematics

Page: 144

View: 1441

How many possible sudoku puzzles are there? In the lottery, what is the chance that two winning balls have consecutive numbers? Who invented Pascal's triangle? (it was not Pascal) Combinatorics, the branch of mathematics concerned with selecting, arranging, and listing or counting collections of objects, works to answer all these questions. Dating back some 3000 years, and initially consisting mainly of the study of permutations and combinations, its scope has broadened to include topics such as graph theory, partitions of numbers, block designs, design of codes, and latin squares. In this Very Short Introduction Robin Wilson gives an overview of the field and its applications in mathematics and computer theory, considering problems from the shortest routes covering certain stops to the minimum number of colours needed to colour a map with different colours for neighbouring countries. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
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Unsolved!

The History and Mystery of the World's Greatest Ciphers from Ancient Egypt to Online Secret Societies

Author: Craig P. Bauer

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400884799

Category: Computers

Page: 624

View: 9080

Watch Craig Bauer discuss the Zodiac Killer’s cipher on HISTORY’s new miniseries The Hunt for the Zodiac Killer In 1953, a man was found dead from cyanide poisoning near the Philadelphia airport with a picture of a Nazi aircraft in his wallet. Taped to his abdomen was an enciphered message. In 1912, a book dealer named Wilfrid Voynich came into possession of an illuminated cipher manuscript once belonging to Emperor Rudolf II, who was obsessed with alchemy and the occult. Wartime codebreakers tried—and failed—to unlock the book's secrets, and it remains an enigma to this day. In this lively and entertaining book, Craig Bauer examines these and other vexing ciphers yet to be cracked. Some may reveal the identity of a spy or serial killer, provide the location of buried treasure, or expose a secret society—while others may be elaborate hoaxes. Unsolved! begins by explaining the basics of cryptology, and then explores the history behind an array of unsolved ciphers. It looks at ancient ciphers, ciphers created by artists and composers, ciphers left by killers and victims, Cold War ciphers, and many others. Some are infamous, like the ciphers in the Zodiac letters, while others were created purely as intellectual challenges by figures such as Nobel Prize–winning physicist Richard P. Feynman. Bauer lays out the evidence surrounding each cipher, describes the efforts of geniuses and eccentrics—in some cases both—to decipher it, and invites readers to try their hand at puzzles that have stymied so many others. Unsolved! takes readers from the ancient world to the digital age, providing an amazing tour of many of history's greatest unsolved ciphers.
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Analytic Number Theory, Modular Forms and q-Hypergeometric Series

In Honor of Krishna Alladi's 60th Birthday, University of Florida, Gainesville, March 2016

Author: George E. Andrews,Frank Garvan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319683764

Category: Mathematics

Page: 736

View: 2356

Gathered from the 2016 Gainesville Number Theory Conference honoring Krishna Alladi on his 60th birthday, these proceedings present recent research in number theory. Extensive and detailed, this volume features 40 articles by leading researchers on topics in analytic number theory, probabilistic number theory, irrationality and transcendence, Diophantine analysis, partitions, basic hypergeometric series, and modular forms. Readers will also find detailed discussions of several aspects of the path-breaking work of Srinivasa Ramanujan and its influence on current research. Many of the papers were motivated by Alladi's own research on partitions and q-series as well as his earlier work in number theory. Alladi is well known for his contributions in number theory and mathematics. His research interests include combinatorics, discrete mathematics, sieve methods, probabilistic and analytic number theory, Diophantine approximations, partitions and q-series identities. Graduate students and researchers will find this volume a valuable resource on new developments in various aspects of number theory.
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Topics in Chromatic Graph Theory

Author: Lowell W. Beineke,Robin J. Wilson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316239853

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 9495

Chromatic graph theory is a thriving area that uses various ideas of 'colouring' (of vertices, edges, and so on) to explore aspects of graph theory. It has links with other areas of mathematics, including topology, algebra and geometry, and is increasingly used in such areas as computer networks, where colouring algorithms form an important feature. While other books cover portions of the material, no other title has such a wide scope as this one, in which acknowledged international experts in the field provide a broad survey of the subject. All fifteen chapters have been carefully edited, with uniform notation and terminology applied throughout. Bjarne Toft (Odense, Denmark), widely recognized for his substantial contributions to the area, acted as academic consultant. The book serves as a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students in graph theory and combinatorics and as a useful introduction to the topic for mathematicians in related fields.
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Euler's Pioneering Equation

The most beautiful theorem in mathematics

Author: Robin Wilson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192514067

Category: Mathematics

Page: 200

View: 1011

In 1988 The Mathematical Intelligencer, a quarterly mathematics journal, carried out a poll to find the most beautiful theorem in mathematics. Twenty-four theorems were listed and readers were invited to award each a 'score for beauty'. While there were many worthy competitors, the winner was 'Euler's equation'. In 2004 Physics World carried out a similar poll of 'greatest equations', and found that among physicists Euler's mathematical result came second only to Maxwell's equations. The Stanford mathematician Keith Devlin reflected the feelings of many in describing it as "like a Shakespearian sonnet that captures the very essence of love, or a painting which brings out the beauty of the human form that is far more than just skin deep, Euler's equation reaches down into the very depths of existence". What is it that makes Euler's identity, e]iPi + 1 = 0, so special? In Euler's Pioneering Equation Robin Wilson shows how this simple, elegant, and profound formula links together perhaps the five most important numbers in mathematics, each associated with a story in themselves: the number 1, the basis of our counting system; the concept of zero, which was a major development in mathematics, and opened up the idea of negative numbers; π an irrational number, the basis for the measurement of circles; the exponential e, associated with exponential growth and logarithms; and the imaginary number i, the square root of -1, the basis of complex numbers. Following a chapter on each of the elements, Robin Wilson discusses how the startling relationship between them was established, including the several near misses to the discovery of the formula.
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Number Theory

A Historical Approach

Author: John J. Watkins

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400848741

Category: Mathematics

Page: 592

View: 4666

The natural numbers have been studied for thousands of years, yet most undergraduate textbooks present number theory as a long list of theorems with little mention of how these results were discovered or why they are important. This book emphasizes the historical development of number theory, describing methods, theorems, and proofs in the contexts in which they originated, and providing an accessible introduction to one of the most fascinating subjects in mathematics. Written in an informal style by an award-winning teacher, Number Theory covers prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, and a host of other essential topics in number theory, while also telling the stories of the great mathematicians behind these developments, including Euclid, Carl Friedrich Gauss, and Sophie Germain. This one-of-a-kind introductory textbook features an extensive set of problems that enable students to actively reinforce and extend their understanding of the material, as well as fully worked solutions for many of these problems. It also includes helpful hints for when students are unsure of how to get started on a given problem. Uses a unique historical approach to teaching number theory Features numerous problems, helpful hints, and fully worked solutions Discusses fun topics like Pythagorean tuning in music, Sudoku puzzles, and arithmetic progressions of primes Includes an introduction to Sage, an easy-to-learn yet powerful open-source mathematics software package Ideal for undergraduate mathematics majors as well as non-math majors Digital solutions manual (available only to professors)
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The Turing Guide

Author: Jack Copeland,Jonathan Bowen,Mark Sprevak,Robin Wilson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191065005

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 4646

Alan Turing has long proved a subject of fascination, but following the centenary of his birth in 2012, the code-breaker, computer pioneer, mathematician (and much more) has become even more celebrated with much media coverage, and several meetings, conferences and books raising public awareness of Turing's life and work. This volume will bring together contributions from some of the leading experts on Alan Turing to create a comprehensive guide to Turing that will serve as a useful resource for researchers in the area as well as the increasingly interested general reader. The book will cover aspects of Turing's life and the wide range of his intellectual activities, including mathematics, code-breaking, computer science, logic, artificial intelligence and mathematical biology, as well as his subsequent influence.
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The Art of the Conductor

The Definitive Guide to Music Conducting Skills, Terms, and Techniques

Author: John J. Watkins

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780595433964

Category: Music

Page: 77

View: 556

"John Watkins has used his years of experience on both sides of the baton to create a charming introduction to the art of conducting. There are not many reference books that deal with the 'how to' of directing a group of musicians. This practical guide to conducting wisely stays away from musical theory and concentrates on how to communicate with musicians from base amateur to seasoned professional This is a must for a newly aspiring conductor, and an experienced conductor could very well use this as a refresher." -John Tozer, music director, Scarborough, Ontario An invaluable reference guide for musicians of all types, The Art of the Conductor contains clear and detailed descriptions of universally accepted techniques used by the world's best and most successful music conductors. Classically trained musician and conductor John J. Watkins discusses the evolution of conducting technique and how it relates to various forms of music, and he outlines the wide array of skills conductors need today. He also explains the finer points of technique and control, including beat patterns and signals, tempo changes, and using the left hand, to make the conducting experience as rewarding as possible. The Art of the Conductor will help conductors, choristers, and instrumentalists build their skills and confidence for more relaxed, enjoyable, and polished performances that audiences will love.
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Diskrete algebraische Methoden

Arithmetik, Kryptographie, Automaten und Gruppen

Author: Volker Diekert,Manfred Kufleitner,Gerhard Rosenberger

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110312611

Category: Mathematics

Page: 329

View: 4469

The aim of this textbook is to impart the necessary mathematical competency for understanding modern developments in the age of the internet. It includes an introduction to elementary arithmetic with elliptical curves, which helps explain standard applications in cryptography. All important propositions are accompanied by complete proofs, and thus, the book presumes little prior knowledge.
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1089 oder das Wunder der Zahlen

eine Reise in die Welt der Mathematik

Author: David J. Acheson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783866470200

Category:

Page: 189

View: 5654

Das Buch beginnt mit einem alten Zaubertrick - Man nehme eine 3-stellige Zahl, etwa 782, kehre sie um, ziehe die kleinere von der größeren ab und addiere dazu die Umkehrung. Also - 782 - 287 = 495, dann 495 + 594. Und schon ist man mitten in der Wunderwelt der Mathematik, denn das Ergebnis ist immer - 1089. Mit solchen und vielen weiteren Beispielen aus Alltag, Geschichte und Wissenschaft gelingt es David Acheson, die faszinierende Welt der Mathematik zu erschließen - ein geistreicher Überblick, eine für jeden verständliche Einführung.
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Lehrbuch der Combinatorik (Classic Reprint)

Author: Eugen Netto

Publisher: Forgotten Books

ISBN: 9780266720317

Category: Mathematics

Page: 276

View: 8766

Excerpt from Lehrbuch der Combinatorik Das vorliegende Lehrbuch der Combinatorik schliesst sich in der Auswahl des Stoffes sowie in seiner Anordnung eng an den Artikel "combinatorik in der Encyklopädie der Mathematischen Wissen schaften an. In der Ausführung treten naturgemäss die Unterschiede heraus welche durch die verschiedenartigen Zwecke der Darstellung in dem einen oder in dem anderen Falle bedingt werden. In der Encyk10pädie handelte es sich um eine kurze Uebersicht; dort mussten die Beweise unterdrückt werden; dort konnte man weniger wichtige Untersuchungen üb ergehen und manche bedeutungsvollere durch Hin weise auf andere Stellen der Encyklopädie erledigen. Hier in einem Lehrbuche wird ein systematisch vollständiger mit Beweisen aus gestatteter Gang eingehalten werden müssen; hier sind Hindentungen auf weitere noch nicht abgeschlossene Forschungsgebiete am Platze, und eine Berücksichtigung der benachbarten Wissenschaftszweige ist unerlässlich. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.
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Elementare Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie und stochastische Prozesse

Author: Kai L. Chung

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642670334

Category: Mathematics

Page: 346

View: 8865

Aus den Besprechungen: "Unter den zahlreichen Einführungen in die Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung bildet dieses Buch eine erfreuliche Ausnahme. Der Stil einer lebendigen Vorlesung ist über Niederschrift und Übersetzung hinweg erhalten geblieben. In jedes Kapitel wird sehr anschaulich eingeführt. Sinn und Nützlichkeit der mathematischen Formulierungen werden den Lesern nahegebracht. Die wichtigsten Zusammenhänge sind als mathematische Sätze klar formuliert." #FREQUENZ#1
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Principia Mathematica.

Author: Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: 167

View: 4072

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Erfahrung Mathematik

Author: P.J. Davis,R. Hersh

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3034850409

Category: Science

Page: 466

View: 2107

ie ältesten uns bekannten mathematischen Schriftta D feln stammen aus der Zeit um 2400 v. ehr. ; aber wir dürfen davon ausgehen, daß das Bedürfnis, Mathematik zu schaffen, ein Ausdruck der menschlichen Zivilisation an sich ist. In vier bis fünf Jahrtausenden hat sich ein gewalti ges System von Praktiken und Begriffen - die Mathematik herangebildet, die in vielfältiger Weise mit unserem Alltag verknüpft ist. Was ist Mathematik? Was bedeutet sie? Wo mit befaßt sie sich? Was sind ihre Methoden? Wie wird sie geschaffen und benützt? Wo ist ihr Platz in der Vielgestalt der menschlichen Erfahrung? Welchen Nutzen bringt sie? Was für Schaden richtet sie an? Welches Gewicht kommt ihr zu? Diese schwierigen Fragen werden noch zusätzlich kompliziert durch die Fülle des Materials und die weitver zweigten Querverbindungen, die es dem einzelnen verun möglichen, alles zu begreifen, geschweige denn, es in seiner Gesamtheit zu erfassen und zwischen den Deckeln eines normalen Buches unterzubringen. Um von dieser Material fülle nicht erdrückt zu werden, haben sich die Autoren für eine andere Betrachtungsweise entschieden. Die Mathema tik ist seit Tausenden von Jahren ein Feld menschlicher Ak tivität. In begrenztem Rahmen ist jeder von uns ein Mathe matiker und betreibt bewußt Mathematik, wenn er zum Beispiel auf dem Markt einkauft, Tapeten ausmißt oder ei nen Keramiktopf mit einem regelmäßigen Muster verziert. In bescheidenem Ausmaß versucht sich auch jeder von uns als mathematischer Denker. Schon mit dem Ausruf «Aber Zahlen lügen nicht!» befinden wir uns in der Gesellschaft von Plato oder Lakatos.
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Naive Mengenlehre

Author: Paul R. Halmos

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 9783525405277

Category: Arithmetic

Page: 132

View: 1271

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Codes

The Guide to Secrecy From Ancient to Modern Times

Author: Richard A. Mollin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420035087

Category: Computers

Page: 704

View: 817

From the Rosetta Stone to public-key cryptography, the art and science of cryptology has been used to unlock the vivid history of ancient cultures, to turn the tide of warfare, and to thwart potential hackers from attacking computer systems. Codes: The Guide to Secrecy from Ancient to Modern Times explores the depth and breadth of the field, remaining accessible to the uninitiated while retaining enough rigor for the seasoned cryptologist. The book begins by tracing the development of cryptology from that of an arcane practice used, for example, to conceal alchemic recipes, to the modern scientific method that is studied and employed today. The remainder of the book explores the modern aspects and applications of cryptography, covering symmetric- and public-key cryptography, cryptographic protocols, key management, message authentication, e-mail and Internet security, and advanced applications such as wireless security, smart cards, biometrics, and quantum cryptography. The author also includes non-cryptographic security issues and a chapter devoted to information theory and coding. Nearly 200 diagrams, examples, figures, and tables along with abundant references and exercises complement the discussion. Written by leading authority and best-selling author on the subject Richard A. Mollin, Codes: The Guide to Secrecy from Ancient to Modern Times is the essential reference for anyone interested in this exciting and fascinating field, from novice to veteran practitioner.
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