Clusters of Atoms and Molecules

Theory, Experiment, and Clusters of Atoms

Author: Hellmut Haberland

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642843298

Category: Science

Page: 422

View: 6110

Clusters of Atoms and Molecules I is devoted to theoretical concepts and experimental techniques important in the rapidly expanding field of cluster science. Cluster properties are dicussed for clusters composed of alkali metals, semiconductors, transition metals, carbon, oxides and halides of alkali metals, rare gases, and neutral molecules. The book contains several well-integrated treatments, all prepared by experts. Each contribution starts out as simple as possible and ends with the latest results, so that the book can serve as a text for a course, an introduction into the field, or as a reference book for the expert.
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Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams II

Cluster Beams, Fast and Slow Beams, Accessory Equipment and Applications

Author: Hans Pauly

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540676737

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 9547

This book appeals to physicists and physical chemists being active in atom, molecule and cluster physics. It deals with the physics of gas beams.
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Electric-dipole Polarizabilities of Atoms, Molecules, and Clusters

Author: Keith D. Bonin,Vitaly V. Kresin

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810224936

Category: Science

Page: 247

View: 7916

This book is an in-depth review of experiment and theory on electric-dipole polarizabilities. It is broad in scope, encompassing atomic, molecular, and cluster polarizabilities. Both static and dynamic polarizabilities are treated (in the absence of absorption) and a full tensor picture of the polarizability is used. Traditional experimental techniques for measuring electric polarizabilities are described in detail. Recently developed experimental methods, including light forces, position-sensitive time-of-flight deflection, and atom interferometry, are also extensively discussed. Theoretical techniques for calculating polarizabilities are reviewed, including a discussion on the use of Gaussian basis sets. Many important comparisons between theory and experiment are summarized in an extensive set of tables of polarizabilities of important atoms, molecules, and clusters. Applications of polarizabilities to many areas of chemistry and physics are described, including optics, chemical structure, interactions of gases and particles with surfaces, and the interaction of molecules with light. The emphasis is on a lucid presentation of the ideas and results with up-to-date discussions on important applications such as optical tweezers and nanostructure fabrication. This book provides an excellent overview of the importance of polarizabilities in understanding the physical, electronic, and optical properties of particles in a regime that goes from free atoms to condensed-phase clusters.
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Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams I

Basic Theory, Production and Detection of Thermal Energy Beams

Author: Hans Pauly

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540669456

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 2890

A consistent, up-to-date description of the extremely manifold and varied experimental techniques which nowadays enable work with neutral particles. Th book lays the physical foundations of the various experimental techniques, which utilize methods from most fields in physics.
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Many-Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters, and Surfaces

Author: J. Berakdar,J. Kirschner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306465888

Category: Science

Page: 518

View: 7828

This book is the proceedings of an International Conference on Many-Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, and Surfaces, held 26-29 July 2000, in Halle (Saale), Germany. In a many-particle coincidence experiment one measures the spectrum of a few particles simultaneously emitted from a probe. The emission process is usually stimulated by an external perturbation, such as the impact of an electron, photon, or ion beam. The recorded spectrum carries important information on a variety of material properties, such as optical and magnetic characteristics. In particular, coincidence studies yield detailed information on the many-body nature of the matter. Correspondingly, many-body theoretical concepts are required to interpret the experimental findings and to direct future experimental research. This book gives a snapshot of the present status of multi-particle coincidence studies from both theoretical and experimental points of view. It also includes selected topical review articles that highlight the recent achievements and the power of coincident studies. It covers theoretical and experimental coincidence on single and double ionisation and/or excitations induced by electrons, positrons, photons, and ions. The systems under investigation range from a single atom to clusters and surfaces.
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Atomic Clusters

From Gas Phase to Deposited

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080475950

Category: Science

Page: 648

View: 4678

Atomic Clusters: From Gas Phase to Deposited brings together a series of chapters, prepared by acknowledged experts in their fields. Both fundamental and practical aspects are addressed of the physics and chemistry of a novel state of matter, namely clusters of small numbers of atoms of nanometre dimensions. This is a field of nanoscience that existed before the word was invented, but has particularly achieved major advances in the recent years. * Contributions from leading experts in solid surfaces research * Cluster science is concerned with the properties of materials on the nano-metre scale * Brings together work on both free (gas-phase) clusters and those deposited on surfaces
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Structure and Properties of Atomic Nanoclusters

Author: Julio A. Alonso

Publisher: Imperial College Press

ISBN: 1860945511

Category: Science

Page: 410

View: 1937

Presents a description of the structure and electronic properties of different types of clusters: Van der Waals clusters, metallic clusters, clusters of ionic materials and network clusters. This work also considers assembling of clusters since specially stable clusters are expected to play a role in the future design and synthesis of materials.
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Nanomaterials and Nanochemistry

Author: C. Bréchignac,P. Houdy,M. Lahmani

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540729938

Category: Science

Page: 747

View: 6135

Here is a brilliant book that covers the major aspects of nanomaterials production. It integrates the many and varied chemical, material and thermo-dynamical facets of production, offering readers a new and unique approach to the subject. The mechanical, optical, and magnetic characteristics of nanomaterials are also presented in detail. Nanomaterials are a fast developing field of research and this book serves as both a reference work for researchers and a textbook for graduate students.
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Free Atoms, Clusters, and Nanoscale Particles

Author: Kenneth J. Klabunde

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080924069

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 311

View: 6044

This book presents coherent and systematic coverage of the broad and dynamic field of free atom and cluster atom chemistry. The text provides a comprehensive overview of the current literature and describes the mostimportant experimental techniques developed since 1980 including bimetallic clusters/catalysts, carbon clusters (fullerenes) and trapped single atoms. Metal atoms, clusters, and particles are covered in sequence with the Periodic Table.
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Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128032251

Category: Reference

Page: 3584

View: 9514

This third edition of the Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry provides authoritative and comprehensive coverage of all aspects of spectroscopy and closely related subjects that use the same fundamental principles, including mass spectrometry, imaging techniques and applications. It includes the history, theoretical background, details of instrumentation and technology, and current applications of the key areas of spectroscopy. The new edition will include over 80 new articles across the field. These will complement those from the previous edition, which have been brought up-to-date to reflect the latest trends in the field. Coverage in the third edition includes: Atomic spectroscopy Electronic spectroscopy Fundamentals in spectroscopy High-Energy spectroscopy Magnetic resonance Mass spectrometry Spatially-resolved spectroscopic analysis Vibrational, rotational and Raman spectroscopies The new edition is aimed at professional scientists seeking to familiarize themselves with particular topics quickly and easily. This major reference work continues to be clear and accessible and focus on the fundamental principles, techniques and applications of spectroscopy and spectrometry. Incorporates more than 150 color figures, 5,000 references, and 300 articles for a thorough examination of the field Highlights new research and promotes innovation in applied areas ranging from food science and forensics to biomedicine and health Presents a one-stop resource for quick access to answers and an in-depth examination of topics in the spectroscopy and spectrometry arenas
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Nanoclusters

A Bridge across Disciplines

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080964222

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 700

View: 3372

This comprehensive book on Nanoclusters comprises sixteen authoritative chapters written by leading researchers in the field. It provides insight into topics that are currently at the cutting edge of cluster science, with the main focus on metal and metal compound systems that are of particular interest in materials science, and also on aspects related to biology and medicine. While there are numerous books on clusters, the focus on clusters as a bridge across disciplines sets this book apart from others. Delivers cutting edge coverage of cluster science Covers a broad range of topics in physics, chemistry, and materials science Written by leading researchers in the field
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Energy Landscapes

Applications to Clusters, Biomolecules and Glasses

Author: David Wales

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521814157

Category: Science

Page: 681

View: 5545

The study of energy landscapes holds the key to resolving some of the most important contemporary problems in chemical physics. Many groups are now attempting to understand the properties of clusters, glasses and proteins in terms of the underlying potential energy surface. The aim of this book is to define and unify the field of energy landscapes in a reasonably self-contained exposition. This is the first book to cover this active field. The book begins with an overview of each area in an attempt to make the subject matter accessible to workers in different disciplines. The basic theoretical groundwork for describing and exploring energy landscapes is then introduced followed by applications to clusters, biomolecules and glasses in the final chapters. Beautifully illustrated in full colour throughout, this book is aimed at graduate students and workers in the field.
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Disordered Materials

An Introduction

Author: Paolo Ossi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540296102

Category: Science

Page: 329

View: 6168

The teaching of solid state physics essentially concerns focusing on crystals and their properties. We study crystals and their properties because of the simple and elegant results obtained from the analysis of a spatially periodic system; this is why the analysis can be made considering a small set of atoms that represent the whole system of many particles. In contrast to the formal neat approach to crystals, the study of str- turally disordered condensed systems is somewhat complicated and often leads to relatively imprecise results, not to mention the experimental and computational e?ort involved. As such, almost all university textbooks, - cluding the advanced course books, only brie?y touch on the physics of am- phous systems. In any case, both the fundamental aspect and the ever wider industrial applications have given structurally disordered matter a role that should not be overlooked. The study of amorphous solids and their structure, stability and properties is a vibrant research branch; it is di?cult to imagine how any physicist, chemist or engineer who has to deal with materials could possibly ignore this class of systems. The author of Disordered Matter – an Introduction uses this course book atthePolitecnicoinMilan,Italy.Collectingthematerialforthecourseproved no mean task, leading him to have to prepare ad hoc didactic material. The continualexchangebetweenteacherandstudenthasledtothepresentversion of the book.
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Cluster Processes in Gases and Plasmas

Author: Boris M. Smirnov

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527628667

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 2508

This reference on cluster physics in materials science draws upon the author's unrivalled experience in plasma science. He covers in detail electromagnetic effects, cluster motion and growth, as well as aerosols, providing the knowledge instrumental for an understanding of nanostructure formation. Around 400 case studies enable readers to directly relate the methods to their own individual tasks or projects.
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Introduction to Nanotechnology

Author: Charles P. Poole, Jr.,Frank J. Owens

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471079354

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 4315

This self-confessed introduction provides technical administrators and managers with a broad, practical overview of the subject and gives researchers working in different areas an appreciation of developments in nanotechnology outside their own fields of expertise.
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The Physics and Chemistry of Nanosolids

Author: Frank J. Owens,Charles P. Poole, Jr.

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470067403

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 540

View: 8697

A comprehensive textbook that addresses the recent interest in nanotechnology in the engineering, materials science, chemistry, and physics communities In recent years, nanotechnology has become one of the most promising and exciting fields of science, triggering an increasing number of university engineering, materials science, chemistry, and physics departments to introduce courses on this emerging topic. Now, Drs. Owens and Poole have revised, updated, and revamped their 2003 work, Introduction to Nanotechnology, to make it more accessible as a textbook for advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level courses on the fascinating field of nanotechnology and nanoscience. The Physics and Chemistry of Nanosolids takes a pedagogical approach to the subject and assumes only an introductory understanding of the physics and chemistry of macroscopic solids and models developed to explain properties, such as the theory of phonon and lattice vibrations and electronic band structure. The authors describe how properties depend on size in the nanometer regime and explain why these changes occur using relatively simple models of the physics and chemistry of the solid state. Additionally, this accessible book: Provides an introductory overview of the basic principles of solids Describes the various methods used to measure the properties of nanosolids Explains how and why properties change when reducing the size of solids to nano-dimensions, and what they predict when one or more dimensions of a solid has a nano-length Presents data on how various properties of solids are affected by nanosizing and examines why these changes occur Contains a chapter entirely devoted to the importance of carbon nanostructured materials and the potential applications of carbon nanostructures The Physics and Chemistry of Nanosolids is complete with a series of exercises at the end of each chapter for readers to enhance their understanding of the material presented, making this an ideal textbook for students and a valuable tutorial for technical professionals and researchers who are interested in learning more about this important topic.
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An Introduction to Cluster Science

Author: Phuong Mai Dinh,Paul-Gerhard Reinhard,Eric Suraud

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527675701

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 5337

Filling the need for a solid textbook, this short primer in cluster science is ideal for a one-semester lecture for advanced undergraduate students. It is based on a series of lectures given by the well-established and recognized authors for the past ten years. The book covers both the basics of the domain as well as up-to-date developments. It can be divided roughly into two parts. The first three chapters introduce basic concepts of cluster science. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction, complemented by chapter 2 on experimental and chapter 3 on theoretical aspects. The second half of the book is devoted to a systematic presentation of free cluster properties, and to a thorough discussion of the impact of clusters in other domains of science. These explicitly worked-out links between cluster physics and other research areas are unique both in terms of fundamental aspects and of applications, and cannot be found elsewhere in the literature. Also suitable for researchers outside of the field looking for an introduction to cluster science.
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Density Functional Theory of Molecules, Clusters, and Solids

Author: D.E. Ellis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792330837

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 9239

Rapid advances are taking place in the application of density functional theory (DFT) to describe complex electronic structures, to accurately treat large systems and to predict physical and chemical properties. Both theoretical content and computational methodology are developing at a pace which offers researchers new opportunities in areas such as quantum chemistry, cluster science, and solid state physics. This volume contains ten contributions by leading scientists in the field and provides an authoritative overview of the most important developments. The book focuses on the following themes: determining adequate approximations for the many-body problem of electronic correlations; how to transform these approximations into computational algorithms; applications to discover and predict properties of electronic systems; and developing the theory. For researchers in surface chemistry, catalysis, ceramics and inorganic chemistry.
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Clusters and Nanomaterials

Theory and Experiment

Author: Y. Kawazoe,T. Kondow

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540418054

Category: Science

Page: 345

View: 3669

The field of cluster sciences is currently attracting considerable interest, not only from a fundamental viewpoint but also in relation to future applications to electronic, optical and magnetic devices. Synthesizing specific clusters as a component of useful nanostructures or controlling them as an assembly of nanocomposites is the ultimate aim. In order to understand how to synthesize individual clusters or to investigate properties such as chemical reaction, structural stability, response to external fields, aggregation and phase transitions, a variety of first-principles and empirical calculations and related computer simulations have been performed alongside numerous experiments. This book compiles and collates recent theoretical and experimental advances in the field and demonstrates how the harmony between theory and experiment is contributing to the continuing rapid progress. It will be of interest not only to researchers, but also to students and newcomers seeking a review of the present status.
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