Classification Theory for Abstract Elementary Classes

Author: Saharon Shelah

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781904987710

Category: Mathematics

Page: 813

View: 9184

An abstract elementary class is a class of structures of the same vocabulary (like a class of rings, or a class of fields), with a partial order that generalizes the relation "A is a substructure (or an elementary substructure) of B." The requirements are that the class is closed under isomorphism, and that isomorphic structures have isomorphic (generalized) substructures; we also require that our classes share some of the most basic properties of elementary classes, like closure under unions of increasing chains of substructures. We would like to classify this general family; in the sense of proving dichotomies: either we can understand the structure of all models in our class or there are many to some extent. More specifically we would like to generalize the theory about categoricity and superstability to this context.

Mathematical Methods in Linguistics

Author: Barbara B.H. Partee,A.G. ter Meulen,R. Wall

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400922132

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 666

View: 9107

Elementary set theory accustoms the students to mathematical abstraction, includes the standard constructions of relations, functions, and orderings, and leads to a discussion of the various orders of infinity. The material on logic covers not only the standard statement logic and first-order predicate logic but includes an introduction to formal systems, axiomatization, and model theory. The section on algebra is presented with an emphasis on lattices as well as Boolean and Heyting algebras. Background for recent research in natural language semantics includes sections on lambda-abstraction and generalized quantifiers. Chapters on automata theory and formal languages contain a discussion of languages between context-free and context-sensitive and form the background for much current work in syntactic theory and computational linguistics. The many exercises not only reinforce basic skills but offer an entry to linguistic applications of mathematical concepts. For upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students in theoretical linguistics, computer-science students with interests in computational linguistics, logic programming and artificial intelligence, mathematicians and logicians with interests in linguistics and the semantics of natural language.

Classification Theory and the Number of Non-isomorphic Models

Author: Saharon Shelah

Publisher: North Holland

ISBN: 9780444702609

Category: Mathematics

Page: 705

View: 1096

Hardbound. In this research monograph, the author's work on classification and related topics are presented. This revised edition brings the book up to date with the addition of four new chapters as well as various corrections to the 1978 text.The additional chapters X - XIII present the solution to countable first order T of what the author sees as the main test of the theory. In Chapter X the Dimensional Order Property is introduced and it is shown to be a meaningful dividing line for superstable theories. In Chapter XI there is a proof of the decomposition theorems. Chapter XII is the crux of the matter: there is proof that the negation of the assumption used in Chapter XI implies that in models of T a relation can be defined which orders a large subset of mM. This theorem is also the subject of Chapter XIII.

Logic Without Borders

Essays on Set Theory, Model Theory, Philosophical Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics

Author: Åsa Hirvonen,Juha Kontinen,Roman Kossak,Andrés Villaveces

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 1614519323

Category: Philosophy

Page: 438

View: 5666

In recent years, mathematical logic has developed in many directions, the initial unity of its subject matter giving way to a myriad of seemingly unrelated areas. The articles collected here, which range from historical scholarship to recent research in geometric model theory, squarely address this development. These articles also connect to the diverse work of Väänänen, whose ecumenical approach to logic reflects the unity of the discipline.

Recent Developments in Switching Theory

Author: Amar Mukhopadhyay

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483218813

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 454

View: 3121

Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract harmonic analysis of combinational switching functions; the theory of universal logic modules, methods of their construction, and upper bounds on the input terminals; and cellular logic are also considered. The book further tackles the systematic techniques for the realization of multi-output logic function by means of multirail cellular cascades; the programmable cellular logic; and the logical design of programmable arrays. Electrical engineers, electronics engineers, computer professionals, and student taking related courses will find the book invaluable.

Fundamentals of Mathematical Logic

Author: Peter G. Hinman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439864276

Category: Mathematics

Page: 896

View: 8001

This introductory graduate text covers modern mathematical logic from propositional, first-order and infinitary logic and Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems to extensive introductions to set theory, model theory and recursion (computability) theory. Based on the author's more than 35 years of teaching experience, the book develops students' intuition by presenting complex ideas in the simplest context for which they make sense. The book is appropriate for use as a classroom text, for self-study, and as a reference on the state of modern logic.

Logic for Mathematicians

Author: J. Barkley Rosser

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 0486468984

Category: Mathematics

Page: 574

View: 308

Hailed by the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society as "undoubtedly a major addition to the literature of mathematical logic," this volume examines the essential topics and theorems of mathematical reasoning. No background in logic is assumed, and the examples are chosen from a variety of mathematical fields. Starting with an introduction to symbolic logic, the first eight chapters develop logic through the restricted predicate calculus. Topics include the statement calculus, the use of names, an axiomatic treatment of the statement calculus, descriptions, and equality. Succeeding chapters explore abstract set theory—with examinations of class membership as well as relations and functions—cardinal and ordinal arithmetic, and the axiom of choice. An invaluable reference book for all mathematicians, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Numerous exercises make it particularly appropriate for classroom use.

A Course in Mathematical Logic for Mathematicians

Author: Yu. I. Manin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441906150

Category: Mathematics

Page: 384

View: 561

1. The ?rst edition of this book was published in 1977. The text has been well received and is still used, although it has been out of print for some time. In the intervening three decades, a lot of interesting things have happened to mathematical logic: (i) Model theory has shown that insights acquired in the study of formal languages could be used fruitfully in solving old problems of conventional mathematics. (ii) Mathematics has been and is moving with growing acceleration from the set-theoretic language of structures to the language and intuition of (higher) categories, leaving behind old concerns about in?nities: a new view of foundations is now emerging. (iii) Computer science, a no-nonsense child of the abstract computability theory, has been creatively dealing with old challenges and providing new ones, such as the P/NP problem. Planning additional chapters for this second edition, I have decided to focus onmodeltheory,the conspicuousabsenceofwhichinthe ?rsteditionwasnoted in several reviews, and the theory of computation, including its categorical and quantum aspects. The whole Part IV: Model Theory, is new. I am very grateful to Boris I. Zilber, who kindly agreed to write it. It may be read directly after Chapter II. The contents of the ?rst edition are basically reproduced here as Chapters I–VIII. Section IV.7, on the cardinality of the continuum, is completed by Section IV.7.3, discussing H. Woodin’s discovery.

Introduction to Logic

and to the Methodology of Deductive Sciences

Author: Alfred Tarski

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486318893

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 6987

This classic undergraduate treatment examines the deductive method in its first part and explores applications of logic and methodology in constructing mathematical theories in its second part. Exercises appear throughout.

Classification Theory

Proceedings of the U.S.-Israel Workshop on Model Theory in Mathematical Logic Held in Chicago, Dec. 15-19, 1985

Author: John T. Baldwin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540480498

Category: Mathematics

Page: 508

View: 8653


Classification Theory

and the Number of Non-Isomorphic Models

Author: S. Shelah

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080880242

Category: Mathematics

Page: 740

View: 827

In this research monograph, the author's work on classification and related topics are presented. This revised edition brings the book up to date with the addition of four new chapters as well as various corrections to the 1978 text. The additional chapters X - XIII present the solution to countable first order T of what the author sees as the main test of the theory. In Chapter X the Dimensional Order Property is introduced and it is shown to be a meaningful dividing line for superstable theories. In Chapter XI there is a proof of the decomposition theorems. Chapter XII is the crux of the matter: there is proof that the negation of the assumption used in Chapter XI implies that in models of T a relation can be defined which orders a large subset of m|M|. This theorem is also the subject of Chapter XIII.

Model-Theoretic Logics

Author: J. Barwise,S. Feferman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316739392

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 6047

Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. This volume, the eighth publication in the Perspectives in Logic series, brings together several directions of work in model theory between the late 1950s and early 1980s. It contains expository papers by pre-eminent researchers. Part I provides an introduction to the subject as a whole, as well as to the basic theory and examples. The rest of the book addresses finitary languages with additional quantifiers, infinitary languages, second-order logic, logics of topology and analysis, and advanced topics in abstract model theory. Many chapters can be read independently.

On the Logic of the Social Sciences

Author: J?rgen Habermas

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745694136

Category: Philosophy

Page: 236

View: 9212

In this wide-ranging work, now available in paperback, Habermas presents his views on the nature of the social sciences and their distinctive methodology and concerns. He examines, among other things, the traditional division between the natural sciences and the social sciences; the characteristics of social action and the implications of theories of language for social enquiry; and the nature, tasks and limitations of hermeneutics. Habermas' analysis of these and other themes is, as always, rigorous, perceptive and constructive. This brilliant study succeeds in highlighting the distinctive characteristics of the social sciences and in outlining the nature of, and prospects for, critical theory today.

Dependence Logic

Theory and Applications

Author: Samson Abramsky,Juha Kontinen,Jouko Väänänen,Heribert Vollmer

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3319318039

Category: Mathematics

Page: 276

View: 8706

In this volume, different aspects of logics for dependence and independence are discussed, including both the logical and computational aspects of dependence logic, and also applications in a number of areas, such as statistics, social choice theory, databases, and computer security. The contributing authors represent leading experts in this relatively new field, each of whom was invited to write a chapter based on talks given at seminars held at the Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics in Wadern, Germany (in February 2013 and June 2015) and an Academy Colloquium at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (March 2014). Altogether, these chapters provide the most up-to-date look at this developing and highly interdisciplinary field and will be of interest to a broad group of logicians, mathematicians, statisticians, philosophers, and scientists. Topics covered include a comprehensive survey of many propositional, modal, and first-order variants of dependence logic; new results concerning expressive power of several variants of dependence logic with different sets of logical connectives and generalized dependence atoms; connections between inclusion logic and the least-fixed point logic; an overview of dependencies in databases by addressing the relationships between implication problems for fragments of statistical conditional independencies, embedded multivalued dependencies, and propositional logic; various Markovian models used to characterize dependencies and causality among variables in multivariate systems; applications of dependence logic in social choice theory; and an introduction to the theory of secret sharing, pointing out connections to dependence and independence logic.

The Foundations of Mathematics

Author: Kenneth Kunen

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781904987147

Category: Mathematics

Page: 251

View: 2856

Mathematical logic grew out of philosophical questions regarding the foundations of mathematics, but logic has now outgrown its philosophical roots, and has become an integral part of mathematics in general. This book is designed for students who plan to specialize in logic, as well as for those who are interested in the applications of logic to other areas of mathematics. Used as a text, it could form the basis of a beginning graduate-level course. There are three main chapters: Set Theory, Model Theory, and Recursion Theory. The Set Theory chapter describes the set-theoretic foundations of all of mathematics, based on the ZFC axioms. It also covers technical results about the Axiom of Choice, well-orderings, and the theory of uncountable cardinals. The Model Theory chapter discusses predicate logic and formal proofs, and covers the Completeness, Compactness, and Lowenheim-Skolem Theorems, elementary submodels, model completeness, and applications to algebra. This chapter also continues the foundational issues begun in the set theory chapter. Mathematics can now be viewed as formal proofs from ZFC. Also, model theory leads to models of set theory. This includes a discussion of absoluteness, and an analysis of models such as H( ) and R( ). The Recursion Theory chapter develops some basic facts about computable functions, and uses them to prove a number of results of foundational importance; in particular, Church's theorem on the undecidability of logical consequence, the incompleteness theorems of Godel, and Tarski's theorem on the non-definability of truth.

Category Theory

Author: Steve Awodey

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191612553

Category: Philosophy

Page: 328

View: 5020

Category theory is a branch of abstract algebra with incredibly diverse applications. This text and reference book is aimed not only at mathematicians, but also researchers and students of computer science, logic, linguistics, cognitive science, philosophy, and any of the other fields in which the ideas are being applied. Containing clear definitions of the essential concepts, illuminated with numerous accessible examples, and providing full proofs of all important propositions and theorems, this book aims to make the basic ideas, theorems, and methods of category theory understandable to this broad readership. Although assuming few mathematical pre-requisites, the standard of mathematical rigour is not compromised. The material covered includes the standard core of categories; functors; natural transformations; equivalence; limits and colimits; functor categories; representables; Yoneda's lemma; adjoints; monads. An extra topic of cartesian closed categories and the lambda-calculus is also provided - a must for computer scientists, logicians and linguists! This Second Edition contains numerous revisions to the original text, including expanding the exposition, revising and elaborating the proofs, providing additional diagrams, correcting typographical errors and, finally, adding an entirely new section on monoidal categories. Nearly a hundred new exercises have also been added, many with solutions, to make the book more useful as a course text and for self-study.

Logic and Algebra

Author: Yi Zhang

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 082182984X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 285

View: 5422

This volume outlines current developments in model theory and combinatorial set theory and presents state-of-the-art research. Well-known researchers report on their work in model theory and set theory with applications to algebra. The papers of J. Brendle and A. Blass present one of the most interesting areas of set theory. Brendle gives a very detailed and readable account of Shelah's solution for the long-standing problem of $\mathrm{Con}(\mathfrak{d}<\mathfrak{a})$.It could be used in an advanced graduate seminar on set theory. Papers by T. Altinel, J. T. Baldwin, R. Grossberg, W. Hodges, T. Hyttinen, O. Lessmann, and B. Zilber deal with questions of model theory from the viewpoint of stability theory. Here, Zilber constructs an $\omega$-stable complete theory of 'pseudo-analytic' structures on algebraically closed fields. This result is part of his program of the model-theoretic study of analytic structures by including Hrushovski's method in the analytic context. The book presents this and further developments in model theory. It is geared toward advanced graduate students and researchers interested in logic and foundations, algebra, and algebraic geometry.

How People Learn

Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309131979

Category: Education

Page: 384

View: 1026

First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.

Axiomatic Set Theory

Author: Patrick Suppes

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486136876

Category: Mathematics

Page: 265

View: 7904

Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this treatment examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, more. 1960 edition.

Mathematics and Logic

Author: Mark Kac,Stanislaw M. Ulam

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486670856

Category: Philosophy

Page: 170

View: 5907

Fascinating study of the origin and nature of mathematical thought, including relation of mathematics and science, 20th-century developments, impact of computers, and more.Includes 34 illustrations. 1968 edition."