Clan Politics and Regime Transition in Central Asia

Author: Kathleen Collins

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113946177X

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 673

This book is a study of the role of clan networks in Central Asia from the early twentieth century through 2004. Exploring the social, economic, and historical roots of clans, and their political role and political transformation in the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, it argues that clans are informal political actors that are critical to understanding politics in this region. The book demonstrates that the Soviet system was far less successful in transforming and controlling Central Asian society, and in its policy of eradicating clan identities, than has often been assumed. In order to understand Central Asian politics and their economies, scholars and policy makers must take into account the powerful role of these informal groups, how they adapt and change over time, and how they may constrain or undermine democratization in this strategic region.
Release

Clan Politics and Regime Transition in Central Asia

Author: Kathleen Collins

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521114660

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 9825

Exploring the varied roots of clans, and their political role and transformation during the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, this volume argues that clans are informal political actors critical to understanding regional politics. It demonstrates that the Soviet system was far less successful in transforming and controlling Central Asian society by eradicating clan identities, than has often been assumed. Clans actually influenced and constrained the regime's political trajectory increasingly, during the later Soviet and post-Soviet periods, and made liberalizing political and economic reforms very difficult.
Release

Regime Transition in Central Asia

Stateness, Nationalism and Political Change in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

Author: Dagikhudo Dagiev

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134600690

Category: Political Science

Page: 246

View: 5604

Presenting a study of regime transition, political transformation, and the challenges that faced the post-Communist republics of Central Asia on independence, this book focuses on the process of transition in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and the obstacles that these newly-independent states are facing in the post-Communist period. The book analyses how in the early stages of their independence, the governments of Central Asia declared that they would build democratic states, but that in practice, they demonstrated that they are more inclined towards authoritarianism. With the declaration of independence, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, like many other former Soviet national republics, were faced with the issues of nationalism, ethnicity, identity and territorial delimitation. This book looks at how the discourse of patrimonial nationalism in post-Communist Tajikistan and Uzbekistan has been the elites’ strategy to address all these issues: to maintain the stateness of their respective countries; to preserve the unity of their nation; to fill the ideological void of post-Communism; to prevent the rise of Islam; and to legitimize their authoritarian practice. Arguing against the claim that the Central Asian states have undergone divergent paths of transition, the book discusses how they are in fact all authoritarian, although exhibiting different degrees of authoritarianism. This book provides a useful contribution to studies on Central Asian Politics and International Relations.
Release

Modern Clan Politics

The Power of "Blood" in Kazakhstan and Beyond

Author: Edward Schatz

Publisher: University of Washington Press

ISBN: 0295803495

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 8059

Edward Schatz explores the politics of kin-based clan divisions in the post-Soviet state of Kazakhstan. Drawing from extensive ethnographic and archival research, interviews, and wide-ranging secondary sources, he highlights a politics that poses a two-tiered challenge to current thinking about modernity and Central Asia. First, asking why kinship divisions do not fade from political life with modernization, he shows that the state actually constructs clan relationships by infusing them with practical political and social meaning. By activating the most important quality of clans - their "concealability" - the state is itself responsible for the vibrant politics of these subethnic divisions which has emerged and flourished in post-Soviet Kazakhstan. Subethnic divisions are crucial to understanding how group solidarities and power relations coexist and where they intersect. But, in a second challenge to current thinking, Schatz argues that clan politics should not be understood simply as competition among primordial groups. Rather, the meanings attributed to clan relationships - both the public stigmas and the publicly proclaimed pride in clans - are part and parcel of this contest. Drawing parallels with relevant cases from the Middle East, East and North Africa, and other parts of the former USSR, Schatz concludes that a more appropriate policy may be achieved by making clans a legitimate part of political and social life, rendering them less powerful or corrupt by increasing their transparency. Political scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, policy makers, and others who study state power and identity groups will find a wealth of empirical material and conceptual innovation for discussion and debate.
Release

Understanding Central Asia

Politics and Contested Transformations

Author: Sally N. Cummings

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134433190

Category: History

Page: 244

View: 3906

Since Soviet collapse, the independent republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have faced tremendous political, economic, and security challenges. Focusing on these five republics, this textbook analyzes the contending understandings of the politics of the past, present and future transformations of Central Asia, including its place in international security and world politics. Analysing the transformation that independence has brought and tracing the geography, history, culture, identity, institutions and economics of Central Asia, it locates ‘the political’ in the region. A comprehensive examination of the politics of Central Asia, this insightful book is of interest both to undergraduate and graduate students of Asian Politics, Post-Communist Politics, Comparative Politics and International Relations, and to scholars and professionals in the region.
Release

The Transformation of Central Asia

States and Societies from Soviet Rule to Independence

Author: Pauline Jones Luong

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801488429

Category: History

Page: 332

View: 8719

With the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, former Communist Party leaders in Central Asia were faced with the daunting task of building states where they previously had not existed. Experts on Central Asia here examine the emerging relationship between state actors and social forces in the region.
Release

Party System Formation in Kazakhstan

Between Formal and Informal Politics

Author: Rico Isaacs

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136791086

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 4896

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian states have developed liberal-constitutional formal institutions. However, at the same time, political phenomena in Central Asia are shaped by informal political behaviour and relations. This relationship is now a critical issue affecting democratization and regime consolidation processes in former Soviet Central Asia, and this book provides an account of the interactive and dynamic relationship between informal and formal politics through the case of party-system formation in Kazakhstan.
Release

The Constitutional Systems of the Independent Central Asian States

A Contextual Analysis

Author: Scott Newton

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1509909478

Category: Law

Page: 368

View: 1456

This book undertakes the first comparative constitutional analysis of the Kyrgyz Republic and Republics of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in their cultural, historical, political, economic and social context. The first chapter provides a general overview of the diverse and dynamic constitutional landscape across the region. A second chapter examines the Soviet constitutional system in depth as the womb of the Central Asian States. A third chapter completes the general picture by examining the constitutional influences of the 'new world order' of globalisation, neoliberalism, and good governance into which the five states were thrust. The remaining five chapters look in turn at the constitutional context of presidents and governments, parliaments and elections, courts and rights, society and economy and culture and identity. The enquiry probes the regional patterns of neo-Sovietism, plebiscitary elections, weak courts and parliaments, crony capitalism, and constraints on association, as well as the counter-tendencies that strengthen democracy, rights protection and pluralism. It reveals the Central Asian experience to be emblematic of the principal issues and tensions facing contemporary constitutional systems everywhere.
Release

Kazakhstan - Ethnicity, Language and Power

Author: Bhavna Dave

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134324987

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 7605

Kazakhstan is emerging as the most dynamic economic and political actor in Central Asia. It is the second largest country of the former Soviet Union, after the Russian Federation, and has rich natural resources, particularly oil, which is being exploited through massive US investment. Kazakhstan has an impressive record of economic growth under the leadership of President Nursultan Nazarbaev, and has ambitions to project itself as a modern, wealthy civic state, with a developed market economy. At the same time, Kazakhstan is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the region, with very substantial non-Kazakh and non-Muslim minorities. Its political regime has used elements of political clientelism and neo-traditional practices to bolster its rule. Drawing from extensive ethnographic research, interviews, and archival materials this book traces the development of national identity and statehood in Kazakhstan, focusing in particular on the attempts to build a national state. It argues that Russification and Sovietization were not simply 'top-down' processes, that they provide considerable scope for local initiatives, and that Soviet ethnically-based affirmative action policies have had a lasting impact on ethnic élite formation and the rise of a distinct brand of national consciousness.
Release

Muslim Women of the Fergana Valley

A 19th-Century Ethnography from Central Asia

Author: Vladimir Nalivkin,Maria Nalivkina

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253021499

Category: History

Page: 242

View: 4656

Muslim Women of the Fergana Valley is the first English translation of an important 19th-century Russian text describing everyday life in Uzbek communities. Vladimir and Maria Nalivkin were Russians who settled in a "Sart" village in 1878, in a territory newly conquered by the Russian Empire. During their six years in Nanay, Maria Nalivkina learned the local language, befriended her neighbors, and wrote observations about their lives from birth to death. Together, Maria and Vladimir published this account, which met with great acclaim from Russia’s Imperial Geographic Society and among Orientalists internationally. While they recognized that Islam shaped social attitudes, the Nalivkins never relied on common stereotypes about the "plight" of Muslim women. The Fergana Valley women of their ethnographic portrait emerge as lively, hard-working, clever, and able to navigate the cultural challenges of early Russian colonialism. Rich with social and cultural detail of a sort not available in other kinds of historical sources, this work offers rare insight into life in rural Central Asia and serves as an instructive example of the genre of ethnographic writing that was emerging at the time. Annotations by the translators and an editor's introduction by Marianne Kamp help contemporary readers understand the Nalivkins' work in context.
Release

A Hundred Horizons

The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire

Author: Sugata Bose

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674028579

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 3070

"Between 1850 and 1950, the Indian Ocean teemed with people, commodities and ideas ... Sugata Bose finds in these intricate social and economic webs evidence of the interdependence of the peoples of the lands beyond the horizon, from the Middle East to East Africa to Southeast Asia"--Jacket.
Release

Civil Society and Politics in Central Asia

Author: Charles E. Ziegler

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813150795

Category: Political Science

Page: 366

View: 5351

The five Central Asian states of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan constitute an area of increasing importance in global politics. The region currently serves as the main route for transporting American and NATO supplies and personnel into Afghanistan. Its Turkic Muslim peoples share ethnic and religious roots with China's Uighurs in neighboring Xinjiang, where some Uighurs have connections to the Taliban in Afghanistan and Pakistan, fueling Beijing's already acute fears of terrorism and separatism. Perhaps most importantly, the Caspian basin holds immense reserves of oil and natural gas. Countries rich in hydrocarbons -- like Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan -- can benefit greatly from this wealth, but often they must rely on foreign companies (usually backed by foreign governments) to develop these resources. Revolts in Kyrgyzstan (in 2005 and 2010) and Uzbekistan (in 2005); Tajikistan's civil war (in the 1990s); and continued terrorist incidents (2010--2011), strikes, and suicide bombings in Kazakhstan (in 2011) have contributed to concerns about stability in the region. In C ivil Society and Politics in Central Asia, a prominent group of scholars assesses both the area's manifold problems and its emerging potential, examining the often uneasy relationship between its states and the societies they govern. A meticulously in-depth study, the volume demonstrates the fascinating cultural complexity and diversity of Central Asia. Small, landlocked, and surrounded by larger powers, Central Asian nations have become adept at playing their neighbors against each other in order to maximize their own abilities to maneuver. The essays in this book look beyond the surface of Central Asian politics to discover the forces that are working for political change and continuity in this critical region of the world.
Release

The New Political Islam

Human Rights, Democracy, and Justice

Author: Emmanuel Karagiannis

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812294572

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 4756

Islamist political parties and groups are on the rise throughout the Muslim world, constituting a new political Islam that is global in scope and yet local in action. Emmanuel Karagiannis explains how various Islamists have endorsed human rights, democracy, and justice to gain influence and mobilize supporters.
Release

Central Asia in World History

Author: S.A.M. Adshead

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349226246

Category: History

Page: 291

View: 2917

This is a study of Central Asian history from Chinggis to the present, with reference to relations with China, Russia, India and Western Europe and to wider themes of world history. An introductory chapter defines Central Asia in time, place and ecology. The following chapters relate Central Asian history to the eight world institutions, whose development, it is argued, constitute world history in the proper sense.
Release

Why Nations Fail

The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty

Author: Daron Acemoglu,James A. Robinson

Publisher: Crown Books

ISBN: 0307719227

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 529

View: 9497

An award-winning professor of economics at MIT and a Harvard University political scientist and economist evaluate the reasons that some nations are poor while others succeed, outlining provocative perspectives that support theories about the importance of institutions. Reprint.
Release

Warlords, Strongman Governors, and the State in Afghanistan

Author: Dipali Mukhopadhyay

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110772919X

Category: Law

Page: 400

View: 726

Warlords have come to represent enemies of peace, security, and 'good governance' in the collective intellectual imagination. This book asserts that not all warlords are created equal. Under certain conditions, some become effective governors on behalf of the state. This provocative argument is based on extensive fieldwork in Afghanistan, where Mukhopadhyay examined warlord-governors who have served as valuable exponents of the Karzai regime in its struggle to assert control over key segments of the countryside. She explores the complex ecosystems that came to constitute provincial political life after 2001 and exposes the rise of 'strongman' governance in two provinces. While this brand of governance falls far short of international expectations, its emergence reflects the reassertion of the Afghan state in material and symbolic terms that deserve our attention. This book pushes past canonical views of warlordism and state building to consider the logic of the weak state as it has arisen in challenging, conflict-ridden societies like Afghanistan.
Release

Chinese Medicine Men

Consumer Culture in China and Southeast Asia

Author: Sherman Cochran

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674021617

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 242

View: 6245

In this book, Sherman Cochran reconsiders the nature and role of consumer culture in the spread of cultural globalization. Cochran brings to light enduring features of the Chinese experience with consumer culture. The history of Chinese medicine men in pre-socialist China, he suggests, has relevance for the twenty-first century because they achieved goals that their successors in contemporary China are currently seeking to attain.
Release

Political Order in Changing Societies

Author: Samuel P. Huntington

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300116205

Category: Political Science

Page: 488

View: 5229

This now classic examination of the development of viable political institutions in emerging nations is an enduring contribution to modern political analysis. The foreword by Fukuyama assesses Huntingdon's achievement.
Release

Offshore Central Asia

Author: John Heathershaw,Alexander Cooley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781138045750

Category:

Page: 136

View: 855

Central Asia is not, as it was once popular to argue, divorced from the global economy. When we look away from formal trade flows and towards institutions of contemporary finance, it becomes clear that the Central Asian region and global economy are far more interconnected than first suspected. As more than half of world trade and half of all banking assets are routed offshore, we must delve deeper into the offshore financial world of Central Asia. This interconnectedness has economy, political, domestic and international ramifications; Central Asian financial dealings are embedded in a set of informal transnational networks with global reach. This publication explores this global context: how Kyrgyzstan's revolutions are linked to business-political elite's money-laundering; how Turkmenistan's regime is kept stable by the offshore connections of its gas trade; how Tajikistan and Russia's relationship can only truly be understood through their offshore business dealings. This book was originally published as a special issue of Central Asian Survey.
Release