Clan Politics and Regime Transition in Central Asia

Author: Kathleen Collins

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113946177X

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 1801

This book is a study of the role of clan networks in Central Asia from the early twentieth century through 2004. Exploring the social, economic, and historical roots of clans, and their political role and political transformation in the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, it argues that clans are informal political actors that are critical to understanding politics in this region. The book demonstrates that the Soviet system was far less successful in transforming and controlling Central Asian society, and in its policy of eradicating clan identities, than has often been assumed. In order to understand Central Asian politics and their economies, scholars and policy makers must take into account the powerful role of these informal groups, how they adapt and change over time, and how they may constrain or undermine democratization in this strategic region.
Release

Regime Transition in Central Asia

Stateness, Nationalism and Political Change in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

Author: Dagikhudo Dagiev

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134600763

Category: Political Science

Page: 246

View: 5057

Presenting a study of regime transition, political transformation, and the challenges that faced the post-Communist republics of Central Asia on independence, this book focuses on the process of transition in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and the obstacles that these newly-independent states are facing in the post-Communist period. The book analyses how in the early stages of their independence, the governments of Central Asia declared that they would build democratic states, but that in practice, they demonstrated that they are more inclined towards authoritarianism. With the declaration of independence, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, like many other former Soviet national republics, were faced with the issues of nationalism, ethnicity, identity and territorial delimitation. This book looks at how the discourse of patrimonial nationalism in post-Communist Tajikistan and Uzbekistan has been the elites’ strategy to address all these issues: to maintain the stateness of their respective countries; to preserve the unity of their nation; to fill the ideological void of post-Communism; to prevent the rise of Islam; and to legitimize their authoritarian practice. Arguing against the claim that the Central Asian states have undergone divergent paths of transition, the book discusses how they are in fact all authoritarian, although exhibiting different degrees of authoritarianism. This book provides a useful contribution to studies on Central Asian Politics and International Relations.
Release

Kazakhstan - Ethnicity, Language and Power

Author: Bhavna Dave

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134324979

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 8111

Kazakhstan is emerging as the most dynamic economic and political actor in Central Asia. It is the second largest country of the former Soviet Union, after the Russian Federation, and has rich natural resources, particularly oil, which is being exploited through massive US investment. Kazakhstan has an impressive record of economic growth under the leadership of President Nursultan Nazarbaev, and has ambitions to project itself as a modern, wealthy civic state, with a developed market economy. At the same time, Kazakhstan is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the region, with very substantial non-Kazakh and non-Muslim minorities. Its political regime has used elements of political clientelism and neo-traditional practices to bolster its rule. Drawing from extensive ethnographic research, interviews, and archival materials this book traces the development of national identity and statehood in Kazakhstan, focusing in particular on the attempts to build a national state. It argues that Russification and Sovietization were not simply 'top-down' processes, that they provide considerable scope for local initiatives, and that Soviet ethnically-based affirmative action policies have had a lasting impact on ethnic élite formation and the rise of a distinct brand of national consciousness.
Release

The Rule of the Clan

What an Ancient Form of Social Organization Reveals About the Future of Individual Freedom

Author: Mark S. Weiner

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 1466836385

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 8812

A revealing look at the role kin-based societies have played throughout history and around the world A lively, wide-ranging meditation on human development that offers surprising lessons for the future of modern individualism, The Rule of the Clan examines the constitutional principles and cultural institutions of kin-based societies, from medieval Iceland to modern Pakistan. Mark S. Weiner, an expert in constitutional law and legal history, shows us that true individual freedom depends on the existence of a robust state dedicated to the public interest. In the absence of a healthy state, he explains, humans naturally tend to create legal structures centered not on individuals but rather on extended family groups. The modern liberal state makes individualism possible by keeping this powerful drive in check—and we ignore the continuing threat to liberal values and institutions at our peril. At the same time, for modern individualism to survive, liberals must also acknowledge the profound social and psychological benefits the rule of the clan provides and recognize the loss humanity sustains in its transition to modernity. Masterfully argued and filled with rich historical detail, Weiner's investigation speaks both to modern liberal societies and to developing nations riven by "clannism," including Muslim societies in the wake of the Arab Spring.
Release

Wasserkonflikte in Zentralasien

Akteure, Interessendisparitäten und Ansätze für die Entschärfung des regionalen Konfliktpotentials

Author: Julia Bar

Publisher: Universitätsverlag Potsdam

ISBN: 3940793728

Category:

Page: 144

View: 6339

Release

Coloured Revolutions and Authoritarian Reactions

Author: Evgeny Finkel,Yitzhak M. Brudny

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317980239

Category: Political Science

Page: 152

View: 2274

Between 2000 and 2005, colour revolutions swept away authoritarian and semi-authoritarian regimes in Serbia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. Yet, after these initial successes, attempts to replicate the strategies failed to produce regime change elsewhere in the region. The book argues that students of democratization and democracy promotion should study not only the successful colour revolutions, but also the colour revolution prevention strategies adopted by authoritarian elites. Based on a series of qualitative, country-focused studies the book explores the whole spectrum of anti-democratization policies, adopted by autocratic rulers and demonstrates that authoritarian regimes studied democracy promotion techniques, used in various colour revolutions, and focused their prevention strategies on combatting these techniques. The book proposes a new typology of authoritarian reactions to the challenge of democratization and argues that the specific mix of policies and rhetoric, adopted by each authoritarian regime, depended on the perceived intensity of threat to regime survival and the regime’s perceived strength vis-à-vis the democratic opposition. This book was published as a special issue of Democratization.
Release

Robust action and the Rise of the Medici 1400 - 1434

Author: Tobias Luchsinger

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3638872459

Category:

Page: 52

View: 578

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2007 im Fachbereich Soziologie - Methodologie und Methoden, Note: 1,0, Universitat Konstanz (Fachbereich: Soziologie), Veranstaltung: Netzwerkanalyse, 5 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit dem 1993 im American Journal of Sociology erschienenen Aufsatz von John Padgett Robust Action and the rise of the Medici 1400-1434." Die Relevanz dieses Artikels fur das Thema der Netzwerkanalyse ergibt sich schon aus dem Titel des Papers, welcher frei ubersetzt stabile Beziehungen" lauten konnte. Padgett, der an der University of Chicago eine Professur fur Politikwissenschaften inne hat, ist ausserdem auswartiger Professor am Santa Fe Institute, wo er sich sich seit 15 Jahren mit dem Thema: Innovation in Markets - Co-Evolution of State and Market in Renaissance Florence" beschaftigt. In diesen Rahmen ist auch der hier zu behandelnde Aufsatz einzuordnden. Padgett verfolgt mit der Arbeit die Absicht, seine These zu belegen, dass die Medici im Florenz zur Zeit des Ubergangs von Spatmittelalter zur Fruhrenaissance nicht, wie bisher von Geschichtswissenschaftlern vermutet, ihre immense Macht und Bedeutung erlangten, indem sie die eigene Differenz zum bestehenden System der Oligarchen ausbauten und aus ihren unterschiedlichen sozialen Attributen Kapital schlugen, sondern dass sie den Oligarchen auf struktureller Ebene glichen. Sie mussten sich also vielmehr auf einer anderen Ebene von den bisherigen elitaren Strukturen unterscheiden. Wie wir sehen werden, wird diese Ebene durch den Terminus robust action" umrissen. Zum einfacheren Verstandnis wollen wir uns in der Unterteilung dieser Arbeit an die Vorlage halten. Nach einer kurzen Definition des Problems und der verwendeten Begriffe in diesem spezifischen Kontext, widmen wir uns Padgetts Untersuchungen der Sozialstruktur anhand seiner drei verschiedenen Modelle. Diese sind im Einzelnen die Netzwerkanalyse zur Untersuchung der Attributverteilung unt
Release

Osteuropa

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Europe, Eastern

Page: N.A

View: 5540

Release

The Godfather-in-law

Eine Dokumentation

Author: Rakhat Aliyev

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783850522779

Category:

Page: 532

View: 7334

Release

Informelle Politik

Konzepte, Akteure und Prozesse

Author: Stephan Bröchler,Timo Grunden

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658023805

Category: Political Science

Page: 369

View: 797

​„Wirklich wichtige Entscheidungen werden ausnahmslos in Gremien getroffen, die es nicht gibt.“ Walter Scheel wird gewusst haben, wovon er sprach. Die Verfassungswirklichkeit der Bundesrepublik Deutschland erschließt sich nicht allein durch das Staatsorganisationsrecht. Regieren ist auch ein Prozess, der in informelle Entscheidungszentren verlagert wird, der ungeschriebenen Regeln folgt und den beteiligten Akteuren ein politisches Praxiswissen abverlangt. Aus diesem Grund wird „informelles Regieren“ immer mehr zu einem Schlüsselbegriff der Regierungsforschung. Die informellen Institutionen und politischen Praktiken des Regierens sind der Gegenstand dieses Bandes. Die Autorinnen und Autoren setzen sich kritisch mit Analysekonzepten zum „Informellen Regieren“ auseinander und präsentieren neue empirische Erkenntnisse.
Release

Stalins Nomaden

Herrschaft und Hunger in Kasachstan

Author: Robert Kindler

Publisher: Hamburger Edition HIS

ISBN: 3868546138

Category: History

Page: 381

View: 6610

Stalins Sowjetunion duldete keine Nomaden. Die im Land umherziehende Bevölkerung war weder politisch noch ökonomisch kontrollierbar. Staatliche Herrschaft ließ sich unter diesen Umständen kaum durchsetzen. So begannen die Bolschewiki Ende der 1920er Jahre mit der konsequenten Unterwerfung der multiethnischen Bevölkerung Kasachstans mittels Sesshaftmachung, Kollektivierung und Dekulakisierung. Die Requirierung der landwirtschaftlichen Ressourcen, vor allem der Viehherden, zerstörte die Lebensgrundlagen der kasachischen Nomaden. Die Ökonomie der Steppe brach zusammen. Eine präzendenzlose Hungerkatastrophe, die zwischen 1930 und 1934 mehr als eineinhalb Millionen Menschen das Leben kostete und Hunderttausende zu Flüchtlingen machte, war die Folge. Sowjetisierung durch Hunger - so nennt Robert Kindler das Projekt der Bolschewiki, Menschen durch die Inszenierung von Krisen in gehorsame Untertanen zu verwandeln. Je desaströser die Krise, je schlimmer Chaos und Elend waren, desto größer wurde die Macht der Herrschenden. Robert Kindler untersucht nicht nur die Auslöser der Hungersnot, sondern auch, was sie über die Herrschaftsdurchsetzung an der sowjetischen Peripherie aussagt. Seine innovative Analyse führt zum Kern stalinistischer Herrschaft.
Release

Great Games, Local Rules

The New Great Power Contest in Central Asia

Author: Alexander Cooley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199978581

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 9544

The struggle between Russia and Great Britain over Central Asia in the nineteenth century was the original "great game." But in the past quarter century, a new "great game" has emerged, pitting America against a newly aggressive Russia and a resource-hungry China, all struggling for influence over the same region, now one of the most volatile areas in the world: the long border region stretching from Iran through Pakistan to Kashmir. In Great Games, Local Rules, Alexander Cooley, one of America's most respected international relations scholars, explores the dynamics of the new competition for control of the region since 9/11. All three great powers have crafted strategies to increase their power in the area, which includes Afghanistan and the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. Each nation is pursuing important goals: basing rights for the US, access to natural resources for the Chinese, and increased political influence for the Russians. However, overlooked in all of the talk about this new great game is fact that the Central Asian governments have proven themselves critical agents in their own right, establishing local rules for external power involvement that serve to fend off foreign interest. As a result, despite a decade of intense interest from the United States, Russia, and China, Central Asia remains a collection of segmented states, and the external competition has merely reinforced the sovereign authority of the individual Central Asian governments. A careful and surprising analysis of how small states interact with great powers in a vital region, Great Games, Local Rules greatly advances our understanding of how global politics actually works in the contemporary era.
Release

Zwischen Stillstand, Politikwandel und Krisenmanagement

Eine Bilanz der Regierung Merkel 2013-2017

Author: Reimut Zohlnhöfer,Thomas Saalfeld

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658226633

Category: Political Science

Page: 664

View: 4175

Dieses Buch zieht eine umfassende politikwissenschaftliche Bilanz der Bundesregierung aus CDU/CSU und SPD von 2013 bis 2017. In Beiträgen ausgewiesener Expertinnen und Experten werden zunächst die Rahmenbedingungen des Regierens analysiert, so etwa die strategische Positionierung von Regierungs- und Oppositionsparteien, das Abstimmungsverhalten im Bundestag, die Rolle des Bundesverfassungsgerichts, das Koalitionsmanagement, der Einfluss von Verbänden oder der Medientenor. In einem zweiten Abschnitt werden zum einen die größten Herausforderungen der insgesamt dritten Großen Koalition in Deutschland diskutiert, insbesondere die Flüchtlingsproblematik, aber auch beispielsweise die Reaktionen auf die verschiedenen Krisen auf europäischer Ebene. Zum anderen werden die wichtigsten Entscheidungen in allen relevanten Politikfeldern, von der Finanz- und der Sozial- bis zur Umwelt- und Außenpolitik systematisch beschrieben, erklärt und bewertet. Dabei wird die Frage beantwortet, wo die Regierung weitreichende Reformen durchsetzte, wo Stillstand vorherrschte und mit welchen Einflussfaktoren beides zu erklären ist.
Release

Ego-Dokumente

Annäherung an den Menschen in der Geschichte

Author: Winfried Schulze

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3050047992

Category: History

Page: 348

View: 3760

Die Beiträge dieses Bandes decken ein breites Spektrum möglicher Varianten von Ego-Dokumenten ab. Es sollen darunter alle jene Quellen verstanden werden, in denen ein Mensch Auskunft über sich selbst gibt, unabhängig davon, ob dies freiwillig - also etwa in einem perönlichen Brief, einem Tagebuch, einer Traumniederschrift oder einem autobiographischen Versich - oder durch andere Umstäne bedingt, geschieht.
Release

Civil Society and Politics in Central Asia

Author: Charles E. Ziegler

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813150787

Category: History

Page: 366

View: 4669

In the nineteenth century, Kentucky was one of the nation's leading producers of racehorses, whiskey, tobacco -- and new counties. By 1886 the three original Kentucky counties had been carved into 119 (belated 120th was to be formed in 1912). These small divisions commanded the fierce loyalty of their citizens and for most Kentuckians formed the center of political and community life. The County in Kentucky History shows the bitter strife of countywide feuds and the conviviality of court day, the sporadic outbreaks of ill-feeling between town and country and the high-spirited brawls that regularly accompanied elections. Robert M. Ireland traces the structural changes in county government from the days when justices of the peace made up a self-perpetuating county court to the more democratic period when the buying of votes replaced the buying of offices. The most beneficial change that could come to local government -- consolidation into fewer units -- Ireland sees as unlikely where the tradition of county loyalties and rivalries remains as strong as it does in Kentucky.
Release

Imperial Desert Dreams

Cotton Growing and Irrigation in Central Asia, 1860–1991

Author: Julia Obertreis

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 3847007866

Category: History

Page: 536

View: 5377

Beamte, Ingenieure und Wissenschaftler des Russischen Reiches und später der Sowjetunion planten die Ausweitung und Modernisierung der Bewässerungssysteme und des Baumwollanbaus in Zentralasien. Die Studie, die das heutige Usbekistan und Turkmenistan untersucht, betont die diskursiven und politischen Kontinuitäten über die Zäsur von 1917 hinweg. Einer der zentralen Topoi war die Umwandlung von ›toten‹ Steppen und Wüsten in ›blühende Oasen‹. Der high modernism erreichte seinen Höhepunkt in den Nachkriegsjahrzehnten. Seit den 1970er Jahren entwickelte sich eine Öko-Kritik an der sowjetischen Modernisierung, die in der Perestrojkazeit an Fahrt aufnahm. Letztendlich trugen die ökologischen und ökonomischen sowie sozialen Folgewirkungen der wachstumsfixierten Modernisierung zum Zusammenbruch des kommunistischen Regimes bei. Officials, engineers and scientists in the Russian Empire and later the Soviet Union envisaged the expansion and modernization of irrigation systems and cotton growing in Central Asia. Focusing on the region of today’s Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, this book highlights the continuities in discourse and policies beyond the historical divide of 1917. One of the central topoi was the transformation of ‘dead’ lands into ‘blossoming oases’. High modernism policies hit their peak in the post-war decades. From the 1970s, an ecological critique evolved which gained momentum in the Perestroika period. Ultimately, the grave ecological, economic and social consequences of the growth-fixated modernization contributed to the downfall of the Communist regime.
Release

State Erosion

Unlootable Resources and Unruly Elites in Central Asia

Author: Lawrence P. Markowitz

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801469457

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 7952

State failure is a central challenge to international peace and security in the post-Cold War era. Yet theorizing on the causes of state failure remains surprisingly limited. In State Erosion, Lawrence P. Markowitz draws on his extensive fieldwork in two Central Asian republics—Tajikistan, where state institutions fragmented into a five-year civil war from 1992 through 1997, and Uzbekistan, which constructed one of the largest state security apparatuses in post-Soviet Eurasia—to advance a theory of state failure focused on unlootable resources, rent seeking, and unruly elites. In Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and other countries with low capital mobility—where resources cannot be extracted, concealed, or transported to market without state intervention—local elites may control resources, but they depend on patrons to convert their resources into rents. Markowitz argues that different rent-seeking opportunities either promote the cooptation of local elites to the regime or incite competition over rents, which in turn lead to either cohesion or fragmentation. Markowitz distinguishes between weak states and failed states, challenges the assumption that state failure in a country begins at the center and radiates outward, and expands the “resource curse” argument to include cash crop economies, where mechanisms of state failure differ from those involved in fossil fuels and minerals. Broadening his argument to weak states in the Middle East (Syria and Lebanon) and Africa (Zimbabwe and Somalia), Markowitz shows how the distinct patterns of state failure in weak states with immobile capital can inform our understanding of regime change, ethnic violence, and security sector reform.
Release