Christianizing Egypt

Syncretism and Local Worlds in Late Antiquity

Author: David Frankfurter

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140088800X

Category: Religion

Page: 336

View: 9511

How does a culture become Christian, especially one that is heir to such ancient traditions and spectacular monuments as Egypt? This book offers a new model for envisioning the process of Christianization by looking at the construction of Christianity in the various social and creative worlds active in Egyptian culture during late antiquity. As David Frankfurter shows, members of these different social and creative worlds came to create different forms of Christianity according to their specific interests, their traditional idioms, and their sense of what the religion could offer. Reintroducing the term “syncretism” for the inevitable and continuous process by which a religion is acculturated, the book addresses the various formations of Egyptian Christianity that developed in the domestic sphere, the worlds of holy men and saints’ shrines, the work of craftsmen and artisans, the culture of monastic scribes, and the reimagination of the landscape itself, through processions, architecture, and the potent remains of the past. Drawing on sermons and magical texts, saints’ lives and figurines, letters and amulets, and comparisons with Christianization elsewhere in the Roman empire and beyond, Christianizing Egypt reconceives religious change—from the “conversion” of hearts and minds to the selective incorporation and application of strategies for protection, authority, and efficacy, and for imagining the environment.
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The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Mediterranean Religions

Author: Barbette Stanley Spaeth

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521113962

Category: History

Page: 364

View: 4990

Provides an introduction to the major religions of the ancient Mediterranean and explores current research regarding the similarities and differences among them.
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The Monastic Landscape of Late Antique Egypt

Author: Darlene L. Brooks Hedstrom

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107161819

Category: History

Page: 488

View: 9224

Darlene L. Brooks Hedstrom offers a new history of the field of Egyptian monastic archaeology. It is the first study in English to trace how scholars identified a space or site as monastic within the Egyptian landscape and how such identifications impacted perceptions of monasticism. Brooks Hedstrom then provides an ecohistory of Egypt's tripartite landscape to offer a reorientation of the perception of the physical landscape. She analyzes late-antique documentary evidence, early monastic literature, and ecclesiastical history before turning to the extensive archaeological evidence of Christian monastic settlements. In doing so, she illustrates the stark differences between idealized monastic landscape and the actual monastic landscape that was urbanized through monastic constructions. Drawing upon critical theories in landscape studies, materiality and phenomenology, Brooks Hedstrom looks at domestic settlements of non-monastic and monastic settlements to posit what features makes monastic settlements unique, thus offering a new history of monasticism in Egypt.
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The Monastic Origins of the Nag Hammadi Codices

Author: Hugo Lundhaug,Lance Jenott

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161541728

Category: Religion

Page: 350

View: 4113

Hugo Lundhaug and Lance Jenott examine the provenance of the Nag Hammadi Codices and defend the view that they were produced and read by Christian monks of Upper Egypt in the fourth and fifth centuries. Eschewing the modern classification of these texts as "Gnostic," the authors analyze the codices in the context of the diverse monastic culture of late antique Egypt, with special attention to monasticism in the Thebaid and controversies over extra-canonical books and the theological legacy of Origen. The question of ownership is examined by means of a detailed study of the Nag Hammadi Codices' scribal notes and colophons, the cartonnage papyri from the leather covers, and scribal habits and codicology, seen in comparison with contemporary Coptic and Greek biblical manuscripts, as well as a range of sources for Upper Egyptian monasticism.
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The Transformation of Greek Amulets in Roman Imperial Times

Author: Christopher A. Faraone

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812249356

Category: History

Page: 512

View: 5349

Featuring over 120 illustrations, The Transformation of Greek Amulets in Roman Imperial Times is an essential reference for those interested in the religion, culture, and history of the ancient Mediterranean.
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Incorruptible Bodies

Christology, Society, and Authority in Late Antiquity

Author: Yonatan Moss

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520289994

Category: Religion

Page: 244

View: 9287

"Incorruptible Bodies examines a fateful theological controversy that raged in the eastern Roman empire in the early sixth-century. The controversy, whose main participants were the anti-Chalcedonian leaders Severus of Antioch and Julian of Halicarnassus, centered on whether or not Jesus' body was corruptible prior to its resurrection from the dead. Viewing the controversy in light of late antiquity's multiple images of the 'body of Christ,' Yonatan Moss reveals the underlying political, ritual, and cultural stakes of this debate and its long-lasting effects"--Provided by publishe
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Literary Territories: Cartographical Thinking in Late Antiquity

Author: Scott Fitzgerald Johnson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190493348

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 216

View: 8073

Literary Territories introduces readers to a wide range of literature from 200-900 CE in which geography is a defining principle of literary art. From accounts of Holy Land pilgrimage, to Roman mapmaking, to the systematization of Ptolemys scientific works, Literary Territories argues that forms of literature that were conceived and produced in very different environments and for different purposes in Late Antiquity nevertheless shared an aesthetic sensibility which treated the classical inhabited world, the oikoumene, as a literary metaphor for the collection and organization of knowledge. This type of cartographical thinking stresses the world of knowledge that is encapsulated in the literary archive. The archival aesthetic coincided with an explosion of late antique travel and Christian pilgrimage which in itself suggests important unifying themes between visual and textual conceptions of space. Indeed, by the end of Late Antiquity the geographical mode appears in nearly every type of writing in multiple Christian languages (Greek, Latin, Syriac, and others). The diffusion of cartographical thinking throughout the real-world oikoumene, now the Christian Roman Empire, was a fundamental intellectual trajectory of Late Antiquity.
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The Emergence of Islam in Late Antiquity

Allah and His People

Author: Aziz Al-Azmeh

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316641554

Category: History

Page: 660

View: 8995

A comprehensive and innovative reconstruction of the emergence of early Muslim religion and polity in their historical, religious and ethnological contexts. Intended principally for scholars of late antiquity, Islamic studies and the history of religions, the book opens up many novel directions for future research.
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An Oasis City

Author: Roger S. Bagnall,Nicola Aravecchia,Raffaella Cribiore,Paola Davoli,Olaf E. Kaper,Susanna McFadden

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 147986031X

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 4312

Scattered through the vast expanse of stone and sand that makes up Egypt’s Western Desert are several oases. These islands of green in the midst of the Sahara owe their existence to springs and wells drawing on ancient aquifers. In antiquity, as today, they supported agricultural communities, going back to Neolithic times but expanding greatly in the millennium from the Saite pharaohs to the Roman emperors. New technologies of irrigation and transportation made the oases integral parts of an imperial economy. Amheida, ancient Trimithis, was one of those oasis communities. Located in the western part of the Dakhla Oasis, it was an important regional center, reaching a peak in the Roman period before being abandoned. Over the past decade, excavations at this well-preserved site have revealed its urban layout and brought to light houses, streets, a bath, a school, and a church. The only standing brick pyramid of the Roman period in Egypt has been restored. Wall-paintings, temple reliefs, pottery, and texts all contribute to give a lively sense of its political, religious, economic, and cultural life. This book presents these aspects of the city’s existence and its close ties to the Nile valley, by way of long desert roads, in an accessible and richly illustrated fashion.
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Religion in Roman Egypt

Assimilation and Resistance

Author: David Frankfurter

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691070544

Category: History

Page: 314

View: 2641

This exploration of cultural resilience examines the complex fate of classical Egyptian religion during the centuries from the period when Christianity first made its appearance in Egypt to when it became the region's dominant religion (roughly 100 to 600 C.E. Taking into account the full range of witnesses to continuing native piety--from papyri and saints' lives to archaeology and terracotta figurines--and drawing on anthropological studies of folk religion, David Frankfurter argues that the religion of Pharonic Egypt did not die out as early as has been supposed but was instead relegated from political centers to village and home, where it continued a vigorous existence for centuries. In analyzing the fate of the Egyptian oracle and of the priesthoods, the function of magical texts, and the dynamics of domestic cults, Frankfurter describes how an ancient culture maintained itself while also being transformed through influences such as Hellenism, Roman government, and Christian dominance. Recognizing the special characteristics of Egypt, which differentiated it from the other Mediterranean cultures that were undergoing simultaneous social and political changes, he departs from the traditional "decline of paganism/triumph of Christianity" model most often used to describe the Roman period. By revealing late Egyptian religion in its Egyptian historical context, he moves us away from scenarios of Christian triumph and shows us how long and how energetically pagan worship survived.
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Religions of Late Antiquity in Practice

Author: Richard Valantasis

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691188165

Category: Religion

Page: N.A

View: 2937

This is an unprecedented collection of nearly seventy Late Antique primary religious texts. These texts--all in new English translation and many appearing in English for the first time--represent every major religious current from the late first century until the rise of Islam. Produced through the efforts of thirty-six leading scholars in the field, they constitute a comprehensive view of religious practice in Late Antiquity. Religious life and performance during this period comprised diverse, often unusual practices. Philosophical ascent, magic, legal pronouncement, hymnography, dietary and sexual restriction, and rhetoric were all part of this deeply fascinating world. Religious and political identity often intertwined, as reflected in the Roman persecution of Christians. And a fluid boundary between religion and superstition was contested in daily life. Many practices, including ascetic training, crossed religious boundaries. Others, such as "incubation" at specific temples and certain divination rites, were distinctive practices of individual groups and orders. Intrinsically interesting, the practice of religion in the Late Antique also edifies modern-day religious life. As this volume shows, the origins of the contemporary Western religious terrain can be gleaned in this period. Rabbinic Judaism flourished and spread. Christianity developed still-important theological categories and structures. And even movements that did not survive intact--such as Neoplatonism and the once-powerful Manichaean churches--continue to influence religion today. This rich sourcebook includes discussions of asceticism, religious organization, ritual, martyrdom, religion's social implications, law, and theology. Its unique emphasis on practice and its inclusion of texts translated from lesser-known languages advance the study of religious history in several directions. A strong interdisciplinary orientation will reward scholars and students of religion, theology, gender studies, classical literatures, and history. Each text is accompanied by an introduction and a bibliography for further reading and research, making the book appropriate for use in any university or seminary classroom.
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The Codex and Crafts in Late Antiquity

Author: Georgios Boudalis

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781941792124

Category: HISTORY

Page: 200

View: 8019

This catalogue is published in conjunction with the exhibition The Codex and Crafts in Late Antiquity held at Bard Graduate Center Gallery February 23-June 24, 2018.
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Olympiodorus: Life of Plato and On Plato First Alcibiades 1–9

Author: Michael Griffin

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472588312

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 4502

Olympiodorus (AD c. 500–570), possibly the last non-Christian teacher of philosophy in Alexandria, delivered these lectures as an introduction to Plato with a biography. For us, they can serve as an accessible introduction to late Neoplatonism. Olympiodorus locates the First Alcibiades at the start of the curriculum on Plato, because it is about self-knowledge. His pupils are beginners, able to approach the hierarchy of philosophical virtues, like the aristocratic playboy Alcibiades. Alcibiades needs to know himself, at least as an individual with particular actions, before he can reach the virtues of mere civic interaction. As Olympiodorus addresses mainly Christian students, he tells them that the different words they use are often symbols of truths shared between their faiths.
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A Century of Miracles

Christians, Pagans, Jews, and the Supernatural, 312-410

Author: H. A. Drake

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199367434

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 416

View: 8408

The fourth century of our common era began and ended with a miracle. Traditionally, in the year 312, the Roman emperor Constantine I experienced a Vision of the Cross that led him to convert to Christianity, and in 394 the emperor Theodosius I won a victory after praying for divine support. Other stories heralded the discovery of the True Cross by Constantine's mother, Helena, and the rise of a new kind of miracle-maker in the deserts of Egypt and Syria. Miracle also crept into the discourse and argument of this era, changing the criteria by which Romans awarded victory. According to a long-standing scholarly narrative, the changes during this century represent a decline from the high standards of Graeco-Roman culture and eventually contributed to the fall of the Roman empire. They plunged Christians and pagans into a "life-and-death" struggle that replaced the happy toleration of polytheism with a narrower and darker belief. The end of the Cold War and the rise of the field of Late Antiquity have led to greater appreciation for the variety of religious experience during this century. In A Century of Miracles, historian H. A. Drake explores the role miracle stories played in helping Christians, pagans, and Jews think about themselves and each other. These stories, he concludes, bolstered Christian belief that their god wanted the empire to be Christian. Most importantly, these stories help explain how, after a century of trumpeting the power of their god, Christians were able to deal with their failure to protect the city of Rome from sack by the barbarian army of the Gothic king Alaric in 410. Augustine's magnificent City of God eventually established a new theoretical basis for success, but in the meantime the popularity of miracle stories reassured the faithful--even when the miracles stopped.
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Revolutionizing a World

From Small States to Universalism in the Pre-Islamic Near East

Author: Mark Altaweel,Andrea Squitieri

Publisher: UCL Press

ISBN: 1911576631

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 4859

This book investigates the long-term continuity of large-scale states and empires, and its effect on the Near East’s social fabric, including the fundamental changes that occurred to major social institutions. Its geographical coverage spans, from east to west, modern-day Libya and Egypt to Central Asia, and from north to south, Anatolia to southern Arabia, incorporating modern-day Oman and Yemen. Its temporal coverage spans from the late eighth century BCE to the seventh century CE during the rise of Islam and collapse of the Sasanian Empire. The authors argue that the persistence of large states and empires starting in the eighth/seventh centuries BCE, which continued for many centuries, led to new socio-political structures and institutions emerging in the Near East. The primary processes that enabled this emergence were large-scale and long-distance movements, or population migrations. These patterns of social developments are analysed under different aspects: settlement patterns, urban structure, material culture, trade, governance, language spread and religion, all pointing at movement as the main catalyst for social change. This book’s argument is framed within a larger theoretical framework termed as ‘universalism’, a theory that explains many of the social transformations that happened to societies in the Near East, starting from the Neo-Assyrian period and continuing for centuries. Among other influences, the effects of these transformations are today manifested in modern languages, concepts of government, universal religions and monetized and globalized economies.
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The Transformation of Athens

Painted Pottery and the Creation of Classical Greece

Author: Robin Osborne

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400889936

Category: Art

Page: 304

View: 5403

How remarkable changes in ancient Greek pottery reveal the transformation of classical Greek culture Why did soldiers stop fighting, athletes stop competing, and lovers stop having graphic sex in classical Greek art? The scenes depicted on Athenian pottery of the mid-fifth century BC are very different from those of the late sixth century. Did Greek potters have a different world to see—or did they come to see the world differently? In this lavishly illustrated and engagingly written book, Robin Osborne argues that these remarkable changes are the best evidence for the shifting nature of classical Greek culture. Osborne examines the thousands of surviving Athenian red-figure pots painted between 520 and 440 BC and describes the changing depictions of soldiers and athletes, drinking parties and religious occasions, sexual relations, and scenes of daily life. He shows that it was not changes in each activity that determined how the world was shown, but changes in values and aesthetics. By demonstrating that changes in artistic style involve choices about what aspects of the world we decide to represent as well as how to represent them, this book rewrites the history of Greek art. By showing that Greeks came to see the world differently over the span of less than a century, it reassesses the history of classical Greece and of Athenian democracy. And by questioning whether art reflects or produces social and political change, it provokes a fresh examination of the role of images in an ever-evolving world.
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From Roman to Early Christian Thessalonike

Studies in Religion and Archaeology

Author: Laura Nasrallah,Charalambos Bakirtzis,Steven J Friesen

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674053222

Category: Architecture

Page: 437

View: 8206

This volume brings together international scholars of religion, archaeologists, and scholars of art and architectural history to investigate social, political, and religious life in Roman and early Christian Thessalonike, an important metropolis in the Hellenistic, Roman, and early Christian periods and beyond. This volume is the first broadly interdisciplinary investigation of Roman and early Christian Thessalonike in English and offers new data and new interpretations by scholars of ancient religion and archaeology. The book covers materials usually treated by a broad range of disciplines: New Testament and early Christian literature, art historical materials, urban planning in antiquity, material culture and daily life, and archaeological artifacts from the Roman to the late antique period.
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The Heirs of the Roman West

Author: Joachim Henning

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110218844

Category: History

Page: 591

View: 6488

International führende Experten analysieren die Strukturen und wirtschaftlichen Funktionen nicht-agrarischer Zentren zwischen ca. 500 und 1000 n. Chr.: ihre Handelsbeziehungen, das Hinterland ihrer Siedlungen, ihr landwirtschaftliches und kulturelles Umfeld. Die einunddreißig Beiträge befassen sich mit neuen archäologischen Erkenntnissen aus Mitteleuropa (Bd.1) und von Südeuropa bis Kleinasien ( Bd. 2).
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Classical and Christian Ideas in English Renaissance Poetry

Author: Isabel Rivers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134844174

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 248

View: 7283

Since publication in 1979 Isabel Rivers' sourcebook has established itself as the essential guide to English Renaissance poetry. It: provides an account of the main classical and Christian ideas, outlining their meaning, their origins and their transmission to the Renaissance; illustrates the ways in which Renaissance poetry drew on classical and Christian ideas; contains extracts from key classical and Christian texts and relates these to the extracts of the English poems which draw on them; includes suggestions for further reading, and an invaluable bibliographical appendix.
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