Chocolate Science and Technology

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118913760

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 536

View: 9014

This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry. It provides detailed review on a wide range of topics including cocoa production, cocoa and chocolate manufacturing operations, sensory perception of chocolate quality, flavour release and perception, sugar replacement and alternative sweetening solutions in chocolate production, industrial manufacture of sugar-free chocolates as well as the nutrition and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption. The topics cover modern cocoa cultivation and production practices with special attention on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption as well as the application of HACCP and other food safety management systems such as ISO 22,000 in the chocolate processing industry are also addressed. Additionally, detailed research on the influence of different raw materials and processing operations on the flavour and other quality characteristics of chocolates have been provided with scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is intended to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where agriculture, food science and nutrition is studied and researched.
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Chocolate Science and Technology

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118913779

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 536

View: 8323

This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry. It provides detailed review on a wide range of topics including cocoa production, cocoa and chocolate manufacturing operations, sensory perception of chocolate quality, flavour release and perception, sugar replacement and alternative sweetening solutions in chocolate production, industrial manufacture of sugar-free chocolates as well as the nutrition and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption. The topics cover modern cocoa cultivation and production practices with special attention on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption as well as the application of HACCP and other food safety management systems such as ISO 22,000 in the chocolate processing industry are also addressed. Additionally, detailed research on the influence of different raw materials and processing operations on the flavour and other quality characteristics of chocolates have been provided with scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is intended to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where agriculture, food science and nutrition is studied and researched.
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Chocolate Science and Technology

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444357336

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 296

View: 8316

This book provides an overview of the science and technology of chocolate manufacture from cocoa production, through the manufacturing processes, to the sensory, nutrition and health aspects of chocolate consumption. It covers cocoa cultivation and production with special attention paid to cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption are also addressed. There is a focus throughout on those factors that influence the flavour and quality characteristics of the finished chocolate and that provide scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is designed to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where food science is studied and researched. an overview of the science behind chocolate manufacture covers the whole process from cocoa production, through manufacturing, to the nutrition and health aspects of chocolate consumption focuses on factors that influence chocolate flavour and quality, and that provide scope for process optimization and improvement.
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Chocolate, Cocoa and Confectionery: Science and Technology

Author: Bernard Minifie

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401179247

Category: Science

Page: 904

View: 4844

The second edition of this book achieved worldwide recognition within the chocolate and confectionery industry. I was pressed to prepare the third edition to include modern developments in machinery, production, and packaging. This has been a formidable task and has taken longer than anticipated. Students still require, in one book, descriptions of the fundamental principles of the industry as well as an insight into modern methods. Therefore, parts of the previous edition describing basic technology have been retained, with minor alterations where necessary. With over fifty years' experience in the industry and the past eighteen years working as an author, lecturer, and consultant, I have collected a great deal of useful information. Visits to trade exhibitions and to manufacturers of raw materials and machinery in many parts of the world have been very valuable. Much research and reading have been necessary to prepare for teaching and lecturing at various colleges, seminars, and manufacturing establishments. The third edition is still mainly concerned with science, technology, and production. It is not a book of formulations, which are readily available elsewhere. Formulations without knowledge of principles lead to many errors, and recipes are given only where examples are necessary. _ Analytical methods are described only when they are not available in textbooks, of which there are many on standard methods of food analysis. Acknowledgments I am still indebted to many of the persons mentioned under "Acknowledgments" in the second edition. I am especially grateful to the following.
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Science and Technology of Enrobed and Filled Chocolate, Confectionery and Bakery Products

Author: Geoff Talbot

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1845696433

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 468

View: 5612

Enrobed and filled confectionery and bakery products, such as praline-style chocolates, confectionery bars and chocolate-coated biscuits and ice-creams, are popular with consumers. The coating and filling can negatively affect product quality and shelf-life, but with the correct product design and manufacturing technology, the characteristics of the end-product can be much improved. This book provides a comprehensive overview of quality issues affecting enrobed and filled products and strategies to enhance product quality. Part one reviews the formulation of coatings and fillings, with chapters on key topics such as chocolate manufacture, confectionery fats, compound coatings and fat and sugar-based fillings. Product design issues, such as oil, moisture and ethanol migration and chocolate and filling rheology are the focus of Part two. Shelf-life prediction and testing are also discussed. Part three then covers the latest ingredient preparation and manufacturing technology for optimum product quality. Chapters examine tempering, enrobing, chocolate panning, production of chocolate shells and deposition technology. With its experienced team of authors, Science and technology of enrobed and filled chocolate, confectionery and bakery products is an essential purchase for professionals in the chocolate, confectionery and bakery industries. Provides a comprehensive review of quality issues affecting enrobed and filled products Reviews the formulation of coatings and fillings, addressing confectionery fats, compound coatings and sugar based fillings Focuses on product design issues such as oil, moisture and chocolate filling rheology
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The Science of Chocolate

Author: Stephen T Beckett

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 178262595X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 250

View: 3655

The second edition of this international best seller has been fully revised and updated describing the complete chocolate making process, from the growing of the beans to the sale in the shops. The Science of Chocolate takes the reader on the journey of chocolate, to discover how confectionery is made and the way in which basic science plays a vital role. The second edition contains new chapters, covering topics which include nutrition - why chocolate is good for you - how to stop it melting in hot countries and possible methods of putting bubble inside a chocolate bar. This book will appeal to those with a fascination for chocolate and will be of specialist interest to those studying food sciences and working in the confectionery industry. A series of experiments, which can be adapted to suit students, are included to demonstrate the physical, chemical and mathematical principles involved.
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Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466598239

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 6375

One of the largest food commodities exported from the developing countries to the rest of the world, cocoa has gained increasing attention on the global market—raising many questions about its quality, sustainability and traceability. Cocoa Production and Processing Technology presents detailed explanations of the technologies that could be employed to assure sustainable production of high-quality and safe cocoa beans for the global confectionary industry. It provides overviews of up-to-date technologies and approaches to modern cocoa production practices, global production and consumption trends as well as principles of cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture. The book covers the origin, history and taxonomy of cocoa, and examines the fairtrade and organic cocoa industries and their influence on smallholder farmers. The chapters provide in-depth coverage of cocoa cultivation, harvesting and post-harvest treatments with a focus on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations and their influence on quality, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation techniques, drying, storage and transportation. The author provides details on cocoa fermentation processes as well as the biochemical and microbiological changes involved and how they influence flavour. He also addresses cocoa trading systems, bean selection and quality criteria, as well as industrial processing of fermented and dried cocoa beans into liquor, cake, butter and powder. The book examines the general principles of chocolate manufacture, detailing the various stages of the processes involved, the factors that influence the quality characteristics and strategies to avoid post-processing quality defects. This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality.
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Confectionery Science and Technology

Author: Richard W. Hartel,Joachim H. von Elbe,Randy Hofberger

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319617427

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 536

View: 2117

This book examines both the primary ingredients and the processing technology for making candies. In the first section, the chemistry, structure, and physical properties of the primary ingredients are described, as are the characteristics of commercial ingredients. The second section explores the processing steps for each of the major sugar confectionery groups, while the third section covers chocolate and coatings. The manner in which ingredients function together to provide the desired texture and sensory properties of the product is analyzed, and chemical reactions and physical changes that occur during processing are examined. Trouble shooting and common problems are also discussed in each section. Designed as a complete reference and guide, Confectionery Science and Technology provides personnel in industry with solutions to the problems concerning the manufacture of high-quality confectionery products.
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Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering

Principles and Applications

Author: Ferenc A. Mohos

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111893976X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 792

View: 8665

Confectionery and chocolate manufacture has been dominated by large-scale industrial processing for several decades. It is often the case though, that a trial and error approach is applied to the development of new products and processes, rather than verified scientific principles. Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering: Principles and Applications, Second edition, adds to information presented in the first edition on essential topics such as food safety, quality assurance, sweets for special nutritional purposes, artizan chocolate, and confectioneries. In addition, information is provided on the fading memory of viscoelastic fluids, which are briefly discussed in terms of fractional calculus, and gelation as a second order phase transition. Chemical operations such as inversion, caramelization, and the Maillard reaction, as well as the complex operations including conching, drying, frying, baking, and roasting used in confectionery manufacture are also described. This book provides food engineers, scientists, technologists and students in research, industry, and food and chemical engineering-related courses with a scientific, theoretical description and analysis of confectionery manufacturing, opening up new possibilities for process and product improvement, relating to increased efficiency of operations, the use of new materials, and new applications for traditional raw materials.
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Food Process Engineering and Technology

Author: Zeki Berk

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128120541

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 742

View: 8362

Food Process Engineering and Technology, Third Edition combines scientific depth with practical usefulness, creating a tool for graduate students and practicing food engineers, technologists and researchers looking for the latest information on transformation and preservation processes and process control and plant hygiene topics. This fully updated edition provides recent research and developments in the area, features sections on elements of food plant design, an introductory section on the elements of classical fluid mechanics, a section on non-thermal processes, and recent technologies, such as freeze concentration, osmotic dehydration, and active packaging that are discussed in detail. Provides a strong emphasis on the relationship between engineering and product quality/safety Considers cost and environmental factors Presents a fully updated, adequate review of recent research and developments in the area Includes a new, full chapter on elements of food plant design Covers recent technologies, such as freeze concentration, osmotic dehydration, and active packaging that are discussed in detail
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Beckett's Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use

Author: Steve T. Beckett,Mark S. Fowler,Gregory R. Ziegler

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118780140

Category: Science

Page: 800

View: 4235

Revised edition of: Industrial chocolate manufacture and use / edited by Stephen T. Beckett. 2009.
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Do Chocolate Lovers Have Sweeter Babies?

The Surprising Science of Pregnancy

Author: Jena Pincott

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439183341

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 267

View: 9357

"Where Baby Mama meets the Discovery Channel, a bright book of brain candy about the wild science behind pregnancy"--Provided by publisher.
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Principles of Seed Science and Technology

Author: Lawrence O. Copeland,Miller F. McDonald

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461516196

Category: Science

Page: 467

View: 909

This Fourth Edition of Principles of Seed Science and Technology, like the fIrst three editions, is written for the advanced undergraduate student or lay person who desires an introduction to the science and technology of seeds. The fIrst nine chapters present the seed as a biological system and cover its origin, development, composition, function (and sometimes nonfunction), performance and ultimate deterioration. The last nine chapters present the fundamentals of how seeds are produced, conditioned, evaluated and distributed in our modern agricultural society. Two new chapters have been added in this fourth edition, one on seed ecology and the second on seed drying. Finally, revisions have been made throughout to reflect changes that have occurred in the seed industry since publication of the Third Edition. Because of the fundamental importance of seeds to both agriculture and to all of society, we have taken great care to present the science and technology of seeds with the respect and feeling this study deserves. We hope that this feeling will be communicated to our readers. Furthermore, we have attempted to present information in a straight-forward, easy-ta-read manner that will be easily understood by students and lay persons alike. Special care has been taken to address both current state-of-the-art as well as future trends in seed technology.
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Tharp & Young on Ice Cream

An Encyclopedic Guide to Ice Cream Science and Technology

Author: Bruce W. Tharp,L. Steven Young

Publisher: DEStech Publications, Inc

ISBN: 1932078681

Category: Reference

Page: 392

View: 8066

This volume is at once an all-inclusive guide to the meaning of hundreds of technical terms and ideas needed for ice cream manufacturing, as well as a practical introduction to the ingredients, freezing methods, flavoring, and packaging of ice cream, sherbet, sorbet, gelato, frozen yogurts, novelties and many other kinds of frozen desserts. In dozens of longer entries and short essays, as well as with original quantitative tables and graphs, the authors explain the chemistry and controllable variables of all phases of ice cream production, e.g., dairy and non-dairy ingredients, crystallization, overrun, equipment, coloring, test and tasting protocols and much more. With its helpful system of cross-referencing, the book offers essential details on what must be done to create high-quality, successful products—with pointers on how to avoid dozens of specific defects that can occur during manufacturing, such as icy texture and sandiness. The authors also offer original information for extending product lines and creating new, e.g., health-oriented and hybrid products. Besides providing a definitive introduction to the applied science of frozen desserts, the book explains key management concepts from cost-reduction strategies to yield improvement, marketing, and regulatory compliance in formulation and labeling.
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Hidden Persuaders in Cocoa and Chocolate

A Flavor Lexicon for Cocoa and Chocolate Sensory Professionals

Author: Renata Januszewska

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0128154489

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 165

View: 6787

Hidden Persuaders of Cocoa and Chocolate: A Flavor Lexicon for Cocoa and Chocolate Sensory Professionals provides an overview of the tastes, aromas and notes describing cocoa and chocolate. In addition to exploring tastes, aromas and notes, the book broadens the language for describing chocolate by relating tasting experiences to the process of pairing flavors. This resource, designed for both academics and those working in research and development, equips the reader to describe these attributes in a sensory language for the purposes of new product development or quality improvement. Provides an overview of the tastes, aromas and notes describing cocoa and chocolate Features scientific explanations of the volatile and non-volatile aspects of each flavor Contains science-based categorization of taste, various aromas, trigeminal sensations and atypical flavors
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Advances in Potato Chemistry and Technology

Author: Jaspreet Singh,Lovedeep Kaur

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128005769

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 752

View: 9260

Advances in Potato Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition, presents the latest knowledge on potato chemistry, including the identification, analysis, and uses of chemical components in potatoes. Beginning with a brief description of potato components, the book then delves into their role during processing, then presenting information on strategies for quality optimization that provides students, researchers, and technologists working in the area of food science with recent information and updates on state-of-the-art technologies. The updated edition includes the latest information related to the identification, analysis, and use of chemical components of potatoes, carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate composition, cell wall chemistry, an analysis of glycoalkaloids, phenolics and anthocyanins, thermal processing, and quality optimization. In addition, new and sophisticated methods of quality determination of potatoes and their products, innovative and healthy potato-based foods, the future of genetically modified potatoes, and the non-food use of potatoes and their products is discussed. Includes both the emerging non-food uses of potato and potato-by-products as well as the expanding knowledge on the food-focused use of potatoes Presents case studies on the problems, factors, proposed solutions, and pros and cons of each, allowing readers facing similar concerns and issues to effectively and efficiently identify an appropriate solution Written by a global collection of experts in both food and non-food potato science
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Oil Spill Science and Technology

Author: Mervin Fingas

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 0128110961

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1078

View: 3600

Oil Spill Science and Technology, Second Edition, delivers a multi-contributed view on the entire chain of oil-spill related topics from oil properties and behaviors, to remote sensing through the management side of contingency planning and communicating oil spill risk perceptions. Completely new case studies are included with special attention to the Deepwater Horizon event, covering the impacts of wetlands and sand beaches, a mass balance approach, and the process for removing petroleum chemicals still trapped near Alabama beaches. Other new information on lingering oil left behind from the Exxon Valdez spill, the emergency system used in the Prestige incident, and coverage on the Heibei Spirit spill in Korea are also included. This updated edition combines technology with case studies to identify the current state of knowledge surrounding oil spills that will encourage additional areas of research that are left to uncover in this critical sector of the oil and gas industry. Updated with new chapters on risk analysis and communication, contingency planning, restoration, and case studies Supported with technological advances evolved from the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil tragedy and events in the Arctic/Antarctic Multi-contributed from various industry experts to provide an extensive background in technical equipment and worldwide procedures used today
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The Science of Sugar Confectionery

Author: William P Edwards

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782626093

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 8524

Confectionery is a topic close to many people's hearts and its manufacture involves some interesting science. The confectionery industry is divided into three classes: chocolate, flour and sugar confectionery. It is the background science of this latter category that is covered in The Science of Sugar Confectionery. The manufacture of confectionery is not a science based industry, as these products have traditionally been created by skilled confectioners working empirically. In fact, scientific understanding of the production process has only been acquired retroactively. Historically however, sugar confectionery has had technological synergies with the pharmaceutical industry, such as making sugar tablets and applying panned sugar coatings. This book gives an introduction to the subject, with some basic definitions and commonly used ingredients and then moves on to discuss the chemistry of various types of sugar confectionery. These include "sugar glasses" (boiled sweets), "grained sugar products" (fondants), toffees and fudges, "hydrocolloids" (gums, pastilles and jellies) and concludes with a chapter dedicated to sugar-free confectionery.
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Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies

Author: Duncan Manley

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0857093649

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 632

View: 1577

Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies is widely regarded as the standard work in its field. Part one covers management issues such as HACCP, quality control, process control and product development. Part two deals with the selection of raw materials and ingredients. The range and types of biscuits is covered in part three, while part four covers the main production processes and equipment, from bulk handling and metering of ingredients to packaging, storage and waste management. Eight expert authors have joined Duncan Manley in extensively updating and expanding the book, which is now some 25% longer than the previous edition. Part one now includes a new chapter on sustainability in the biscuit industry and the discussion of process and efficiency control is more detailed. In part two the information on wheat flour has been extensively revised to reflect recent developments and there are entirely new chapters on fats and oils and packaging materials. Photographs of the major types of biscuits now illustrate chapters in part three, which also includes a newly-composed chapter on the position of biscuits in nutrition. Finally, part four has been comprehensively reviewed and revised with the assistance of an author from a major machinery manufacturer. With its distinguished editor and team of expert contributors this new edition consolidates the position of Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies as the standard reference work in the industry. Widely regarded as the standard work in its field Covers management issues such as HACCP, quality control, process control and product development Deals with the selection of raw materials and ingredients
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