Field Sampling Methods
Author: M. W. Service
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
View: 5053Numerous methods have been devised to catch mosquitoes and many approaches employed to study their ecology and behaviour but until the first edition of this book in 1976 there was no comprehensive guide to mosquito ecology. New work on the topic has meant that this completely revised and updated second edition was required.
Author: Thomas H. Kunz,Stuart Parsons
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
View: 5064Fully illustrated and featuring contributions from the world’s leading experts in bat biology, this reference contains everything bat researchers and natural resource managers need to know for the study and conservation of this wide-ranging, ecologically vital, and diverse taxon.
Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections: Workshop Summary
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Publisher: National Academies Press
View: 5710Vector-borne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and plague, cause a significant fraction of the global infectious disease burden; indeed, nearly half of the world's population is infected with at least one type of vector-borne pathogen (CIESIN, 2007; WHO, 2004a). Vector-borne plant and animal diseases, including several newly recognized pathogens, reduce agricultural productivity and disrupt ecosystems throughout the world. These diseases profoundly restrict socioeconomic status and development in countries with the highest rates of infection, many of which are located in the tropics and subtropics. Although this workshop summary provides an account of the individual presentations, it also reflects an important aspect of the Forum philosophy. The workshop functions as a dialogue among representatives from different sectors and allows them to present their beliefs about which areas may merit further attention. These proceedings summarize only the statements of participants in the workshop and are not intended to be an exhaustive exploration of the subject matter or a representation of consensus evaluation. Vector-Borne Diseases : Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections, Workshop Summary (Forum on Microbial Threats) summarizes this workshop.
Author: Roger Ward Crosskey
Publisher: John Wiley & Son Ltd
View: 6571The study of blackflies has come of age--the blackfly is now recognized as a carrier of major endemic diseases; its larval stages are seen to play a major role in the ecology of rivers and streams; and blackfly chromosomes have proved unusually amenable material for cytogenetical studies. The expanded interest in the blackfly has greatly increased the scientific literature about them--literature that is extremely technical, highly specialized, and often of little help to non-specialists. This work bridges the gap between specialists and those whose work brings them in contact with the blackfly, but who need information at a more general level. It synthesizes present knowledge about the natural history of the fly family Simuliidae, covering taxonomic background, elements of larval structure and life in water, adult fly structure, migration, mating, biting and bloodsucking, human diseases, and natural enemies of larval and adult flies. Over 1200 bibliographic citations, a glossary of technical terms, and numerous figures, tables and illustrations are included.
Why Humans Fear, Loathe, and Love Insects
Author: Jeffrey Lockwood
Publisher: Oxford University Press
View: 6031The human reaction to insects is neither purely biological nor simply cultural. And no one reacts to insects with indifference. Insects frighten, disgust and fascinate us. Jeff Lockwood explores this phenomenon through evolutionary science, human history, and contemporary psychology, as well as a debilitating bout with entomophobia in his work as an entomologist. Exploring the nature of anxiety and phobia, Lockwood explores the lively debate about how much of our fear of insects can be attributed to ancestral predisposition for our own survival and how much is learned through individual experiences. Drawing on vivid case studies, Lockwood explains how insects have come to infest our minds in sometimes devastating ways and supersede even the most rational understanding of the benefits these creatures provide. No one can claim to be ambivalent in the face of wasps, cockroaches or maggots but our collective entomophobia is wreaking havoc on the natural world as we soak our food, homes and gardens in powerful insecticides. Lockwood dissects our common reactions, distinguishing between disgust and fear, and invites readers to consider their own emotional and physiological reactions to insects in a new framework that he's derived from cutting-edge biological, psychological, and social science.
Author: Mustapha Debboun,Stephen P. Frances,Daniel Strickman
Publisher: CRC Press
View: 5326The public has a great desire for products that prevent the annoyance of biting insects and ticks, but that desire does not always translate into sensible use of those products. Insect Repellents Handbook, Second Edition summarizes evidence-based information on insect repellents to inform decisions by those involved with insect repellent research, development, and use. This authoritative, single-source reference makes it possible for you to quickly gain a working level of expertise about insect repellents, without having to search through the scattered literature. The previous edition was the first comprehensive volume on this subject and quickly became the definitive reference on insect repellents. This second edition reflects the current state of insect repellent science, covers the processes involved in the development and testing of new active ingredients and formulations, and discusses the practical uses of repellents. The book includes thought-provoking discussions on how repellents work, their neuromolecular basis of action, and whether green chemistry can provide effective repellents. It also supplies an in-depth understanding of the development of repellents including testing methods, review of active ingredients, and the use of chemical mixtures as repellents. It provides science-backed chapters on repellent use including best practices for use of personal protection products, criteria for repellent use, and insect repellents for other potential use.
Author: Mike Lehane
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
View: 2386Blood-sucking insects are the vectors of many of the most debilitating parasites of man and his domesticated animals. In addition they are of considerable direct cost to the agricultural industry through losses in milk and meat yields, and through damage to hides and wool, etc. So, not surprisingly, many books of medical and veterinary entomology have been written. Most of these texts are organized taxonomically giving the details of the life-cycles, bionomics, relationship to disease and economic importance of each of the insect groups in turn. I have taken a different approach. This book is topic led and aims to discuss the biological themes which are common in the lives of blood-sucking insects. To do this I have concentrated on those aspects of the biology of these fascinating insects which have been clearly modified in some way to suit the blood-sucking habit. For example, I have discussed feeding and digestion in some detail because feeding on blood presents insects with special problems, but I have not discussed respiration because it is not affected in any particular way by haematophagy. Naturally there is a subjective element in the choice of topics for discussion and the weight given to each. I hope that I have not let my enthusiasm for particular subjects get the better of me on too many occasions and that the subject material achieves an overall balance.
Author: Nathalie Pettorelli
Publisher: OUP Oxford
View: 2755There has been a recent surge of interest in remote sensing and its use in ecology and conservation but this is the first book to focus explicitly on the NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index), a simple numerical indicator and powerful tool that can be used to assess spatio-temporal changes in green vegetation. The NDVI opens the possibility of addressing questions on scales inaccessible to ground-based methods alone; it is mostly freely available with global coverage over several decades. This novel text provides an authoritative overview of the principles and possible applications of the NDVI in ecology, environmental and wildlife management, and conservation. NDVI data can provide valuable information about temporal and spatial changes in vegetation distribution, productivity, and dynamics; allowing monitoring of habitat degradation and fragmentation, or assessment of the ecological effects of climatic disasters such as drought or fire. The NDVI has also provided ecologists with a promising way to couple vegetation with animal distribution, abundance, movement, survival and reproductive parameters. Over the last few decades, numerous studies have highlighted the potential key role of satellite data and the NDVI in macroecology, plant ecology, animal population dynamics, environmental monitoring, habitat selection and habitat use studies, and paleoecology. The chapters are organised around two sections: the first detailing vegetation indices and the NDVI, the principles behind the NDVI, its correlation with climate, the available NDVI datasets, and the possible complications and errors associated with the use of this satellite-based vegetation index. The second section discusses the possible applications of the NDVI in ecology, environmental and wildlife management, and conservation. This practical handbook is suitable for terrestrial ecologists and conservation biologists working with remote sensing tools. It will also be of relevance and use to both graduate students in the biological and ecological sciences and specialists in the fields of conservation biology, biodiversity monitoring, and natural resource management.
Author: Matthew E. Gompper
Publisher: OUP Oxford
View: 1967Dogs are the world's most common and widespread carnivores and are nearly ubiquitous across the globe. The vast majority of these dogs, whether owned or un-owned, pure-bred or stray, spend a large portion of their life as unconfined, free-roaming animals, persisting at the interface of human and wildlife communities. Their numbers are particularly large throughout the developing world, where veterinary care and population control are often minimal and human populations are burgeoning. This volume brings together the world's experts to provide a comprehensive, unifying, and accessible review of the effects of dogs on native wildlife species. With an emphasis on addressing how free-ranging dogs may influence wildlife management and native species of conservation concern, chapters address themes such as the global history and size of dog populations, dogs as predators, competitors, and prey of wildlife, the use of dogs as hunting companions, the role of dogs in maintaining diseases of wildlife, and the potential for dogs to hybridize with wild canid species. In addition, the potential role of dogs as mediators of conservation conflict is assessed, including the role of dogs as livestock guardians, the potential for dogs to aid researchers in locating rare wildlife species of conservation interest, and the importance of recognizing that some populations of dogs such as dingoes have a long history of genetic isolation and are themselves important conservation concerns. A common theme woven throughout this volume is the potential for dogs to mediate how humans interact with wildlife and the recognition that the success of wildlife conservation and management efforts are often underpinned by understanding and addressing the potential roles of free-ranging dogs in diverse natural ecosystems. Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation is aimed at professional wildlife and conservation ecologists, managers, graduate students, and researchers with an interest in human-dog-wildlife interactions. It will also be of relevance and use to dog welfare researchers, veterinary scientists, disease ecologists, and readers with an interest in the interface of domestic animals and wildlife.
Author: Simon I. Hay,Sarah E. Randolph,David James Rogers
View: 5797Global problems require global information, which satellites can now provide. With ever more sophisticated control methods being developed for infectious diseases, our ability to map spatial and temporal variation in risk is more important than ever. Only then may we plan control campaigns and deliver novel interventions and remedies where the need is greatest, and sustainable success is most likely. This book presents a comprehensive guide to using the very latest methods of surveillance from satellites, including analysing spatial data within geographical information systems, interpreting complex biological patterns, and predicting risk both today and as it may change in the future. Of all infectious disease systems, those that involve free-living invertebrate vectors or intermediate hosts are most susceptible to changing environmental conditions, and have hitherto received most attention from the marriage of analytical biology with this new space technology. Accordingly, this volume presents detailed case studies on malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), tick-borne infections and helminths (worms). For those who are unfamiliar with this science, and unsure how to start, the book ends with a chapter of practical advice on where to seek hands-on instruction. The lessons to be learned from these studies are applicable to many other epidemiological and ecological problems that face us today, most significantly the preservation of the world's biodiversity. Only book to provide a synthesis of complex biology, quantitative analysis, space technology and practical applications, focused on solving real epidemiological problems on a global scale Broad scope, with methods relevant to subjects ranging from biodiversity to public health Practical advice on relevant courses 24 pages of colour plates