John Von Neumann, 1903-1957

Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, V64, No. 3, Part 2, May, 1958

Author: John C. Oxtoby,Billy J. Pettis,G. B. Price

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781258713102


Page: 136

View: 4444

Whole Number 654. Contributors Include S. Ulam, Garrett Birkoff, F. J. Murray And Others.

Growing Explanations

Historical Perspectives on Recent Science

Author: M. Norton Wise

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822390086

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 7716

For much of the twentieth century scientists sought to explain objects and processes by reducing them to their components—nuclei into protons and neutrons, proteins into amino acids, and so on—but over the past forty years there has been a marked turn toward explaining phenomena by building them up rather than breaking them down. This collection reflects on the history and significance of this turn toward “growing explanations” from the bottom up. The essays show how this strategy—based on a widespread appreciation for complexity even in apparently simple processes and on the capacity of computers to simulate such complexity—has played out in a broad array of sciences. They describe how scientists are reordering knowledge to emphasize growth, change, and contingency and, in so doing, are revealing even phenomena long considered elementary—like particles and genes—as emergent properties of dynamic processes. Written by leading historians and philosophers of science, these essays examine the range of subjects, people, and goals involved in changing the character of scientific analysis over the last several decades. They highlight the alternatives that fields as diverse as string theory, fuzzy logic, artificial life, and immunology bring to the forms of explanation that have traditionally defined scientific modernity. A number of the essays deal with the mathematical and physical sciences, addressing concerns with hybridity and the materials of the everyday world. Other essays focus on the life sciences, where questions such as “What is life?” and “What is an organism?” are undergoing radical re-evaluation. Together these essays mark the contours of an ongoing revolution in scientific explanation. Contributors. David Aubin, Amy Dahan Dalmedico, Richard Doyle, Claus Emmeche, Peter Galison, Stefan Helmreich, Ann Johnson, Evelyn Fox Keller, Ilana Löwy, Claude Rosental, Alfred Tauber

A History in Sum

Author: Steve Nadis

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674727894

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 6316

In the twentieth century, American mathematicians began to make critical advances in a field previously dominated by Europeans. Harvard's mathematics department was at the center of these developments. A History in Sum is an inviting account of the pioneers who trailblazed a distinctly American tradition of mathematics--in algebraic geometry, complex analysis, and other esoteric subdisciplines that are rarely written about outside of journal articles or advanced textbooks. The heady mathematical concepts that emerged, and the men and women who shaped them, are described here in lively, accessible prose. The story begins in 1825, when a precocious sixteen-year-old freshman, Benjamin Peirce, arrived at the College. He would become the first American to produce original mathematics--an ambition frowned upon in an era when professors largely limited themselves to teaching. Peirce's successors transformed the math department into a world-class research center, attracting to the faculty such luminaries as George David Birkhoff. Influential figures soon flocked to Harvard, some overcoming great challenges to pursue their elected calling. A History in Sum elucidates the contributions of these extraordinary minds and makes clear why the history of the Harvard mathematics department is an essential part of the history of mathematics in America and beyond.

Towards a Philosophy of Real Mathematics

Author: David Corfield

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139436397

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 862

In this ambitious study, David Corfield attacks the widely held view that it is the nature of mathematical knowledge which has shaped the way in which mathematics is treated philosophically and claims that contingent factors have brought us to the present thematically limited discipline. Illustrating his discussion with a wealth of examples, he sets out a variety of approaches to new thinking about the philosophy of mathematics, ranging from an exploration of whether computers producing mathematical proofs or conjectures are doing real mathematics, to the use of analogy, the prospects for a Bayesian confirmation theory, the notion of a mathematical research programme and the ways in which new concepts are justified. His inspiring book challenges both philosophers and mathematicians to develop the broadest and richest philosophical resources for work in their disciplines and points clearly to the ways in which this can be done.

Liebe und Mathematik

Im Herzen einer verborgenen Wirklichkeit

Author: Edward Frenkel

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662434210

Category: Mathematics

Page: 317

View: 3009


Descriptive Set Theory

Author: Yiannis N. Moschovakis

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821848135

Category: Mathematics

Page: 502

View: 319

Descriptive Set Theory is the study of sets in separable, complete metric spaces that can be defined (or constructed), and so can be expected to have special properties not enjoyed by arbitrary pointsets. This subject was started by the French analysts at the turn of the 20th century, most prominently Lebesgue, and, initially, was concerned primarily with establishing regularity properties of Borel and Lebesgue measurable functions, and analytic, coanalytic, and projective sets. Its rapid development came to a halt in the late 1930s, primarily because it bumped against problems which were independent of classical axiomatic set theory. The field became very active again in the 1960s, with the introduction of strong set-theoretic hypotheses and methods from logic (especially recursion theory), which revolutionized it. This monograph develops Descriptive Set Theory systematically, from its classical roots to the modern ``effective'' theory and the consequences of strong (especially determinacy) hypotheses. The book emphasizes the foundations of the subject, and it sets the stage for the dramatic results (established since the 1980s) relating large cardinals and determinacy or allowing applications of Descriptive Set Theory to classical mathematics. The book includes all the necessary background from (advanced) set theory, logic and recursion theory.

The Problem of Moments

Author: James Alexander Shohat,Jacob David Tamarkin

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821815016

Category: Mathematics

Page: 140

View: 7742

The book was first published in 1943 and then was reprinted several times with corrections. It presents the development of the classical problem of moments for the first 50 years, after its introduction by Stieltjes in the 1890s. In addition to initial developments by Stieltjes, Markov, and Chebyshev, later contributions by Hamburger, Nevanlinna, Hausdorff, Stone, and others are discussed. The book also contains some results on the trigonometric moment problem and a chapter devoted to approximate quadrature formulas.

Recursive Functions and Metamathematics

Problems of Completeness and Decidability, Gödel’s Theorems

Author: Roman Murawski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401728666

Category: Philosophy

Page: 395

View: 4747

Recursive Functions and Metamathematics deals with problems of the completeness and decidability of theories, using as its main tool the theory of recursive functions. This theory is first introduced and discussed. Then Gödel's incompleteness theorems are presented, together with generalizations, strengthenings, and the decidability theory. The book also considers the historical and philosophical context of these issues and their philosophical and methodological consequences. Recent results and trends have been included, such as undecidable sentences of mathematical content, reverse mathematics. All the main results are presented in detail. The book is self-contained and presupposes only some knowledge of elementary mathematical logic. There is an extensive bibliography. Readership: Scholars and advanced students of logic, mathematics, philosophy of science.

Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society

Author: American Mathematical Society

Publisher: N.A


Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 4836

Contains the material formerly published in even-numbered issues of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society.

Wissenschaftlicher Briefwechsel mit Bohr, Einstein, Heisenberg u.a. / Scientific Correspondence with Bohr, Einstein, Heisenberg, a.o.

Band III/Volume III: 1940–1949

Author: Wolfgang Pauli

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540788026

Category: Science

Page: 1076

View: 2637

Das vorliegende Werk enth{lt wichtiges Quellenmaterial zur Geschichte der Elementarteilchen- und Quantenfeldtheorie aus den 40er Jahren. Die Briefe sind chronologisch eingeordnet und kommentiert. Umfangreiche Verzeichnisse erleichtern den Zugang zu dem reichhaltigen Informationsmaterial, das die Sch|pfer dieser Disziplin w{hrend ihrer Entstehungsperiode miteinander austauschten. F}r jeden, der sich ernsthaft mit der Geschichte der modernen Physik auseinandersetzen will, eine unumg{ngliches Standardwerk.

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Mathematics

Author: Eleanor Robson,Jacqueline Stedall

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191607444

Category: Mathematics

Page: 926

View: 4105

This Handbook explores the history of mathematics under a series of themes which raise new questions about what mathematics has been and what it has meant to practise it. It addresses questions of who creates mathematics, who uses it, and how. A broader understanding of mathematical practitioners naturally leads to a new appreciation of what counts as a historical source. Material and oral evidence is drawn upon as well as an unusual array of textual sources. Further, the ways in which people have chosen to express themselves are as historically meaningful as the contents of the mathematics they have produced. Mathematics is not a fixed and unchanging entity. New questions, contexts, and applications all influence what counts as productive ways of thinking. Because the history of mathematics should interact constructively with other ways of studying the past, the contributors to this book come from a diverse range of intellectual backgrounds in anthropology, archaeology, art history, philosophy, and literature, as well as history of mathematics more traditionally understood. The thirty-six self-contained, multifaceted chapters, each written by a specialist, are arranged under three main headings: 'Geographies and Cultures', 'Peoples and Practices', and 'Interactions and Interpretations'. Together they deal with the mathematics of 5000 years, but without privileging the past three centuries, and an impressive range of periods and places with many points of cross-reference between chapters. The key mathematical cultures of North America, Europe, the Middle East, India, and China are all represented here as well as areas which are not often treated in mainstream history of mathematics, such as Russia, the Balkans, Vietnam, and South America. A vital reference for graduates and researchers in mathematics, historians of science, and general historians.

The Princeton Colloquium

Author: Gilbert Ames Bliss,American Mathematical Society. Colloquium

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821846418

Category: Mathematics

Page: 117

View: 4524

Following the early tradition of the American Mathematical Society, the sixth colloquium of the Society was held as part of the summer meeting that took place at Princeton University. Two sets of lectures were presented: Fundamental Existence Theorems, by G. A. Bliss, and Geometric Aspects of Dynamics, by Edward Kasner. The goal of Bliss's Colloquium Lectures is an overview of contemporary existence theorems for solutions to ordinary or partial differential equations. The first part of the book, however, covers algebraic and analytic aspects of implicit functions. These become the primary tools for the existence theorems, as Bliss builds from the theories established by Cauchy and Picard. There are also applications to the calculus of variations. Kasner's lectures were concerned with the differential geometry of dynamics, especially kinetics. At the time of the colloquium, it was more common in kinematics to consider geometry of trajectories only in the absence of an external force. The lectures begin with a discussion of the possible trajectories in an arbitrary force field. Kasner then specializes to the study of conservative forces, including wave propagation and some curious optical phenomena. The discussion of constrained motions leads to the brachistochrone and tautochrone problems. Kasner concludes by looking at more complicated motions, such as trajectories in a resisting medium.

Scenes from the History of Real Functions

Author: F.A. Medvedev

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3034886608

Category: Mathematics

Page: 265

View: 1126

To attempt to compile a relatively complete bibliography of the theory of functions of a real variable with the requisite bibliographical data, to enumer ate the names of the mathematicians who have studied this subject, exhibit their fundamental results, and also include the most essential biographical data about them, to conduct an inventory of the concepts and methods that have been and continue to be applied in the theory of functions of a real variable ... in short, to carry out anyone of these projects with appropriate completeness would require a separate book involving a corresponding amount of work. For that reason the word essays occurs in the title of the present work, allowing some freedom in the selection of material. In justification of this selection, it is reasonable to try to characterize to some degree the subject to whose history these essays are devoted. The truth of the matter is that this is a hopeless enterprise if one requires such a characterization to be exhaustively complete and concise. No living subject can be given a final definition without provoking some objections, usually serious ones. But if we make no such claims, a characterization is possible; and if the first essay of the present book appears unconvincing to anyone, the reason is the personal fault of the author, and not the objective necessity of the attempt.

History of Modern Mathematics

Author: David Smith, Eugene,David Eugene Smith

Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.

ISBN: 1602063591

Category: Mathematics

Page: 84

View: 7081

A survey of the major figures and mathematical movements of the 19th century, this is a thorough examination of every significant foundation stone of today's modern mathematics. Providing clear and concise articles on the fundamental definition of numbers through to quantics and infinite series, as well as exposition on the relationships between theorems, this volume, which was first published in 1896, cements itself as an essential reference work, a solid jumping-off point for all students of mathematics, and a fascinating glimpse at the once-cutting edge that now is taken for granted in an ever-changing scientific field. New York lawyer and mathematician DAVID EUGENE SMITH (1860-1944) authored a number of books while a professor of mathematics at Columbia University, including The Teaching of Elementary Mathematics (1900), A History of Japanese Mathematics (1914), and The Sumario Compendioso of Brother Juan Diez (1921).

Summable Series and Convergence Factors

Author: Charles Napoleon Moore

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821846205

Category: Mathematics

Page: 105

View: 5872

Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that they may be used to obtain the sum or generalized sum of the series. This book gives a generalized systematic treatment of the theory of convergence factors of both types, for simply infinite series and for multiple series, convergent and summable.... --Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society