Reconstruction of Wave-Particle Duality and its Implications for General Chemistry Textbooks

Author: Mansoor Niaz,Cecilia Marcano

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400743963

Category: Science

Page: 46

View: 8218

It goes without saying that atomic structure, including its dual wave-particle nature, cannot be demonstrated in the classroom. Thus, for most science teachers, especially those in physics and chemistry, the textbook is their key resource and their students’ core source of information. Science education historiography recognizes the role played by the history and philosophy of science in developing the content of our textbooks, and with this in mind, the authors analyze more than 120 general chemistry textbooks published in the USA, based on criteria derived from a historical reconstruction of wave-particle duality. They come to some revealing conclusions, including the fact that very few textbooks discussed issues such as the suggestion, by both Einstein and de Broglie, and before conclusive experimental evidence was available, that wave-particle duality existed. Other large-scale omissions included de Broglie’s prescription for observing this duality, and the importance of the Davisson-Germer experiments, as well as the struggle to interpret the experimental data they were collecting. Also untouched was the background to the role played by Schrödinger in developing de Broglie’s ideas. The authors argue that rectifying these deficiencies will arouse students’ curiosity by giving them the opportunity to engage creatively with the content of science curricula. They also assert that it isn’t just the experimental data in science that matters, but the theoretical insights and unwonted inspirations, too. In addition, the controversies and discrepancies in the theoretical and experimental record are key drivers in understanding the development of science as we know it today.
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Nature of Science in General Chemistry Textbooks

Author: Mansoor Niaz,Arelys Maza

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400719200

Category: Science

Page: 43

View: 546

Research in science education has recognized the importance of history and philosophy of science (HPS). Nature of science (NOS) is considered to be an essential part of HPS with important implications for teaching science. The role played by textbooks in developing students’ informed conceptions of NOS has been a source of considerable interest for science educators. In some parts of the world, textbooks become the curriculum and determine to a great extent what is taught and learned in the classroom. Given this background and interest, this monograph has evaluated NOS in university level general chemistry textbooks published in U.S.A. Most textbooks in this study provided little insight with respect to the nine criteria used for evaluating NOS. Some of the textbooks, however, inevitably refer to HPS and thus provide guidelines for future textbooks. A few of the textbooks go into considerable detail to present the atomic models of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr and wave mechanical to illustrate the tentative nature of scientific theories --- an important NOS aspect. These results lead to the question: Are we teaching science as practiced by scientists? An answer to this question can help us to understand the importance of NOS, by providing students an HPS-based environment, so that they too (just like the scientists) feel the thrill and excitement of discovering new things. This monograph provides students and teachers guidelines for introducing various aspects of NOS, based on historical episodes.
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Chemie der hochenergetischen Materialien

Author: Thomas M. Klapötke

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110214873

Category: Science

Page: 195

View: 8922

This reference work treats the basic chemistry of high energy materials and offers an overview of current research. Both civilian and military uses of high-energy compounds are presented.
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Advanced Dairy Chemistry

Volume 1A: Proteins: Basic Aspects, 4th Edition

Author: Paul L. H. McSweeney,Patrick F. Fox

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461447143

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 548

View: 3482

Professor Fox’s multi-volume Advanced Dairy Chemistry set was first published in four volumes in the early 1980s. A second edition came out in the early 1990s, and an updated third edition was published a decade later. The set is the leading major reference on dairy chemistry, providing in-depth coverage of milk proteins, lipids, and lactose. The editors propose beginning the revision cycle again, with a revised first volume on proteins, to be divided and published separately as Volume 1A - Proteins: Basics Aspects, and Volume 1B – Applied Aspects. Fox and his co-editor, Paul McSweeney, have created an extensively revised the Table of Contents for Volume 1A, which details the novel and updated chapters to be included in this upcoming fourth edition. New contributors include highly regarded dairy scientists and scholars from around the world.
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Basic chemistry

Author: William S. Seese,Guido H. Daub

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: 9780130578112

Category: Science

Page: 655

View: 1813

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Evolving Nature of Objectivity in the History of Science and its Implications for Science Education

Author: Mansoor Niaz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319677268

Category: Science

Page: 237

View: 5468

This book explores the evolving nature of objectivity in the history of science and its implications for science education. It is generally considered that objectivity, certainty, truth, universality, the scientific method and the accumulation of experimental data characterize both science and science education. Such universal values associated with science may be challenged while studying controversies in their original historical context. The scientific enterprise is not characterized by objectivity or the scientific method, but rather controversies, alternative interpretations of data, ambiguity, and uncertainty. Although objectivity is not synonymous with truth or certainty, it has eclipsed other epistemic virtues and to be objective is often used as a synonym for scientific. Recent scholarship in history and philosophy of science has shown that it is not the experimental data (Baconian orgy of quantification) but rather the diversity / plurality in a scientific discipline that contributes toward understanding objectivity. History of science shows that objectivity and subjectivity can be considered as the two poles of a continuum and this dualism leads to a conflict in understanding the evolving nature of objectivity. The history of objectivity is nothing less than the history of science itself and the evolving and varying forms of objectivity does not mean that one replaced the other in a sequence but rather each form supplements the others. This book is remarkable for its insistence that the philosophy of science, and in particular that discipline’s analysis of objectivity as the supposed hallmark of the scientific method, is of direct value to teachers of science. Meticulously, yet in a most readable way, Mansoor Niaz looks at the way objectivity has been dealt with over the years in influential educational journals and in textbooks; it’s fascinating how certain perspectives fade, while basic questions show no sign of going away. There are few books that take both philosophy and education seriously – this one does! Roald Hoffmann, Cornell University, chemist, writer and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry
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Essentials of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Author: Donald Cairns

Publisher: Pharmaceutical Press

ISBN: 0853699798

Category: Medical

Page: 308

View: 2262

An introduction to pharmaceutical chemistry for undergraduate pharmacy, chemistry and medicinal chemistry students. Essentials of Pharmaceutical Chemistry is a chemistry introduction that covers all of the core material necessary to provide an understanding of the basic chemistry of drug molecules. Now a core text on many university courses, it contains numerous worked examples and problems. The 4th edition includes new chapters on Chromatographic Methods of Analysis, and Medicinal Chemistry - The Science of Drug Design.
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General Chemistry

Author: Donald Allan McQuarrie,Peter A. Rock,Ethan B. Gallogly

Publisher: Univ Science Books

ISBN: 9781891389603

Category: Science

Page: 1116

View: 9171

"Atoms First seems to be the flavor of the year in chemistry textbooks, but many of them seem to be little more than rearrangement of the chapters. It takes a master like McQuarrie to go back to the drawing board and create a logical development from smallest to largest that makes sense to students."---Hal Harris, University of Missouri-St. Louis "McQuarrie's book is extremely well written, the order of topics is logical, and it does a great job with both introductory material and more advanced concepts. Students of all skill levels will be able to learn from this book."---Mark Kearley, Florida State University This new fourth edition of General Chemistry takes an atoms-first approach from beginning to end. In the tradition of McQuarrie's many previous works, it promises to be another ground-breaking text. This superb new book combines the clear writing and wonderful problems that have made McQuarrie famous among chemistry professors and students worldwide. Presented in an elegant design with all-new illustrations, it is available in a soft-cover edition to offer professors a fresh choice at an outstanding value. Student supplements include an online series of descriptive chemistry Interchapters, a Student Solutions Manual, and an optional state-of-the-art Online Homework program. For adopting professors, an Instructor's Manual and a CD of the art are also available.
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General Organic and Biological Chemistry

An Integrated Approach

Author: Kenneth W. Raymond

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118352580

Category: Science

Page: 672

View: 4049

General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, 4th Edition has been written for students preparing for careers in health-related fields such as nursing, dental hygiene, nutrition, medical technology and occupational therapy. It is also suited for students majoring in other fields where it is important to have an understanding of the basics of chemistry. An integrated approach is employed in which related general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry topics are presented in adjacent chapters. This approach helps students see the strong connections that exist between these three branches of chemistry, and allows instructors to discuss these, interrelationships while the material is still fresh in students' minds.
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Organic Chemistry, 4th Edition, Francis A. Carey, 2000

Organic Chemistry,

Author: The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc

Publisher: Bukupedia

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 1275

View: 775

P R E F A C E xxv PHILOSOPHY From its first edition through this, its fourth, Organic Chemistry has been designed to meet the needs of the “mainstream,” two-semester, undergraduate organic chemistry course. It has evolved as those needs have changed, but its philosophy remains the same. The overarching theme is that organic chemistry is not only an interesting subject, but also a logical one. It is logical because its topics can be connected in a steady progression from simple to complex. Our approach has been to reveal the logic of organic chemistry by being selective in the topics we cover, as well as thorough and patient in developing them. Teaching at all levels is undergoing rapid change, especially in applying powerful tools that exploit the graphics capability of personal computers. Organic chemistry has always been the most graphical of the chemical sciences and is well positioned to benefit significantly from these tools. Consistent with our philosophy, this edition uses computer graphics to enhance the core material, to make it more visual, and more understandable, but in a way that increases neither the amount of material nor its level. ORGANIZATION The central message of chemistry is that the properties of a substance come from its structure. What is less obvious, but very powerful, is the corollary. Someone with training in chemistry can look at the structure of a substance and tell you a lot about its properties. Organic chemistry has always been, and continues to be, the branch of chemistry that best connects structure with properties. This text has a strong bias toward structure, and this edition benefits from the availability of versatile new tools to help us understand that structure. The text is organized to flow logically and step by step from structure to properties and back again. As the list of chapter titles reveals, the organization is according to functional groups—structural units within a molecule most responsible for a particular property— because that is the approach that permits most students to grasp the material most readily. Students retain the material best, however, if they understand how organic reactions take place. Thus, reaction mechanisms are stressed early and often, but within a functional group framework. A closer examination of the chapter titles reveals the close link between a functional group class (Chapter 20, Carboxylic Acid Derivatives) and a reaction type (Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution), for example. It is very satisfying to see students who entered the course believing they needed to memorize everything progress to the point of thinking and reasoning mechanistically. Some of the important stages in this approach are as follows: • The first mechanism the students encounter (Chapter 4) describes the conversion of alcohols to alkyl halides. Not only is this a useful functional-group transformation, but its first step proceeds by the simplest mechanism of all—proton transfer. The overall mechanism provides for an early reinforcement of acid-base chemistry and an early introduction to carbocations and nucleophilic substitution. • Chapter 5 continues the chemistry of alcohols and alkyl halides by showing how they can be used to prepare alkenes by elimination reactions. Here, the students see a second example of the formation of carbocation intermediates from alcohols, but in this case, the carbocation travels a different pathway to a different destination. • The alkenes prepared in Chapter 5 are studied again in Chapter 6, this time with an eye toward their own chemical reactivity. What the students learned about carbocations in Chapters 4 and 5 serves them well in understanding the mechanisms of the reactions of alkenes in Chapter 6. • Likewise, the mechanism of nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones described in Chapter 17 sets the stage for aldol condensation in Chapter 18, esterification of carboxylic acids in Chapter 19, nucleophilic acyl substitution in Chapter 20, and ester condensation in Chapter 21. xxvi PREFACE THE SPARTAN INTEGRATION The third edition of this text broke new ground with its emphasis on molecular modeling, including the addition of more than 100 exercises of the model-building type. This, the fourth edition, moves to the next level of modeling. Gwendolyn and Alan Shusterman’s 1997 Journal of Chemical Education article “Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models” described how models showing the results of molecular orbital calculations, especially electrostatic potential maps, could be used effectively in introductory courses. The software used to create the Shustermans’ models was Spartan, a product of Wavefunction, Inc. In a nutshell, the beauty of electrostatic potential maps is their ability to display the charge distribution in a molecule. At the most fundamental level, the forces that govern structure and properties in organic chemistry are the attractions between opposite charges and the repulsions between like charges. We were therefore optimistic that electrostatic potential maps held great promise for helping students make the connection between structure, especially electronic structure, and properties. Even at an early stage we realized that two main considerations had to guide our efforts. • An integrated approach was required. To be effective, Spartan models and the information they provide must be woven into, not added to, the book’s core. • The level of the coverage had to remain the same. Spartan is versatile. We used the same software package to develop this edition that is used in research laboratories worldwide. It was essential that we limit ourselves to only those features that clarified a particular point. Organic chemistry is challenging enough. We didn’t need to make it more difficult. If we were to err, it would therefore be better to err on the side of caution. A third consideration surfaced soon after the work began. • Student access to Spartan would be essential. Nothing could help students connect with molecular modeling better than owning the same software used to produce the text or, even better, software that allowed them not only to view models from the text, but also to make their own. All of this led to a fruitful and stimulating collaboration with Dr. Warren Hehre, a leading theoretical chemist and the founder, president, and CEO of Wavefunction, Inc. Warren was enthusiastic about the project and agreed to actively participate in it. He and Alan Shusterman produced a CD tailored specifically to NEW IN THIS EDITION ALL-NEW ILLUSTRATIONS All figures were redrawn to convey visual concepts clearly and forcefully. In addition, the author created a number of new images using the Spartan molecular modeling application. Now students can view electrostatic potential maps to see the charge distribution of a molecule in vivid color. These striking images afford the instructor a powerful means to lead students to a better understanding of organic molecules. FULL SPARTAN IMAGE INTEGRATION The Spartangenerated images are impressive in their own right, but for teaching purposes they are most effective when they are closely aligned with the text content. Because the author personally generated the images as he wrote this edition, the molecular models are fully integrated with text, and the educational value is maximized. Additionally, icons direct students to specific applications of either the SpartanView or SpartanBuild program, found on the accompanying CD-ROM. Appendix 3 provides a complete guide to the Learning By Modeling CD-ROM. ALL-NEW SPECTRA Chapter 13, Spectroscopy, was heavily revised, with rewritten sections on NMR and with all the NMR spectra generated on a high-field instrument. IMPROVED SUMMARIES The end-of-chapter summaries are recast into a more open, easier-to-read format, inspired by the popularity of the accompanying summary tables. NEW DESIGN This edition sports a new look, with an emphasis on neatness, clarity, and color carefully used to heighten interest and to create visual cues for important information. PREFACE xxvii accompany our text. We call it Learning By Modeling. It and Organic Chemistry truly complement each other. Many of the problems in Organic Chemistry have been written expressly for the model-building software SpartanBuild that forms one part of Learning By Modeling. Another tool, SpartanView, lets students inspect more than 250 already constructed models and animations, ranging in size from hydrogen to carboxypeptidase. We were careful to incorporate Spartan so it would be a true amplifier of the textbook, not just as a standalone tool that students might or might not use, depending on the involvement of their instructor. Thus, the content of the CD provides visual, three-dimensional reinforcement of the concepts covered on the printed page. The SpartanView icon invites students to view a molecule or animation as they are reading the text. Opportunities to use SpartanBuild are similarly correlated to the text with an icon directing students to further explore a concept or solve a modeling-based problem with the software. In addition to its role as the electronic backbone of the CD component and the integrated learning approach, the Spartan software makes a visible impact on the printed pages of this edition. I used Spartan on my own computer to create many of the figures, providing students with numerous visual explorations of the concepts of charge distribution. BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS AND THEIR INTEGRATION Comprehensive coverage of the important classes of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, and nucleic acids) appears in Chapters 25–27. But biological applications are such an important part of organic chemistry that they deserve more attention throughout the course. We were especially alert to opportunities to introduce more biologically oriented material to complement that which had already grown significantly since the first edition. Some specific examples: • The new boxed essay “Methane and the Biosphere” in Chapter 2 combines elements of organic chemistry, biology, and environmental science to tell the story of where methane comes from and where it goes. • A new boxed essay, “An Enzyme-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Substitution of an Alkyl Halide,” in Chapter 8 makes a direct and simple connection between SN2 reactions and biochemistry. • Two new boxed essays, “How Sweet It Is!” in Chapter 25, and “Good Cholesterol? Bad Cholesterol? What’s the Difference?” in Chapter 26, cover topics of current interest from an organic chemist’s perspective. • The already-numerous examples of enzymecatalyzed organic reactions were supplemented by adding biological Baeyer-Villiger oxidations and fumaric acid dehydrogenation. Chapters 25–27 have benefited substantially from the Spartan connection. We replaced many of the artistrendered structural drawings of complex biomolecules from earlier editions with accurate models generated from imported crystallographic data. These include: • maltose, cellobiose, and cellulose in Chapter 25 • triacylglycerols in Chapter 26 • alanylglycine, leucine enkephalin, a pleated [1]- sheet, an -helix, carboxypeptidase, myoglobin, DNA, and phenylalanine tRNA in Chapter 27 All of these are included on Learning By Modeling, where you can view them as wire, ball-and-spoke, tube, or space-filling models while rotating them in three dimensions. Both the text and Learning By Modeling include other structures of biological interest including: • a space-filling model of a micelle (Chapter 19) • electrostatic potential maps of the 20 common amino acids showing just how different the various side chains are (Chapter 27) SPECTROSCOPY Because it offers an integrated treatment of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), and ultravioletvisible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry (MS), Chapter 13 is the longest in the text. It is also the chapter that received the most attention in this edition. All of the sections dealing with NMR were extensively rewritten, all of the NMR spectra were newly recorded on a high-field instrument, and all of the text figures were produced directly from the electronic data files. Likewise, the IR and UV-VIS sections of Chapter 13 were revised and all of the IR spectra were recorded especially for this text. After being first presented in Chapter 13, spectroscopy is then integrated into the topics that follow it. The functional-group chapters, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, xxviii PREFACE and 24, all contain spectroscopy sections as well as examples and problems based on display spectra. INTEGRATION OF TOPICS Too often, in too many courses (and not just in organic chemistry), too many interesting topics never get covered because they are relegated to the end of the text as “special topic chapters” that, unfortunately, fall by the wayside as the end of the term approaches. We have, from the beginning and with each succeeding edition, looked for opportunities to integrate the most important of these “special” topics into the core material. I am pleased with the results. Typically, this integration is accomplished by breaking a topic into its component elements and linking each of those elements to one or more conceptually related core topics. There is, for example, no end-of-text chapter entitled “Heterocyclic Compounds.” Rather, heteroatoms are defined in Chapter 1 and nonaromatic heterocyclic compounds introduced in Chapter 3; heterocyclic aromatic compounds are included in Chapter 11, and their electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions described in Chapters 12 and 23, respectively. Heterocyclic compounds appear in numerous ways throughout the text and the biological role of two classes of them—the purines and pyrimidines—features prominently in the discussion of nucleic acids in Chapter 27. The economic impact of synthetic polymers is too great to send them to the end of the book as a separate chapter or to group them with biopolymers. We regard polymers as a natural part of organic chemistry and pay attention to them throughout the text. The preparation of vinyl polymers is described in Chapter 6, polymer stereochemistry in Chapter 7, diene polymers in Chapter 10, Ziegler–Natta catalysis in Chapter 14, and condensation polymers in Chapter 20. INTEGRATING THE CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM I always thought that the general chemistry course would be improved if more organic chemists taught it, and have done just that myself for the past nine years. I now see that just as general chemistry can benefit from the perspective that an organic chemist brings to it, so can the teaching and learning of organic chemistry be improved by making the transition from general chemistry to organic smoother. Usually this is more a matter of style and terminology than content—an incremental rather than a radical change. I started making such changes in the third edition and continue here. I liked, for example, writing the new boxed essay “Laws, Theories, and the Scientific Method” and placing it in Chapter 6. The scientific method is one thing that everyone who takes a college-level chemistry course should be familiar with, but most aren’t. It normally appears in Chapter 1 of general chemistry texts, before the students have enough factual knowledge to really understand it, and it’s rarely mentioned again. By the time our organic chemistry students get to “Laws, Theories, and the Scientific Method,” however, we have told them about the experimental observations that led to Markovnikov’s law, and how our understanding has progressed to the level of a broadly accepted theory based on carbocation stability. It makes a nice story. Let’s use it. FEWER TOPICS EQUALS MORE HELP By being selective in the topics we cover, we can include more material designed to help the student learn. Solved sample problems: In addition to a generous number of end-of-chapter problems, the text includes more than 450 problems within the chapters themselves. Of these in-chapter problems approximately one-third are multipart exercises that contain a detailed solution to part (a) outlining the reasoning behind the answer. Summary tables: Annotated summary tables have been a staple of Organic Chemistry ever since the first edition and have increased in number to more than 50. Well received by students and faculty alike, they remain one of the text’s strengths. End-of-chapter summaries: Our experience with the summary tables prompted us to recast the narrative part of the end-of-chapter summaries into a more open, easier-to-read format. SUPPLEMENTS For the Student Study Guide and Solutions Manual by Francis A. Carey and Robert C. Atkins. This valuable supplement provides solutions to all problems in the text. More than simply providing answers, most solutions guide the student with the reasoning behind each problem. In addition, each chapter of the Study Guide and Solutions Manual concludes with a Self-Test designed to assess the student’s mastery of the material. Online Learning Center At www.mhhe.com/carey, this comprehensive, exclusive Web site provides a wealth of electronic resources for PREFACE xxix instructors and students alike. Content includes tutorials, problem-solving strategies, and assessment exercises for every chapter in the text. Learning By Modeling CD-ROM In collaboration with Wavefunction, we have created a cross-function CD-ROM that contains an electronic model-building kit and a rich collection of animations and molecular models that reveal the interplay between electronic structure and reactivity in organic chemistry. Packaged free with the text, Learning By Modeling has two components: SpartanBuild, a user-friendly electronic toolbox that lets you build, examine, and evaluate literally thousands of molecular models; and SpartanView, an application with which you can view and examine more than 250 molecular models and animations discussed in the text. In the textbook, icons point the way to where you can use these state-of-the-art molecular modeling applications to expand your understanding and sharpen your conceptual skills. This edition of the text contains numerous problems that take advantage of these applications. Appendix 3 provides a complete guide to using the CD. For the Instructor Overhead Transparencies. These full-color transparencies of illustrations from the text include reproductions of spectra, orbital diagrams, key tables, computergenerated molecular models, and step-by-step reaction mechanisms. Test Bank. This collection of 1000 multiplechoice questions, prepared by Professor Bruce Osterby of the University of Wisconsin–LaCrosse, is available to adopters in print, Macintosh, or Windows format. Visual Resource Library. This invaluable lecture aid provides the instructor with all the images from the textbook on a CD-ROM. The PowerPoint format enables easy customization and formatting of the images into the lecture. The Online Learning Center, described in the previous section, has special features for instructors, including quiz capabilities. Please contact your McGraw-Hill representative for additional information concerning these supplements. A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S xxxi You may have noticed that this preface is almost entirely “we” and “our,” not “I” and “my.” That is because Organic Chemistry is, and always has been, a team effort. From the first edition to this one, the editorial and production staffs at WCB/McGraw-Hill have been committed to creating an accurate, interesting, studentoriented text. Special thanks go to Kent Peterson, Terry Stanton, and Peggy Selle for their professionalism, skill, and cooperative spirit. Linda Davoli not only copy edited the manuscript but offered valuable advice about style and presentation. GTS Graphics had the critical job of converting the copy-edited manuscript to a real book. Our contact there was Heather Stratton; her enthusiasm for the project provided us an unusual amount of freedom to fine-tune the text. I have already mentioned the vital role played by Warren Hehre and Alan Shusterman in integrating Spartan into this edition. I am grateful for their generosity in giving their time, knowledge, and support to this project. I also thank Dr. Michal Sabat of the University of Virginia for his assistance in my own modeling efforts. All of the NMR and IR spectra in this edition were recorded at the Department of Chemistry of James Madison University by two undergraduate students, Jeffrey Cross and Karin Hamburger, under the guidance of Thomas Gallaher. We are indebted to them for their help. Again, as in the three previous editions, Dr. Robert C. Atkins has been indispensable. Bob is the driving force behind the Study Guide and Solutions Manual that accompanies this text. He is much more than that, though. He reads and critiques every page of the manuscript and every page of two rounds of proofs. I trust his judgment completely when he suggests how to simplify a point or make it clearer. Most of all, he is a great friend. This text has benefited from the comments offered by a large number of teachers of organic chemistry who reviewed it at various stages of its development. I appreciate their help. They include Reviewers for the Fourth Edition Jennifer Adamski, Old Dominion University Jeffrey B. Arterburn, New Mexico State University Steven Bachrach, Trinity University Jared A. Butcher, Jr., Ohio University Barry Carpenter, Cornell University Pasquale R. Di Raddo, Ferris State University Jill Discordia, Le Moyne College William A. Donaldson, Marquette University Mark Forman, St. Joseph’s University Warren Giering, Boston University Benjamin Gross, University of Tennessee–Chattanooga R. J. Hargrove, Mercer University E. Alexander Hill, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Shawn Hitchcock, Illinois State University L. A. Hull, Union College Colleen Kelley, Northern Arizona University Brenda Kesler, San Jose State University C. A. Kingsbury, University of Nebraska–Lincoln Francis M. Klein, Creighton University Paul M. Lahti, University of Massachusetts–Amherst Rita S. Majerle, South Dakota State University Michael Millam, Phoenix College Tyra Montgomery, University of Houston–Downtown Richard Narske, Augustana University Michael A. Nichols, John Carroll University Bruce E. Norcross, SUNY–Binghamton Charles A. Panetta, University of Mississippi Michael J. Panigot, Arkansas State University Joe Pavelites, William Woods College Ty Redd, Southern Utah University Charles Rose, University of Nevada Suzanne Ruder, Virginia Commonwealth University Christine M. Russell, College of DuPage Dennis A. Sardella, Boston College Janice G. Smith, Mt. Holyoke College Tami I. Spector, University of San Francisco Ken Turnbull, Wright State University Clifford M. Utermoehlen, USAF Academy Curt Wentrup, University of Queensland S. D. Worley, Auburn University Reviewers for the Third Edition Edward Alexander, San Diego Mesa College Ronald Baumgarten, University of Illinois–Chicago Barry Carpenter, Cornell University John Cochran, Colgate University xxxii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I. G. Csizmadia, University of Toronto Lorrain Dang, City College of San Francisco Graham Darling, McGill University Debra Dilner, U.S. Naval Academy Charles Dougherty, Lehman College, CUNY Fillmore Freeman, University of California–Irvine Charles Garner, Baylor University Rainer Glaser, University of Missouri–Columbia Ron Gratz, Mary Washington College Scott Gronert, San Francisco State University Daniel Harvey, University of California–San Diego John Henderson, Jackson Community College Stephen Hixson, University of Massachusetts–Amherst C. A. Kingsbury, University of Nebraska–Lincoln Nicholas Leventis, University of Missouri–Rolla Kwang-Ting Liu, National Taiwan University Peter Livant, Auburn University J. E. Mulvaney, University of Arizona Marco Pagnotta, Barnard College Michael Rathke, Michigan State University Charles Rose, University of Nevada–Reno Ronald Roth, George Mason University Martin Saltzman, Providence College Patricia Thorstenson, University of the District of Columbia Marcus Tius, University of Hawaii at Manoa Victoria Ukachukwu, Rutgers University Thomas Waddell, University of Tennessee–Chattanooga George Wahl, Jr., North Carolina State University John Wasacz, Manhattan College Finally, I thank my family for their love, help, and encouragement. The “big five” remain the same: my wife Jill, our sons Andy, Bob, and Bill, and daughter-inlaw Tasneem. They have been joined by the “little two,” our grandchildren Riyad and Ava. Comments, suggestions, and questions are welcome. Previous editions produced a large number of e-mail messages from students. I found them very helpful and invite you to contact me at: [email protected] Francis A. Carey
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Introduction to Paint Chemistry and principles of paint technology, Fourth Edition

Author: John Bentley,G.P.A. Turner

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780412723308

Category: Science

Page: 298

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This work provides a comprehensive introduction to paint technology supported by the relevant aspects of chemistry and physics. It covers the basic science and is devoted to paint composition, formulation and drying mechanisms, paint ingredients such as solvents, pigments and additives, and the different paint groups by chemical type. Throughout the book the authors emphasize the factors which govern the choice of a particular paint for a particular job. This new edition has been thoroughly revised to modernize and clarify the text. Areas of new development have been added including environmental impacts, safety issues and modern paint making techniques. Nomenclature and units have also been updated and a glossary of technical terms added. This book should be of interest as a course text for paint technology students and technical staff concerned with the paint industry.
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A Textbook of Organic Chemistry, 4th Edition

Author: Tewari, K.S. & Vishnoi, N.K.

Publisher: Vikas Publishing House

ISBN: 938587912X

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9742

The book 'A Textbook of Organic Chemistry' was first published 40 years ago. Over the years it has become students’ favourite because it explains the subject in the most student-friendly way and is revised regularly to keep itself updated with the latest in research. This edition presents the modern-day basic principles and concepts of the subject as per the CBCS of UGC guidelines. Special emphasis has been laid on the mechanism and electronic interpretation of reactions of the various classes of compounds. It provides a basic foundation of the subject so that based on these, students are able to extrapolate, predict and solve challenging problems.New in this Edition• A new chapter 'Energy in Biosystems' explores the fundamentals of biochemical reactions involved in storage as well as continuous usage of energy in biosystems. • Structural theories like VB and MO, hybridization and orbital pictures of resonance, and hyperconjugation.• Woodward-Fieser rules for calculating λmax, and Norrisch type I and II reactions of special photochemical C-C cleavage in the chapter on 'Electromagnetic Spectrum'. • Polanyi-Hammond postulates and Curtin-Hammett principle, along with several new mechanisms, e.g., Favorskii, Baeyer-Villiger, and Birch, in Chapter 5.• McMurry, Wittig, Stobbe, Darzen in Chapter 19.• Study of antibiotics, antacids and antihistamines in the chapter on 'Chemotherapy'. • Biodegradable and conducting plastics in the chapter on 'Synthetic Polymers and Plastics'. • Benefits of 'Green Chemistry'—the latest trend for sustainable chemistry as Appendix II.
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Student Solutions Manual to Accompany General Chemistry

Author: Carole H. McQuarrie

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781891389733

Category: Chemistry

Page: 367

View: 9964

For years, Donald McQuarrie's chemistry textbooks have been famous among students and professors alike for their wonderful problems. The Solutions Manual to Accompany General Chemistry, Fourth Edition lists even-numbered chapter-ending problems from the textbook and goes on to provide detailed solutions. For students studying independently or in groups, this solutions manual will be tremendously useful to help students perfect their problem-solving skills and to master the covered concepts. NOT AVAILABLE IN NORTH AMERICA AND CANADA
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Chemie für Dummies

Author: John T. Moore

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527816933

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 9419

Wenn es knallt und stinkt, dann ist Chemie im Spiel! "Chemie für Dummies" macht deutlich, dass Chemie nicht nur aus Formeln, sondern vor allem aus unzähligen interessanten Stoffen, Versuchen und Reaktionen besteht. In diesem etwas anderen Chemie-Buch lernen Sie die Grundlagen der Chemie kennen und erfahren, wo sich chemische Phänomene im Alltag bemerkbar machen. John T. Moore macht für Sie so schwer vorstellbare Begriffe wie Atom, Base oder Molekül begreiflich und zeigt, wie man mit dem Periodensystem umgeht. Mit Übungsaufgaben am Ende eines jeden Kapitels können Sie dann noch Ihr Wissen überprüfen.
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Principles of General Chemistry

Author: Martin S. Silberberg

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Science, Engineering & Mathematics

ISBN: 9780073301716

Category: Science

Page: 792

View: 4082

Silberberg’s Principles of General Chemistry offers students the same authoritative topic coverage as his 4th edition textbook while appealing to today’s efficiency-minded and value-conscious instructors and students. Principles allows for succinct coverage of content with minimal emphasis on pedagogic learning aids. This new approach offers a more straightforward approach to learning the core principles without sacrificing depth, clarity, or rigor.
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Chemistry

matter and its changes

Author: James E. Brady,Frederick Senese

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 1256

View: 3698

Work more effectively and gauge your progress as you go along! This Study Guide is designed to accompany Brady & Senese' s "Chemistry: Matter & Its Changes, 4th Edition," It contains learning objectives, chapter reviews, examples, and self-test questions. Brady & Senese's Chemistry: Matter & Its Changes, 4th Edition, is a reader-friendly textbook that makes the content accessible without sacrificing either breadth or depth of coverage. The text's informal writing style, emphasis on problem solving, and state-of-the-art media package make this book an ideal fit for readers of various backgrounds and abilities. The 4th edition welcomes new co-author Fred Senese, the architect of the most visited general chemistry website. Together Jim Brady and Fred Senese offer accurate, lucid, and interesting explanations of the basic concepts of chemistry, as well as comprehensive coverage and aid to readers in developing problem solving skills.
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Fundamentals of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry

Sustainable Science, Fourth Edition

Author: Stanley E. Manahan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466553170

Category: Science

Page: 614

View: 4542

Fundamentals of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry: Sustainable Science, Fourth Edition covers university-level environmental chemistry, with toxicological chemistry integrated throughout the book. This new edition of a bestseller provides an updated text with an increased emphasis on sustainability and green chemistry. It is organized based on the five spheres of Earth’s environment: (1) the hydrosphere (water), (2) the atmosphere (air), (3) the geosphere (solid Earth), (4) the biosphere (life), and (5) the anthrosphere (the part of the environment made and used by humans). The first chapter defines environmental chemistry and each of the five environmental spheres. The second chapter presents the basics of toxicological chemistry and its relationship to environmental chemistry. Subsequent chapters are grouped by sphere, beginning with the hydrosphere and its environmental chemistry, water pollution, sustainability, and water as nature’s most renewable resource. Chapters then describe the atmosphere, its structure and importance for protecting life on Earth, air pollutants, and the sustainability of atmospheric quality. The author explains the nature of the geosphere and discusses soil for growing food as well as geosphere sustainability. He also describes the biosphere and its sustainability. The final sphere described is the anthrosphere. The text explains human influence on the environment, including climate, pollution in and by the anthrosphere, and means of sustaining this sphere. It also discusses renewable, nonpolluting energy and introduces workplace monitoring. For readers needing additional basic chemistry background, the book includes two chapters on general chemistry and organic chemistry. This updated edition includes three new chapters, new examples and figures, and many new homework problems.
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Schaum's Outline of Organic Chemistry, Fourth Edition

Author: Herbert Meislich,Howard Nechamkin,Jacob Sharefkin,George J. Hademenos

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 0071625135

Category: Reference

Page: 512

View: 4133

Tough Test Questions? Missed Lectures? Not Enough Time? Fortunately for you, there's Schaum's Outlines. More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills. This Schaum's Outline gives you: Practice problems with full explanations that reinforce knowledge Coverage of the most up-to-date developments in your course field In-depth review of practices and applications Fully compatible with your classroom text, Schaum's highlights all the important facts you need to know. Use Schaum's to shorten your study time-and get your best test scores! Schaum's Outlines-Problem Solved.
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