Artificial Nucleases

Author: Marina A. Zenkova

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364218510X

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 9695

The development of agents capable of cleaving RNA and DNA has attracted considerable attention from researchers in the last few years, because of the immediate and very important applications they can find in the emerging fields of biotechnology and pharmacology. There are essentially two classes of these agents - nucleases that occur naturally inside cells and synthetically produced artificial nucleases. The first class includes protein enzyme nucle ases and catalytic RNA structured ribozymes that perform cleavage of the phosphodiester bonds in nucleic acids according to a hydrolytic pathway in the course of different biochemical processes in the cell. A different pathway is used by some antibiotics which cleave DNA via redox-based mechanisms resulting in oxidative damage of nucleotide units and breakage of the DNA backbone. The above molecules are indispensable tools for manipulating nucleic acids and processing RNA; DNA-cleaving antibiotics and cytotoxic ribonucleases have demonstrated utility as chemotherapeutic agents. The second class, artificial nucleases, are rationally designed to imitate the active centers of natural enzymes by simple structures possessing minimal sets of the most important characteristics that are essential for catalysis. A dif ferent approach, in vitro selection, was also used to create artificial RNA and DNA enzymes capable of cleaving RNA. Being less efficient and specific as compared to the natural enzymes, the primitive mimics are smaller and robust and can function in a broad range of conditions.
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Macrocyclic Polyamines

Synthesis and Applications

Author: Xiaoqi Yu,Ji Zhang

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527341870

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 1402

The first comprehensive book focusing on synthesis and applications of macrocyclic polyamines and their derivatives Macrocyclic polyamines are a class of widely used important compounds. This is the first book that systematically summarizes the synthesis and applications of macrocyclic polyamines and their analogues, including the properties and synthetic methods of macrocyclic polyamines, chemical nucleases based on macrocyclic polyamines, the derivatives of macrocyclic polyamines as nano-vector materials, macrocyclic polyamines derivatives for bio-imaging, chemical sensors based on macrocyclic polyamines, and other applications of macrocyclic polyamines. Macrocyclic Polyamines: Synthesis and Applications includes most of the studies involving macrocyclic polyamines and their derivatives, and may be used as a reference for the researchers in related fields. It offers in-depth coverage of cyclization modes; special procedures for tetraza macrocyclic compounds; diacids-diamines condensation; oxidative DNA cleaving by macrocyclic polyamines; lipids with cationic MPA headgroups; the derivatives of DOTA, DO3A, and PCTA; receptors for anions; sensors for bioactive molecules; macrocyclic polyamines for solvent extraction and membrane transport of amino acids and their derivatives, electrophoretic separation, and open-tubular CEC; and much more. The first book that systematically summarizes the chemistry of macrocyclic polyamines and their derivatives in terms of synthetic methods for their preparation, functionalization, and application in the main fields of chemical sensors, chemical nucleases, drug-delivery, bio-imaging and vector materials Provides a comprehensive reference for the researchers working on macrocyclic polyamines Offers train of thought in related research fields such as organic chemistry, coordination chemistry, analytical chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, biomaterials, etc. Macrocyclic Polyamines: Synthesis and Applications will not only provide a reference for the researchers working on macrocyclic polyamines, but also offer opportunities for researchers in related research fields to understand the benefits of these key compounds.
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Polymers and Light

Fundamentals and Technical Applications

Author: Wolfram Schnabel

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527611037

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 396

View: 9670

This first book to focus on the important and topical effect of light on polymeric materials reflects the multidisciplinary nature of the topic, building a bridge between polymer chemistry and physics, photochemistry and photophysics, and materials science. Written by one experienced author, a consistent approach is maintained throughout, covering such applications as nonlinear optical materials, core materials for optical waveguides, photoresists in the production of computer chips, photoswitches and optical memories. Advanced reading for polymer, physical and organic chemists, manufacturers of optoelectronic devices, chemical engineers, and materials scientists.
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Molecular Biology of the Cell

Author: Bruce Alberts

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 1317563743

Category: Science

Page: 1464

View: 1725

As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. The Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated with the latest research in the field of cell biology, and it provides an exceptional framework for teaching and learning. The entire illustration program has been greatly enhanced.Protein structures better illustrate structure–function relationships, icons are simpler and more consistent within and between chapters, and micrographs have been refreshed and updated with newer, clearer, or better images. As a new feature, each chapter now contains intriguing openended questions highlighting “What We Don’t Know,” introducing students to challenging areas of future research. Updated end-of-chapter problems reflect new research discussed in the text, and these problems have been expanded to all chapters by adding questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, pathogens, and the immune system.
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The Regulation of DNA Replication and Transcription

Author: Mirko Beljanski, PhD

Publisher: Demos Medical Publishing

ISBN: 1617051829

Category: Medical

Page: 160

View: 4822

The Regulation of DNA Replication and Transcription explores basic processes of DNA replication and transcription in an effort to identify the mechanisms responsible for the release of genetic information and its role in the regulation of cellular events. Concerned with discovering the fundamental concept that might integrate and explain the wide range of existing lines of evidence, the author reports and interprets the results of experiments conducted in an impressive range of biological systems. Focused on complex mechanisms at the biochemical level, these studies allow analysis of the pathways involved when cells, organs and animal systems react to various trigger molecules derived from both living cells and exogenous sources. These include hormones, RNA, RNA fragments, alkaloids, actinomycin D, and phorbol esters, as well as chemical carcinogens and drugs. Comnining the results of these studies with his own extensive work in this field, the author is able to formulate a uniquely integrative biochemical model for the gene expression, demonstrating that both biological and chemically synthesized molecules can trigger the differential release of information from the DNA and thus influence cell transformation. Apart from its academic significance, the model offers high potential assistance in the search for ways to induce or control the expression of certain genes and, moreover, to promote differentiation of given cells in vitro as well as in situ.
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Molecular Cell Biology

Author: Harvey Lodish,Arnold Berk,Chris A. Kaiser,Monty Krieger,Anthony Bretscher,Hidde Ploegh,Angelika Amon,Matthew P. Scott,Kelsey Martin

Publisher: W. H. Freeman

ISBN: 9781464187445

Category:

Page: 1280

View: 9275

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Basic Methods in Molecular Biology

Author: Leonard Davis

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 044460149X

Category: Science

Page: 399

View: 5227

Basic Methods in Molecular Biology discusses the heart of the most recent revolution in biology—the development of the technology of genetics. The achievements in this field have simply changed what biologists do and, perhaps even more important, the way they think. Moreover, never before have scientists from such a broad range of disciplines rushed into such a small and slightly arcane field to learn and carry off a bit of the technology. This book comprises 21 chapters, opening with three introductory ones that discuss the basics of molecular biology; the tools of the molecular biologist; and general preparations, procedures, and considerations for use of the book. The following chapters then discuss cloning vectors and bacterial cells; preparation of DNA from eukaryotic cells; probing nucleic acids; plasmid DNA preparation; DNA restriction fragment preparation; purification of DNA; and preparation and analysis of RNA from eukaryotic cells. Other chapters cover preparation of DNA from bacteriophage clones; cloning DNA from the eukaryotic genome; subcloning into plasmids; M13 cloning and sequencing; further characterization of cloned DNA; transfection of mammalian cells in culture; protein methods; general methods; and specialized methods. This book will be of interest to practitioners in the fields of biology and molecular genetics.
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Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology

Author: Fritz Eckstein,David M. J. Lilley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642833845

Category: Science

Page: 223

View: 5290

Molecular biology has always been a discipline of rapid development. Despite this, we are presently experiencing a period of unprecedented proliferation of information in nucleic acid studies and molecular biology. These areas are intimately interwoven, so that each influences the other to their mutual benefit. The rapid growth in information leads to ever-increasing specialization, so that it becomes increasingly difficult for a scientist to keep abreast of developments in all the various aspects of the field, although an up-to-date knowledge of the field as a whole is highly desirable. With this background in mind we present the series Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology. It comprises focused review articles by active researchers who report on the newest developments in their areas of particular interest.
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Nucleic Acids in Chemistry and Biology

Author: G Michael Blackburn,Michael J Gait,David Loakes,David M Williams

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782625771

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4388

The structure, function and reactions of nucleic acids are central to molecular biology and are crucial for the understanding of complex biological processes involved. Revised and updated Nucleic Acids in Chemistry and Biology 3rd Edition discusses in detail, both the chemistry and biology of nucleic acids and brings RNA into parity with DNA. Written by leading experts, with extensive teaching experience, this new edition provides some updated and expanded coverage of nucleic acid chemistry, reactions and interactions with proteins and drugs. A brief history of the discovery of nucleic acids is followed by a molecularly based introduction to the structure and biological roles of DNA and RNA. Key chapters are devoted to the chemical synthesis of nucleosides and nucleotides, oligonucleotides and their analogues and to analytical techniques applied to nucleic acids. The text is supported by an extensive list of references, making it a definitive reference source. This authoritative book presents topics in an integrated manner and readable style. It is ideal for graduate and undergraduates students of chemistry and biochemistry, as well as new researchers to the field.
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Proteins and Nucleic Acids

The Biochemistry of Plants

Author: Abraham Marcus

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483220362

Category: Science

Page: 672

View: 595

The Biochemistry of Plants: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume 6: Proteins and Nucleic Acids provides information pertinent to the nucleic acids and the regulation of the expression of this information. This book presents the processes by which the nucleic acids are finally expressed as proteins. Organized into 14 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the overall structure of eukaryotic genomes, with emphasis on higher-plant DNA. This text then examines the enzymes involved in the cleavage and degradation of DNA. Other chapters provide a critical assessment of eukaryotic nucleic acid polymerases. This book discusses as well some examples from plant mitochondrial systems. The final chapter deals with two special areas of plant biology where the expression of the nucleic acids is seen in striking relief, the formation of plant tumors, and the growth and expression of plant viruses. This book is a valuable resource for plant biochemists, molecular biologists, senior graduate students, and research workers.
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Molecular Cloning

A Laboratory Manual

Author: Joseph Sambrook,David William Russell

Publisher: CSHL Press

ISBN: 9780879695774

Category: Science

Page: 2344

View: 2060

The first two editions of this manual have been mainstays of molecular biology for nearly twenty years, with an unrivalled reputation for reliability, accuracy, and clarity. In this new edition, authors Joseph Sambrook and David Russell have completely updated the book, revising every protocol and adding a mass of new material, to broaden its scope and maintain its unbeatable value for studies in genetics, molecular cell biology, developmental biology, microbiology, neuroscience, and immunology. Handsomely redesigned and presented in new bindings of proven durability, this three–volume work is essential for everyone using today’s biomolecular techniques. The opening chapters describe essential techniques, some well–established, some new, that are used every day in the best laboratories for isolating, analyzing and cloning DNA molecules, both large and small. These are followed by chapters on cDNA cloning and exon trapping, amplification of DNA, generation and use of nucleic acid probes, mutagenesis, and DNA sequencing. The concluding chapters deal with methods to screen expression libraries, express cloned genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotic cells, analyze transcripts and proteins, and detect protein–protein interactions. The Appendix is a compendium of reagents, vectors, media, technical suppliers, kits, electronic resources and other essential information. As in earlier editions, this is the only manual that explains how to achieve success in cloning and provides a wealth of information about why techniques work, how they were first developed, and how they have evolved.
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Molecular Modeling of Nucleic Acids

Author: Neocles B. Leontis,John SantaLucia,American Chemical Society. Division of Computers in Chemistry

Publisher: Amer Chemical Society

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 435

View: 2003

Covering numerous topics in modeling nucleic acids, this volume looks at the role of various spectroscopic methods, simulations of molecular dynamics using particle mesh methods, and dynamic and genetic algorithms for predicting RNA secondary structure. It also covers the thermodynamics of nucleic acid folding and three-dimensional structure prediction based on sequence information.
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Calculations for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

Author: Frank H. Stephenson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128025980

Category: Computers

Page: 496

View: 6999

Calculations in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Third Edition, helps researchers utilizing molecular biology and biotechnology techniques—from student to professional—understand which type of calculation to use and why. Research in biotechnology and molecular biology requires a vast amount of calculations. Results of one data set become the basis of the next. An error of choosing the wrong type of equation can turn what would have been a successful research project or weeks of labor and research into a veritable house of cards. It could be how you calculated the medium in which you test your sample to calculating how long it takes a sample to grow to calculating the synthesis of multiple variables. In one easy to use reference, Stephenson reviews the mathematics and statistics related to the day-to-day functions of biotechnology and molecular biology labs, which is a sticking point for many students, technicians, and researchers. The book covers all of the basic mathematical and statistical needs for students and professionals, providing them with a useful tool for their work. Features comprehensive calculations in biotechnology and molecular biology experiments from start to finish Provides coverage ranging from basic scientific notations to complex subjects like nucleic acid chemistry and recombinant DNA technology Includes recent applications of the procedures and computations in clinical, academic, industrial, and basic research laboratories cited throughout the text Features new coverage of digital PCR and protein quantification including chromatography and radiolabelling of proteins Includes more sample problems in every chapter for readers to practice concepts
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Molecular Biomethods Handbook

Author: John M. Walker,Ralph Rapley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781603273756

Category: Science

Page: 1124

View: 2927

Recent advances in the biosciences have led to a range of powerful new technologies, particularly nucleic acid, protein and cell-based methodologies. The most recent insights have come to affect how scientists investigate and define cellular processes at the molecular level. This book expands upon the techniques included in the first edition, providing theory, outlines of practical procedures, and applications for a range of techniques. Written by a well-established panel of research scientists, the book provides an up-to-date collection of methods used regularly in the authors’ own research programs.
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Chemoresponsive Materials

Stimulation by Chemical and Biological Signals

Author: Hans-Jörg Schneider

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782620621

Category: Science

Page: 529

View: 477

Smart materials stimulated by chemical or biological signals are of interest for their many applications including drug delivery, as well as in new sensors and actuators for environmental monitoring, process and food control, and medicine. In contrast to other books on responsive materials, this volume concentrates on materials which are stimulated by chemical or biological signals. Chemoresponsive Materials introduces the area with chapters covering different responsive material systems including hydrogels, organogels, membranes, thin layers, polymer brushes, chemomechanical and imprinted polymers, nanomaterials, silica particles, as well as carbohydrate- and bio-based systems. Many promising applications are highlighted, with an emphasis on drug delivery, sensors and actuators. With contributions from internationally known experts, the book will appeal to graduate students and researchers in academia, healthcare and industry interested in functional materials and their applications.
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Molecular Biology

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biology

Page: N.A

View: 1341

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