Antimicrobial Peptides

Discovery, Design and Novel Therapeutic Strategies

Author: Guangshun Wang

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845936949

Category: Medical

Page: 230

View: 4047

The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive account on current antimicrobial peptide research in two major directions. The first direction delineates the classic path for peptide development, ranging through identification, design, structure and mode of action studies. The second direction describes novel strategies for developing peptide therapeutics based on our knowledge of host defence antimicrobial peptides discovered in living organisms. Part I provides an overview of nomenclature, classification and bioinformatic analysis of antimicrobial peptides from bacteria, plants and animals. Subsequently, lantibiotics from bacteria and cyclotides from plants are presented. Part II discusses database-aided peptide prediction and design methods, synthetic combinatorial libraries and peptide mimetics that expand the conformational space of natural antimicrobial peptides. Part III covers the biophysical and structural characterization of antimicrobial peptides and their complexes. Finally, Part IV focuses on novel strategies for developing peptide-based therapies.
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Antimicrobial Peptides

Author: David A. Phoenix,Sarah R. Dennison,Frederick Harris

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527652876

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 4604

In this text, the small team of expert authors presents the field in a comprehensive and accessible manner that is well suited for students and junior researchers. The result is a highly readable and systematically structured introduction to antimicrobial peptides, their structure, biological function and mode of action. The authors point the way towards a rational design of this potentially highly effective new class of clinical antibiotics on the brink of industrial application. They do this by discussing their design principles, target membranes and structure-activity relationships. The final part of the book describes recent successes in the application of peptides as anticancer agents.
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Antimicrobial Peptides

Author: Joan Marsh,Jamie A. Goode

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470514663

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 5389

Describes the structure and function of important peptides from several different organisms. An exciting development is the use of these peptides or their analogues in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Considers ways in which these peptides may be used to control the insect vectors of key pathogens including the malarial parasite. Discusses the role of antimicrobial peptides in the mammalian immune system and their interaction with other components of that system.
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Antimicrobial Peptides: Utility Players in Innate Immunity

Author: Mark W. Robinson,Andrew T. Hutchinson,Sheila Donnelly

Publisher: Frontiers E-books

ISBN: 2889190773

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 8555

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an ancient group of molecules with diverse functions in innate immunity. To date, more than 1000 naturally-occurring AMPs have been identified which display considerable diversity in their primary sequences, lengths, structures and biological activities. Despite this variability, AMPs are broadly classified according to homologous secondary structures as cathelicidins (linear a-helical peptides), defensins (ß-strand peptides connected by disulfide bonds) and bactenecins (loop peptides). Most, but not all, AMPs are cationic with amphipathic faces. These biochemical properties bestow many peptides with potent antimicrobial activity by facilitating interactions with negatively charged microbial cell membrane components, thereby increasing membrane permeability and resulting in microbial death. Other indirect effects on microbial physiology have been reported including inhibition of DNA/RNA synthesis, impaired protein synthesis and folding, disruption of cell wall formation and inhibition of microbial cell metabolism. Thus, with the spread of antibiotic-resistant microbial pathogens, AMPs have emerged as exciting candidates for next generation anti-infective therapies. However, recent studies suggest that AMPs have evolved other mechanisms of pathogen clearance. Immunomodulation is a novel approach to antimicrobial therapy that centres on boosting host immunity rather than direct microbial killing. This is also an attractive means to treat sepsis and other immune-mediated diseases. Whilst several cationic peptides are under investigation as antimicrobial agents, a select few show a remarkable ability to protect against lethal endotoxaemia and clinically-relevant bacterial infections including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The molecular mechanisms responsible for this protection are only beginning to emerge but include prevention of innate cell activation by targeting key stages of bacterial endotoxin-mediated cell signalling. In this research topic, hosted by Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity, we aim to highlight key areas of AMP research including peptide diversity, structure-function relationships, antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of immune-modulation. We also aim to stimulate discussion on the emerging therapeutic potential of AMPs including antifungal, antiviral and anticancer applications.
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Antimicrobial Peptides

Role in Human Health and Disease

Author: Jürgen Harder,Jens-M. Schröder

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319241990

Category: Medical

Page: 158

View: 2153

This book focuses on the importance of human antimicrobial peptides (AMP) in keeping the host healthy and preventing infectious diseases. The first chapters deal with several examples of the role of AMP in different epithelial organs (skin and wound healing, eye, lung, genito-urinary tract, gut), which are exposed to different kinds of infectious microorganisms and as a result produce different patterns of AMP. Examples of the dysregulation of AMP expression and function promoting infections are discussed. The capacity of AMP to restrict the availability of essential metals to bacteria as an efficient antibacterial strategy in nutritional immunity is discussed in the next chapter. Our current understanding of how vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, influences AMP-expression and how this can affect our health is also addressed. Last but not least, the role of AMP in HIV infection and the immunomodulatory properties of AMP highlight the diverse facets of AMP in host immunity. AMP’s specific functions, including in fighting multi-resistant bacteria, suggest that they may offer therapeutic benefits – a question that is discussed in the final chapter.
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Prokaryotic Antimicrobial Peptides

From Genes to Applications

Author: Djamel Drider,Sylvie Rebuffat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441976925

Category: Science

Page: 451

View: 1083

The book will provide an overview of the advancement of fundamental knowledge and applications of antimicrobial peptides in biomedical, agricultural, veterinary, food, and cosmetic products. Antimicrobial peptides stand as potentially great alternatives to current antibiotics, and most research in this newly-created area has been published in journals and other periodicals. It is the editors’ opinion that it is timely to sum up the most important achievements in the field and provide the scientific community in a reference book. The goals of this project include illustrating the achievements made so far, debating the state of the art, and drawing new perspectives.
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Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Disease

Author: William Shafer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540299165

Category: Medical

Page: 266

View: 4467

Microbes are in our midst soon after birth. Thankfully, the number of harmless (and often beneficial) microbes far outnumber those that would do us harm. Our ability to ward-off pathogens in our environment, including those that can colonize our exterior and/or interior surfaces, depends on the integrative action of the innate and adaptive immunity systems. This volume of CTMI, entitled Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Disease, is dedicated to the role of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the innate host defense system of homo sapiens.
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A New Model for Analyzing Antimicrobial Peptides with Biomedical Applications

Author: Edwin Lowell Cooper,Alain Beschin,Martin Bilej

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9781586032371

Category: Medical

Page: 193

View: 8638

Annotation This book is aimed at two audiences. First, it will present evidence for the earthworm's immune system. Second, the results strongly suggest that certain molecules of the earthworm's immune system may be exploited as natural antibiotics--thus the biomedical applications. There are two advantages for using earthworms. First, they are an inexpensive, non-controversial invertebrate model. Second, in contrast to other invertebrates (e.g. Drosophila, C elegans) they are essential for maintaining the integrity of soil. Earthworms have a highly effective immune system since cancer cannot be induced in them nor does it seem to occur in natural populations. Cytotoxicity of cancer cells has been examined in relation to two earthworm leukocytes based upon: structure; cell differentiation antigens; function revealed by FACS and mAbs. These cells are SMALL (8-11 m) electron dense (SC), positive for human cell adhesion molecules (CD11a, CD45RA, CD45RO, CDw49b, CD54, for ?2-microglobulin and for Thy-1; LARGE (12-15 m) electron lucent cells (LC), negative for these same markers. Leukocytes synthesize and secrete lytic molecules (fetidins, CCF-1, lysenin, eiseniapore) participate in recognition of, binding to, killing and sequestration of cancer cells in vitro. Earthworm lytic levels are significantly higher than those of human NK cells. Earthworms possess a highly evolved, unique and efficient immune system that has facilitated long-term survival
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Antimicrobial Peptides and Innate Immunity

Author: Pieter S. Hiemstra,Sebastian A. J. Zaat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3034805411

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 6219

Antimicrobial peptides have been the subject of intense research in the past decades, and are now considered as an essential part of the defense system in bacteria, plants, animals and humans. his book provides an update on these effector molecules of the innate immune system both for researchers who are already actively involved in the area, and for those with a general interest in the topic. The book starts with an overview of the evolution of cysteine-containing antimicrobial peptides (including defensins), and the role of these peptides in host defense in plants and micro-organisms. The realization that antimicrobial peptides also display functions distinct from their direct antimicrobial action is the focus of the next chapters, and puts these peptides center stage in immunity and wound repair. Further chapters discuss the role of antimicrobial peptides in disease, by providing an overview of mechanisms in bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides and a discussion of their role in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis lung disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Finally, the book shows how knowledge of the function of antimicrobial peptides and their regulation can be used to design new therapies for inflammatory and infectious disorders. This is a very important area of research because of the increase in resistance of micro-organisms to conventional antibiotics. Therefore the use of synthetic or recombinant peptides, or agents that stimulate the endogenous production of antimicrobial peptides, provides an attractive alternative for conventional antibiotics.
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New edge of antibiotic development: antimicrobial peptides and corresponding resistance

Author: Octavio L. Franco,Nádia S. Parachin

Publisher: Frontiers E-books

ISBN: 2889193012

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 356

Antimicrobial peptides, commonly isolated from several organisms, have been considered part of innate immune system and also as potential antimicrobial drugs. Besides its antimicrobial activity, some AMPs also have antifungal activity, inmmunomodulatory and antitumural activities. Lately not only nature has become a source of AMPs. Besides isolation of natural organisms, antimicrobial peptides might be improved or created using computational tools. This opens even more this so amazing field by creating infinite novel and remarkable possibilities. Overall the current issue highlights the relevance of such Research Topic with perspectives to develop entirely new molecules with vast application within health and agricultural field with higher affinity for its target with concomitant reduction of side effects.
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Antimicrobial Peptides—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition

ScholarlyPaper

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1481641956

Category: Medical

Page: 17

View: 2816

Antimicrobial Peptides—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyPaper™ that delivers timely, authoritative, and intensively focused information about Antimicrobial Peptides in a compact format. The editors have built Antimicrobial Peptides—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Antimicrobial Peptides in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Antimicrobial Peptides—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
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Antimicrobial Peptides

Properties, Functions and Role in Immune Response

Author: Myung-Dae Seong,Young-Il Hak

Publisher: Nova Biomedical

ISBN: 9781622578436

Category: Medical

Page: 168

View: 4067

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small peptides which exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and often activity against virus. In addition, AMPs exert several functions including endotoxin neutralization, chemotactic and immunomodulating activities, angiogenesis, and wound repair. In this book, the authors discuss the innate immune system and lipopolysaccharides; the biological role of fish antimicrobial peptides; casein-derived peptides; antimicrobial peptides in intestinal inflammation and infection; insect antimicrobial peptides in immunity and mechanisms of action; potential of AMPs as therapeutic tools against infectious disease; and how LC-MS/MS-based quantitative protein profiling can aid mechanistic studies of antimicrobial peptides. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)
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Antimicrobial Peptides in Gastrointestinal Diseases

Author: Chi Hin Cho

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128143207

Category: Medical

Page: 186

View: 7423

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including cathelicidins and defensins are host defence peptides that carry out multiple roles in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Antimicrobial Peptides in Gastrointestinal Diseases presents knowledge about the physiological functions and pharmacological actions of AMPs in inflammation, cancer, and further infection of the GI tract. The book provides coverage from the basic research to clinical application for GI diseases. Current research and development of AMPs is presented, opening the way for further work on these peptides, not only in the context of GI diseases, but also for similar pathologies in other organs. AMPs are key to the regulation of human microbiome and second line defence in the GI mucosa, prevent colonization of pathogens and modulation of innate response to invading pathogens, and modify immunological reactions during inflammatory processes and oncogenic development in the GI mucosa. More importantly, AMPs possess diversified anti-microbial actions against various infectious diseases in the GI tract. With these physiological functions and pharmacological actions, AMPs have significant potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammation, cancer and further infection in the GI tract. Provides an overview of AMPs, particularly cathelicidin and defensin, in different diseases Covers inflammation and ulcer repair in the stomach and colon and carcinogenesis in the GI tract Presents AMP information and knowledge in a concise manner Gives useful information on all aspects of AMPs Promotes research on AMPs and their development as drugs, from bench, to clinical application
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Antimicrobial peptides

Author: Ciba Foundation

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 9780471950257

Category: Medical

Page: 283

View: 3391

Describes the structure and function of important peptides from several different organisms. An exciting development is the use of these peptides or their analogues in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Considers ways in which these peptides may be used to control the insect vectors of key pathogens including the malarial parasite. Discusses the role of antimicrobial peptides in the mammalian immune system and their interaction with other components of that system.
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Antimicrobial Peptides

Methods and Protocols

Author: Paul Robert Hansen

Publisher: Humana Press

ISBN: 9781493967353

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 3825

This volume provides basic and advanced laboratory protocols for the non-specialist and the experienced researcher. Chapters are divided into three parts covering synthesis and characterization of AMPs, studying the interaction of AMPs with model systems or bacteria, and assaying selected biological activities of AMPs. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Antimicrobial Peptides: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study of this vital field.
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Antimicrobial Peptides

Methods and Protocols

Author: Andrea Giuliani,Andrea C. Rinaldi

Publisher: Humana Press

ISBN: 9781607615958

Category: Medical

Page: 424

View: 8380

The action of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), ranging from direct killing of invading pathogens to immune response modulation and other complex biological responses, has stimulated research and clinical interest for more than two decades, but the area is still burgeoning due to emerging discoveries in the functions, roles, and regulation of AMPs, thus making the study of antimicrobial peptides a multi-disciplinary and rapidly evolving field. In Antimicrobial Peptides: Methods and Protocols, leading investigators present a broad, up-to-date collection of current research and experimental methods for the isolation, characterization, production, and optimization of antimicrobial peptides. Additional chapters detail methodologies in several microscopy techniques, high-throughput screening, QSAR modeling, and computer-aided design used to study these compounds, while key review articles survey potential medical applications of antimicrobial peptides as innovative anti-infective and immunomodulatory agents, as well as emerging discoveries in their function, regulation, and roles in innate immunity. As a volume in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and wide-ranging in its applications, Antimicrobial Peptides: Methods and Protocols provides both an authoritative guide for lab work on AMPs or related substances and a useful collection of thought stimuli to inspire further scientific endeavours in a wide array of vital fields.
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Antimicrobial Peptides

Basics for Clinical Application

Author: Katsumi Matsuzaki

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811335877

Category: Medical

Page: 305

View: 5376

This book presents an overview of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), their mechanisms of antimicrobial action, other activities, and various problems that must still be overcome regarding their clinical application. Divided into four major parts, the book begins with a general overview of AMPs (Part I), and subsequently discusses the various mechanisms of antimicrobial action and methods for researching them (Part 2). It then addresses a range of activities other than antimicrobial action, such as cell penetration, antisepsis, anticancer, and immunomodulatory activities (Part 3), and explores the prospects of clinical application from various standpoints such as the selective toxicity, design, and discovery of AMPs (Part 4). A huge number of AMPs have been discovered in plants, insects, and vertebrates including humans, and constitute host defense systems against invading pathogenic microorganisms. Consequently, many attempts have been made to utilize AMPs as antibiotics. AMPs could help to solve the urgent problem of drug-resistant bacteria, and are also promising with regard to sepsis and cancer therapy. Gathering a wealth of information, this book will be a bible for all those seeking to develop antibiotics, anti-sepsis, or anticancer agents based on AMPs.
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Antimicrobial and Anticancer Peptides

Author: Neil M. O’Brien-Simpson,Ralf Hoffmann,C.S. Brian Chia,John D. Wade

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889454703

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 6585

In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) listed cancer as the second leading cause of death and highlighted antimicrobial resistance as “a key global health challenge” that may, in a worst case scenario, lead to an annual death toll of 10 million by 2050, which would exceed predicted cancer deaths by 20%. Novel promising therapeutic options to reduce morbidity and mortality of both infectious microbial diseases and cancer are being developed based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), i.e., evolutionary proven antibiotics that also possess anti-cancer activities. Intriguingly, AMPs and anti-cancer peptides (ACPs) rely typically on novel mechanisms and cellular targets not used by current antibiotics or chemotherapeutics. Initiated by presentations at the International Meeting of Antimicrobial Peptides in 2016 (IMAP 2016), hosted at Leipzig University, Germany, this book compiles the most recent strategies and promising lead compounds for treating multi- and pan-resistant microbes and chemo-resistant cancer cells in fourteen different chapters representing leading research groups from five different continents. In this respect, the book shall stimulate new avenues of thinking and strategies in tackling forthcoming antimicrobial and cancer resistance health threats with the hope that the scenarios recently reported by the WHO will never eventuate.
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