Anti-discrimination Law and the European Union

Author: Mark Bell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199244502

Category: Law

Page: 269

View: 977

This book provides a timely and topical overview of recent developments in EU anti-discrimination law. Examining in particular discrimination on the grounds of race and sexual orientation, it provides an account of the debate within the institutions and Member States, analysis of relevant case law from the Court of Justice, and coverage of the anti-discrimination directives adopted in 2001.
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EU Anti-Discrimination Law

Author: Evelyn Ellis,Philippa Watson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191649473

Category: Law

Page: 576

View: 6157

EU Anti-Discrimination Law provides a detailed and critical analysis of the corpus of European Union law prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age, and sexual orientation. It takes into account the changes brought about by the Treaty of Lisbon and contains a thorough examination of the relevant case law of the Court of Justice of the EU. The book examines the background to the legislation and explains the essential characteristics and doctrines of EU law and their relevancy to the topic of anti-discrimination. It also analyses the increasingly significant general principles of EU law, the Charter of Fundamental Rights, and the relevant law flowing from the European Convention on Human Rights. The key concepts contained in anti-discrimination law are subjected to close scrutiny. The substantive provisions of the law on equal pay and the workplace and non-workplace provisions of the governing Directives are similarly examined, as are the numerous exceptions permitted to them. The complex rules governing the rights of pregnant women and those who have recently given birth are dealt with comprehensively and in a separate chapter. Equality in social security schemes is also discussed. The book concludes with an assessment of the practical utility of the existing law and the current proposals for its reform.
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Equality Law in an Enlarged European Union

Understanding the Article 13 Directives

Author: Helen Meenan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139467921

Category: Law

Page: 370

View: 7194

European Union equality and anti-discrimination law were revolutionized by the incorporation of Article 13 into the EC Treaty, adding new anti-discrimination grounds and new possibilities. This comprehensive 2007 volume provides a fresh approach to Article 13 and its directives; it adopts a contextual framework to equality and anti-discrimination law in the European Union. Part I deals with the evolution of Article 13, demographic and social change and the inter-relationship between European Equality Law and Human Rights. Part II contains expert essays on each of the Article 13 anti-discrimination grounds: sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age and sexual orientation, with common themes weaving throughout. This book will be of interest to everyone concerned with combating discrimination, academics, NGOs, lawyers, human resource professionals, employers, employees, research students and many others in the European Union and beyond.
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European Union Non-Discrimination Law and Intersectionality

Investigating the Triangle of Racial, Gender and Disability Discrimination

Author: Anna Lawson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317139216

Category: Law

Page: 340

View: 8021

This book contributes to a critical reflection of current legislative and jurisprudential developments in Non-Discrimination Law, focusing on the European Union. The book is focused on intersectionality between gender, race and disability and the question of whether, and to what extent, this intersection can be adequately addressed in (EU) law. The discussion rests on two basic assumptions. First, the multiplication of 'discrimination grounds' in EU law and other legal regimes should not result in a dilution of the demands of equality law. Accordingly, the book focuses on the three key grounds - race, gender and disability. These constitute nodes around which other discrimination grounds can be grouped. Second, any multi-ground non-discrimination law framework needs to engage with the question of discrimination on several grounds. This book provides a critical evaluation of some of the problems presented by such intersectionality and an opportunity to explore the issues in depth. This collection offers some new proposals relating to the regrouping of identity categories and to the general approach to socio-legal research in the field. It also contains a comparative section, which expands on practical experiences with intersectionality and law, and a section dedicated to juridical responses to intersectionality. The book will be a valuable resource for researchers, academics and those working in the area of EU non-discrimination law and policy.
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European Union Non-Discrimination Law

Comparative Perspectives on Multidimensional Equality Law

Author: Dagmar Schiek,Victoria Chege

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134049323

Category: Law

Page: 448

View: 7987

EU equality law is multidimensional in being based on different rationales and concepts. Consequently, the concept of discrimination has become fragmented, with different instruments envisaging different scopes of protection. This raises questions as to the ability of EU law to address the situation of persons excluded on a number of grounds. This edited collection addresses the increasing complexity of European Equality Law from jurisprudential, sociological and political science perspectives. Internationally renowned researchers from Scandinavian, Continental and Central European countries and Britain analyse consequences of multiplying discrimination grounds within EU equality law, considering its multidimensionality and intersectionality. The contributors to the volume theorise the move from formal to substantive equality law and its interrelation to new forms of governance, demonstrating the specific combination of non-discrimination law with welfare state models which reveal the global implications of the European Union. The book will be of interest to academics and policy makers all over the world, in particular to those researching and studying law, political sciences and sociology with an interest in human rights, non discrimination law, contract and employment law or European studies.
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Racism and Equality in the European Union

Author: Mark Bell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199297843

Category: Law

Page: 227

View: 8004

Mark Bell explores the effect of anti-racism policies in topical areas of EU law and policy including employment, social inclusion, immigration, and the criminal law.
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The Law on Age Discrimination in the EU

Author: Malcolm Sargeant

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9041125221

Category: Law

Page: 241

View: 7684

The EC Directive establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation covers a number of grounds of discrimination including age. The EU's population is ageing, but there is much evidence that age discrimination is widespread. The Directive is a reaction to that and the consequent desire to encourage greater participation in the labour market by older workers. This is the first time that age discrimination has been made unlawful by the EU and, as a result, there are now laws in every Member State making such discrimination unlawful. The Directive, and much of the national legislation, however, treats age discrimination differently to the other grounds for unlawful discrimination. It is the only area which permits direct discrimination. Age discrimination generally may still be objectively justified by a legitimate aim if the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary. Such aims include legitimate employment policy, labour market, and vocational training objectives. This insightful book--written by national experts in eight Member States and at the EU level--considers the ways in which the Directive has been implemented in some of the Member States and the extent to which they have taken advantage of the exceptions that are inherent in the Directive. Particular issues that are covered are: * what legislation has been adopted in each country * the development of the case law that exists in some States * the demographic imperative existing in each country * measures taken to improve the position of young people * retirement and the exit from the workforce of older workers * the approach and case law of the European Court of Justice As an important contribution towards an understanding of age discrimination within the European Union, this book opens a field of law that has heretofore not been considered in all its seriousness. It will be of real value to lawyers, human resource management professionals, and those with an interest in discrimination and EU issues. It is an important contribution to what will be a developing field of study
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EU Anti-Discrimination Law beyond Gender

Author: Uladzislau Belavusau,Kristin Henrard

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1509915028

Category: Law

Page: 392

View: 1381

The EU has slowly but surely developed a solid body of equality law that prohibits different facets of discrimination. While the Union had initially developed anti-discrimination norms that served only the commercial rationale of the common market, focusing on nationality (of a Member State) and gender as protected grounds, the Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) supplied five additional prohibited grounds of discrimination to the EU legislative palette, in line with a much broader egalitarian rationale. In 2000, two EU Equality Directives followed, one focusing on race and ethnic origin, the other covering the remaining four grounds introduced by the Treaty of Amsterdam, namely religion, sexual orientation, disabilities and age. Eighteen years after the adoption of the watershed Equality Directives, it seems timely to dedicate a book to their limits and prospects, to look at the progress made, and to revisit the rise of EU anti-discrimination law beyond gender. This volume sets out to capture the striking developments and shortcomings that have taken place in the interpretation of relevant EU secondary law. Firstly, the book unfolds an up-to-date systematic reappraisal of the five 'newer' grounds of discrimination, which have so far received mostly fragmented coverage. Secondly, and more generally, the volume captures how and to what extent the Equality Directives have enabled or, at times, prevented the Court of Justice of the European Union from developing even broader and more refined anti-discrimination jurisprudence. Thus, the book offers a glimpse into the past, present and – it is hoped – future of EU anti-discrimination law as, despite all the flaws in the Union's 'Garden of Earthly Delights', it offers one of the highest standards of protection in comparative anti-discrimination law.
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Experimentalist Governance in the European Union

Towards a New Architecture

Author: Charles F. Sabel,Jonathan Zeitlin

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191610186

Category: Political Science

Page: 386

View: 9782

This book advances a novel interpretation of EU governance. Its central claim is that the EU's regulatory successes within-and increasingly beyond-its borders rest on the emergence of a recursive process of framework rule making and revision by European and national actors across a wide range of policy domains. In this architecture, framework goals and measures for gauging their achievement are established by joint action of the Member States and EU institutions. Lower-level units are given the freedom to advance these ends as they see fit. But in return for this autonomy, they must report regularly on their performance and participate in a peer review in which their results are compared with those of others pursuing different means to the same general ends. The framework goals, performance measures, and decision-making procedures are themselves periodically revised by the actors, including new participants whose views come to be seen as indispensable to full and fair deliberation. The editors' introduction sets out the core features of this experimentalist architecture and contrasts it to conventional interpretations of EU governance, especially the principal-agent conceptions underpinning many contemporary theories of democratic sovereignty and effective, legitimate law making. Subsequent chapters by an interdisciplinary group of European and North American scholars explore the architecture's applicability across a series of key policy domains, including data privacy, financial market regulation, energy, competition, food safety, GMOs, environmental protection, anti-discrimination, fundamental rights, justice and home affairs, and external relations. Their authoritative studies show both how recent developments often take an experimentalist turn but also admit of multiple, contrasting interpretations or leave open the possibility of reversion to more familiar types of governance. The results will be indispensable for all those concerned with the nature of the EU and its contribution to contemporary governance beyond the nation-state.
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Constitutionalization of European Private Law

XXII/2

Author: Hans Micklitz

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191020079

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 9439

In recent years the impact of human rights and fundamental rights on private law has risen in prominence and led to a whole series of detailed investigations. 'Constitutionalization of private law' is the flag under which most of the research on the increasing impact of national constitutional rights on national private legal orders is sailing. In the absence of a European Constitution, the constitutionalization of European private law suggests a process: constitutionalization instead of constituent power, demos, and the magic constitutional moment. The Charter of Fundamental Rights and the European Convention of Human Rights constitute the two pillars on which the transformation of European private law rests. This volume clearly demonstrates the change that has taken place, at the national and at the European level. Private law is no longer immune to the intrusion of fundamental and human rights. Whilst member states and the EU are driving the process by adopting ever more concrete and more comprehensive lists of human and fundamental rights, at the national, the European, and international level with overlapping contents, the true and key players in this development are the national and European courts. Contributions to this volume give this process a face and a direction, which is highlighted in the introduction by Hans-W. Micklitz.
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Compliance in the Enlarged European Union

Living Rights Or Dead Letters?

Author: Gerda Falkner,Oliver Treib,Elisabeth Holzleithner

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 9780754675099

Category: Social Science

Page: 214

View: 8406

This book offers a rigorous empirical and theoretical analysis of the implementation of EU legislation and its effect in the wake of the accession of ten new member states to the EU in 2004. The authors offer in-depth empirical case studies of three of the most significant pieces of EU social legislation: the Working Time Directive, the Equal Treatment Directive and the Employment Equality Directive.
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Institutionalizing Intersectionality

The Changing Nature of European Equality Regimes

Author: A. Krizsan,H. Skjeie,J. Squires

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137031069

Category: Social Science

Page: 242

View: 1485

An exploration of the ways that multiple inequalities are being addressed in Europe. Using country-based and region-specific case studies it provides an innovative comparative analysis of the multidimensional equality regimes that are emerging in Europe, and reveals the potential that these have for institutionalizing intersectionality.
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The Development of Legal Instruments to Combat Racism in a Diverse Europe

Author: Jan Niessen,Isabelle Chopin

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 900413686X

Category: Law

Page: 323

View: 9154

Europe has come a long way at least in the institutional response to racism. This book describes the responses of the Council of Europe and the European Union to the worrying trends of racism and xenophobia in the 1990s, and considers the prospects for combating discrimination in Europe using tools that have emerged as a result. Part one looks at the evolution of the Council of Europe apparatus to combat discrimination and the anti-discrimination standards prescribed by its institutions. Part two considers the legislative measures recently adopted by the European Union. The contributions in Part three take a comparative perspective of all measures adopted at European level to combat racial and ethnic discrimination.
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Negotiating Gender and Diversity in an Emergent European Public Sphere

Author: B. Siim,M. Mokre

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113729129X

Category: Social Science

Page: 244

View: 3153

The book analyses intersections between gender and diversity through cross-national studies of European public spheres. The approach confronts research on European democracy and the public sphere with gender and diversity research and reflections about European equality and diversity issues are based on new research from a large-scale EU project.
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Taking Employment Discrimination Seriously

Chinese and European Perspectives

Author: Yuwen Li,J. E. Goldschmidt

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004177175

Category: Law

Page: 306

View: 2881

Employment discrimination is present in any society. However, this severe social problem has escalated in the post-Mao era in China. The imbalance between supply and demand in the labour market, combined with a lack of general consciousness regarding labour rights, have contributed to the swift spread of discrimination. This book contains the most recent research on the reality of discrimination in China, and advocates for effective employment equality protection through law and specialised equality institutions. The study of equal treatment in the legal systems of the EU illustrates the important contribution law, together with general policies, can make to the improvement of equality in employment. While both systems face a distinctive range and degree of problems, employment discrimination ought to be taken seriously in China and the countries of the EU.
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Anti-Racist Movements in the EU

Between Europeanisation and National Trajectories

Author: Stefano Fella,Carlo Ruzza

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 0230290906

Category: Political Science

Page: 243

View: 4857

Successive EU treaties may have instituted a common framework for fighting racial discrimination and intolerance across Europe, but it is a framework that masks the significant differences that arise as a result of national context: for example, pre-existing national anti-racist policies and legislation; the degree of success, character and development of anti-racist movements as well as the political, socio-economic and cultural context in which these policies and movements arise. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of these different national contexts by exploring the nature of anti-racist movements in six different EU member states and their relationship to political institutions and policy-making, while also reflecting on the impact of the new European sphere of decision-making. Drawing on extensive primary research involving interviews with movement and policy actors at the national and EU level, the book sheds light on the nature of racism and responses to it across Europe, analysing the impact of Europeanisation of policy-making on the sector, and exploring north-south and east-west differences and patterns of convergence.
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The EU Race Directive

Developing the Protection against Racial Discrimination within the EU

Author: Erica Howard

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135235775

Category: Law

Page: 238

View: 1271

In 2000, the European Union adopted a Directive against discrimination on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin. This book provides an in-depth evaluation of the Race Directive and its effects, questioning how successful the Race directive has been. The EU Race Directive discusses the history of the fight against racial discrimination in the EU and the equality clauses in international Human Rights instruments. It then examines the terms race, racism and racial discrimination and equality in the Directive. The book also looks at the concepts of equality which can be distinguished in the Race Directive and in the subsequent developments at EU level. Examining whether the Directive has improved the protection against racial or ethnic origin discrimination for people within the EU, the book concludes with an assessment of how far the EU has come on the road to racial equality with the adoption of the Race Directive and the subsequent developments. It also contains proposals for possible improvements. The comprehensive and up-to-date analysis in this book goes beyond most other books written on the subject and the specific focus on racism and racial discrimination means a more thorough examination than most texts focusing on discrimination on a larger number of grounds. This book will be of great value to students and academics in (European) law, social sciences and human rights, researching racism, racial discrimination, ethnicity and race relations. It will also be useful for policy makers.
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Engineering Equality

An Essay on European Anti-Discrimination Law

Author: Alexander Somek

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199693374

Category: Law

Page: 217

View: 9834

Examining the rise of European anti-discrimination law, this book provides a critique of the focus on and implementation of, anti-discrimination law.
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Partnership Rights, Free Movement, and EU Law

Author: Helen Toner

Publisher: Hart Publishing

ISBN: 1841134775

Category: Law

Page: 286

View: 1967

This book considers the case for modernising partnership rights in EC family reunification law. Existing Community law traditionally guarantees immigration rights only to spouses and yet there is a growing diversity of national laws on same-sex marriage, registered partnerships and recognition of cohabitation. The Community institutions which have recently framed new legislation seem to view this as a question that can be settled by political agreement with little or no outside constraint. The book challenges this assumption. The book outlines recent developments in national legal systems and traces the development of the recent Community legislation. Then, drawing on basic ECHR principles, the place of the ECHR in Community law, and on basic Community law principles of free movement and discrimination the book argues that the right of a migrant EU Citizen to family reunification for a cohabiting partner is presumptively protected and therefore justification for refusing to admit such partners must be provided. It also considers the possible justifications for marriage-partners only immigration policies and concludes that although possible, such justifications are far from certain to succeed. The discussion also tackles the question of whether judicial activism is appropriate or whether there should be judicial deference to the legislative process recently completed. The book concludes with a wider discussion of the proper response of Community law to the increasing diversity of Member States family laws and policies beyond the field of immigration rights.
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