Animal Locomotion

Author: Andrew A. Biewener

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198500223

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 4199

This work provides a clear foundation for understanding the underlying mechanisms by which animals have evolved to move in their physical environment. It integrates the biomechanics of animal movement with the physiology of animal energetics and the neural control of locomotion.
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Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers

Author: Wei Shyy,Yongsheng Lian,Jian Tang,Dragos Viieru,Hao Liu

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113946891X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 2272

Low Reynolds number aerodynamics is important to a number of natural and man-made flyers. Birds, bats, and insects have been of interest to biologists for years, and active study in the aerospace engineering community, motivated by interest in micro air vehicles (MAVs), has been increasing rapidly. The focus of this book is the aerodynamics associated with fixed and flapping wings. The book considers both biological flyers and MAVs, including a summary of the scaling laws which relate the aerodynamics and flight characteristics to a flyer's sizing on the basis of simple geometric and dynamics analyses, structural flexibility, laminar-turbulent transition, airfoil shapes, and unsteady flapping wing aerodynamics. The interplay between flapping kinematics and key dimensionless parameters such as the Reynolds number, Strouhal number, and reduced frequency is highlighted. The various unsteady lift enhancement mechanisms are also addressed.
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Advanced Topics on Computer Vision, Control and Robotics in Mechatronics

Author: Osslan Osiris Vergara Villegas,Manuel Nandayapa,Israel Soto

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331977770X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 1219

The field of mechatronics (which is the synergistic combination of precision mechanical engineering, electronic control and systems thinking in the design of products and manufacturing processes) is gaining much attention in industries and academics. It was detected that the topics of computer vision, control and robotics are imperative for the successful of mechatronics systems. This book includes several chapters which report successful study cases about computer vision, control and robotics. The readers will have the latest information related to mechatronics, that contains the details of implementation, and the description of the test scenarios.
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Wearable Robots

Biomechatronic Exoskeletons

Author: José L. Pons

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470987650

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 358

View: 5416

A wearable robot is a mechatronic system that is designed around the shape and function of the human body, with segments and joints corresponding to those of the person it is externally coupled with. Teleoperation and power amplification were the first applications, but after recent technological advances the range of application fields has widened. Increasing recognition from the scientific community means that this technology is now employed in telemanipulation, man-amplification, neuromotor control research and rehabilitation, and to assist with impaired human motor control. Logical in structure and original in its global orientation, this volume gives a full overview of wearable robotics, providing the reader with a complete understanding of the key applications and technologies suitable for its development. The main topics are demonstrated through two detailed case studies; one on a lower limb active orthosis for a human leg, and one on a wearable robot that suppresses upper limb tremor. These examples highlight the difficulties and potentialities in this area of technology, illustrating how design decisions should be made based on these. As well as discussing the cognitive interaction between human and robot, this comprehensive text also covers: the mechanics of the wearable robot and it’s biomechanical interaction with the user, including state-of-the-art technologies that enable sensory and motor interaction between human (biological) and wearable artificial (mechatronic) systems; the basis for bioinspiration and biomimetism, general rules for the development of biologically-inspired designs, and how these could serve recursively as biological models to explain biological systems; the study on the development of networks for wearable robotics. Wearable Robotics: Biomechatronic Exoskeletons will appeal to lecturers, senior undergraduate students, postgraduates and other researchers of medical, electrical and bio engineering who are interested in the area of assistive robotics. Active system developers in this sector of the engineering industry will also find it an informative and welcome resource.
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Animal Eyes

Author: Michael F. Land,Dan-Eric Nilsson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191625361

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 6885

Animal Eyes provides a comparative account of all known types of eye in the animal kingdom, outlining their structure and function with an emphasis on the nature of the optical systems and the physical principles involved in image formation. A universal theme throughout the book is the evolution and taxonomic distribution of each type of eye, and the roles of different eye types in the behaviour and ecology of the animals that possess them. In comparing the specific capabilities of eyes, it considers the factors that lead to good resolution of detail and the ability to function under a wide range of light conditions. This new edition is fully updated throughout, incorporating more than a decade of new discoveries and research.
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Energy for Animal Life

Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780198500537

Category: Science

Page: 174

View: 3417

Energy for Animal Life, the first book in the innovative new Oxford Animal Biology Series, is about how animals get energy, and how they use it. It explores all aspects of animal energetics, from the different levels of the food chain, the relative merits of different digestive systems or of different strategies for finding and choosing food, and the importance of temperature regulation, to the energy costs of motion, growth and reproduction. The book is truly comparative, drawing on examples from across the animal kingdom, and looking for parallels that transcend taxonomy. Lots of practical information on relevant experiments is included. Accessibly written, the book is suitable as supplementary reading for undergraduates taking a degree course in biological sciences.
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Animal osmoregulation

Author: Timothy J. Bradley

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 168

View: 4147

Water is fundamental to life and all metabolic reactions are influenced by the aqueous environment in which they occur. Osmoregulation and water balance are therefore absolutely essential topics in animal physiology. Animal Osmoregulation collates a widely dispersed literature to produce a comprehensive and authoritative synthesis of the field, providing detailed examples of osmoregulatory processes at the organismal, organ and cellular level. It incorporates clear background information on ion regulation and transport (specifically in the light of recent molecular studies) and illustrates the physical principles to which each organism must adhere, as well as the phylogenetic constraints within which it must operate. As with other titles in the Oxford Animal Biology Series, the topic is addressed using examples from throughout the animal kingdom, identifying common themes that transcend taxonomy.
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Animal Architecture, Mike Hansell, 2005

Animal

Author: Oxford University Press

Publisher: Bukupedia

ISBN: 0198507518

Category: Young Adult Nonfiction

Page: 335

View: 414

My aim in this book is to investigate and celebrate the biology of animal architecture. I believe that by writing this comprehensive overview, it can be seen that this is a coherent biological topic which gives us important insights. I last did this 20 years ago (Hansell 1984), so it is interesting for me not only to see how much the subject has developed during that time, but also how my views have changed too. Animal builders are patchily distributed through the animal kingdom, but research effort is also unevenly distributed within that. Spiders in particular have received a lot of research attention, from the level of their building material to the functional design of webs and their foraging ecology. Bird nests still remain rather under-researched, but there is a flurry of exciting research on bowerbird displays. The book reveals a need for more information in a number of areas, for example, on the composition and properties of self-secreted building materials other than silk, and the mechanical properties of nearly all structures other than spider webs. On the other hand we now have a much better understanding of how simple organisms can build large complex structures, and there have been developments in the ecological and evolutionary concepts of niche construction and ecological inheritance to which studies of animal builders have contributed. This book recognises three broad categories of structure: homes, traps and displays. Chapter 1 looks at the functional role of these: homes to protect builders from the hostile forces of the physical and biological world, foraging and feeding assisted by burrowing or by the use of nets or webs, and structures for intraspecific communication, in particular the displays of bowerbirds. Chapter 2 tests predictions relating to building materials: that self-secreted materials will tend to be more standardised and more complex than collected materials and that, because of this, they will tend to be more characteristic of dynamic structures like traps than of static ones, exemplified by houses. In Preface ix fact, collected materials prove to be quite highly standardised, while the synthesis of self-secreted materials does show some flexibility. The process of building is examined in Chapters 3 and 4. Building anatomy is shown to be generally unspecialised for delicate manipulative skills but modified for power in many burrowing species. Building behaviour is found to be simple and repetitive. These findings support predictions I have previously made (Hansell 1984, 2000). The creation of very large and complex structures is shown to be possible largely through a dialogue between the builder and the developing structure in which building actions in response to local stimuli change the stimulus situation; complex architecture is an emergent property of self-organising processes. These principles apply equally well to building by large workforces of social insects as to single individuals. Animal tools are considered in the light of these findings, because they are generally regarded as important in the context of human evolution, in spite of being small and often of simple construction. Some tool makers are found to show evidence of advanced learning and cognition, but assessment of these attributes in builders generally suffers from lack of evidence. Mechanics, growth, and design are the subjects of Chapter 5. Animal homes show how building rules can be conserved while the structures grow with the size of the individual or colony occupying them. Spiders' webs provide models for the study of engineering in tension, while display structures, in particular those of bowerbirds, provide possible models for the investigation of the evolution of an aesthetic sense. In Chapter 6, the cost of home building and its trade-offs with other life history traits is examined using examples of birds' nests and caddis cases; on trap building costs and their consequences, spider webs again supply the majority of the evidence. Buildings change the world both for builders and organisms that associate with them. These are the themes of Chapters 7 and 8. Predictions (Hansell 1987a, 1993) that builders, as ecosystem engineers, will tend to stabilise habitats, resist extinction, and promote biodiversity are examined. The last of these is clearly supported, although this is found to be largely through facultative associations by organisms with constructed habitat niches. The limitations of animal built structures as evidence of phylogeny is discussed, and the concept of a key adaptation examined with the conclusion that arthropod silk has the strongest claim to this title. Evidence that building has contributed to social evolution (Hansell 1987a) is found to be inconsistent. Finally, builders are seen to alter the course of their own evolution through ecological inheritance, the passing on to their descendents of habitats that they have altered.
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Animal Biology

Author: Alfred John Grove,Gordon Ewart Newell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biology

Page: 911

View: 3041

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Animal Behavior: Das Original mit Übersetzungshilfen. Easy Reading Edition

An Evolutionary Approach

Author: John Alcock

Publisher: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag

ISBN: 9783827417831

Category: Science

Page: 580

View: 4736

John Alcocks Standardwerk Animal Behavior - jetzt in Form eines völlig neuen Lehrbuchtyps, der speziell für die Studiensituation im deutschsprachigen Raum konzipiert wurde.* Das erfolgreiche Lehrbuch Animal Behavior stellt die verschiedenen Aspekte tierischen Verhaltens in einen evolutionsbiologischen Rahmen. Es behandelt die grundlegenden Mechanismen des Verhaltens ebenso wie seine stammesgeschichtlichen Ursachen und betont die Bedeutung der Evolutionstheorie als einigendes Element der unterschiedlichen Teildisziplinen der Verhaltensbiologie. Wichtige Konzepte werden sowohl an Wirbellosen wie an Wirbeltieren verdeutlicht. Alcocks klarer und engagierter Schreibstil macht es auch Anfängern trotz der stark konzeptionellen Ausrichtung des Werkes leicht, den Stoff zu verstehen. Die nun vorliegende achte Auflage des Standardwerkes wurde völlig neu geschrieben. Zahlreiche Erkenntnisse aus jüngster Zeit haben darin Eingang gefunden. Verständnisfragen direkt an den entsprechenden Textstellen regen dazu an, sich mit dem gerade gelesenen Stoff auseinanderzusetzen. Die beiden Kapitel über die Einflüsse von Vererbung und Umwelt auf die Entwicklung wurden vereint, um zu verdeutlichen, dass Entwicklungsprozesse sowohl von genetischen als auch von Umweltfaktoren abhängen. Der Autor führt dem Leser immer wieder vor Augen, welche Rolle der Überprüfung von Theorien und Hypothesen zukommt und dass wissenschaftliche Schlussfolgerungen immer nur vorübergehend gültig sind. So werden in diesem Buch auch kontrovers diskutierte und bisher ungelöste Probleme angesprochen. * Von Studierenden der Biowissenschaften wird heute erwartet, dass sie im Laufe ihres Studiums englische Literatur problemlos lesen und verstehen und schließlich auch Forschungsergebnisse auf Englisch kommunizieren können. Den Weg dorthin bereitet der neu entwickelte Lehrbuchtyp Easy Reading - Das Original mit Übersetzungshilfen. So bietet die vorliegende Ausgabe von Animal Behavior in einem zusammen: den englischen Originaltext deutsche Übersetzungshilfen in der Randspalte deutschsprachige Verständnisfragen / Übungsaufgaben ein englisch-deutsches Glossar deutsch- und englischsprachige Kapitelzusammenfassungen und auf der Website www.elsevier.de/alcock: eine Übersicht über die im Buch erwähnten Arten (deutsch, englisch, lateinisch) Internetlinks für Deutschland, Österreich und die Schweiz Wesentlicher Zusatznutzen der "Easy Reading"-Ausgabe ist, das Lesen des englischen Grundtextes zu erleichtern und in die spezielle wissenschaftliche Terminologie einzuführen. Wer dieses Buch durcharbeitet, steigert somit seine fachliche und seine sprachliche Kompetenz zugleich. This new edition of Animal Behavior has been completely rewritten with coverage of much recent work in animal behavior, resulting in a thoroughly up-to-date text. Notable is the inclusion, for the first time, of discussion questions embedded in the text itself, rather than appended to the end of each chapter. This format is designed to encourage students to reflect on the material they have just digested while also making it easier for instructors to promote a problem-solving approach to the subject in their classes. Another key organizational improvement is the consolidation of what had been two separate chapters on the genetic and environmental influences on development. By combining this material, the new Chapter 3 makes a stronger, more tightly argued case for the view that development is a truly interactive process codependent on both genetic and environmental factors. Like previous editions, the book shows how evolutionary biologists analyze all aspects of behavior. It is distinguished by its balanced treatment of both the underlying mechanisms and evolutionary causes of behavior, and stresses the utility of evolutionary theory in unifying the different behavio
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Diagnosis and Management of Lameness in the Horse - E-Book

Author: Michael W. Ross,Sue J. Dyson

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1437711766

Category: Medical

Page: 1424

View: 2619

Covering many different diagnostic tools, this essential resource explores both traditional treatments and alternative therapies for conditions that can cause gait abnormalities in horses. Broader in scope than any other book of its kind, this edition describes equine sporting activities and specific lameness conditions in major sport horse types, and includes up-to-date information on all imaging modalities. This title includes additional digital media when purchased in print format. For this digital book edition, media content may not be included. Cutting-edge information on diagnostic application for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging includes the most comprehensive section available on MRI in the live horse. Coverage of traditional treatment modalities also includes many aspects of alternative therapy, with a practical and realistic perspective on prognosis. An examination of the various types of horses used in sports describes the lameness conditions to which each horse type is particularly prone, as well as differences in prognosis. Guidelines on how to proceed when a diagnosis cannot easily be reached help you manage conditions when faced with the limitations of current diagnostic capabilities. Clinical examination and diagnostic analgesia are given a special emphasis. Practical, hands-on information covers a wide range of horse types from around the world. A global perspective is provided by a team of international authors, editors, and contributors. A full-color insert shows thermography images. Updated chapters include the most current information on topics such as MRI, foot pain, stem cell therapy, and shock wave treatment. Two new chapters include The Biomechanics of the Equine Limb and its Effect on Lameness and Clinical Use of Stem Cells, Marrow Components, and Other Growth Factors. The chapter on the hock has been expanded substantially, and the section on lameness associated with the foot has been completely rewritten to include state-of-the-art information based on what has been learned from MRI. Many new figures appear throughout the book.
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Biomechanik

Grundlagen, Beispiele, Übungen

Author: Werner Nachtigall

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322968502

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 459

View: 4560

Physikalische Randbedingungen beherrschen die belebte Welt bis in die kleinsten Details. Analogien aus Biologie und Technik miteinander zu vergleichen, stärkt das Verständnis für die Zusammenhänge. Beide Gesichtspunkte sind hier am Beispiel der Mechanik dargestellt. Aus dem Bereich der Energetik sind einige Aspekte mit aufgenommen, ohne die die Probleme des Wärmehaushalts und der Lokomotion bei Tieren nicht zu verstehen sind; sie ergänzen die reine Biomechanik. Die Darstellung ist so einfach wie möglich gehalten. Sie wendet sich an Studierende technischer Disziplinen, die einen Einblick in die Zusammenhänge mit der Biologie brauchen wie auch an Biowissenschaftler, die sich in einführender Weise über Technische Mechanik informieren wollen.
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Animal Signaling and Function

An Integrative Approach

Author: Duncan J. Irschick,Mark Briffa,Jeffrey Podos

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118966600

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 3723

The diversity of animal signals has been widely documented, and the generality of animal signals also tantalizingly suggests that there are common mechanisms that have selected for their origin. However, while much progress has been made on some fronts, we still lack a general theory about why the diversity of signaling structures exist. Our compilation will directly address this gap by focusing on an exciting new arena of sexual selection, namely using functional approaches to understand signaling. This approach is rooted in the idea that many signals are designed to transmit important functional imformation that is both important for issues of male quality (and hence male competition), and female choice. The increasing use of technology in sexual selection studies has enabled researchers to test whether signaling is either constrained by, or accurately transmits information about functional capacities. Further, in animals that fight vigorously, functional capacities such as endurance or strength may make the difference between winning and losing. This volume brings together a diverse collection of researchers who are actively investigating how function and signaling are related. These researchers use both a variety of methods and taxa to study animal signaling, and we believe that this integrative view is important to open up fresh vistas for why animal signals have evolved.
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Cumulative Book Index

World List of Books in English

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 3633

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Der Malayische Archipel

die Heimath des Orang-Utan und des Paradiesvogels ; Reiseerlebnisse und Studien über Land und Leute

Author: Alfred Russel Wallace

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Ethnology

Page: N.A

View: 2232

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A Companion to Forensic Anthropology

Author: Dennis Dirkmaat

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118255410

Category: Social Science

Page: 600

View: 2379

A Companion to Forensic Anthropology presents the most comprehensive assessment of the philosophy, goals, and practice of forensic anthropology currently available, with chapters by renowned international scholars and experts. Highlights the latest advances in forensic anthropology research, as well as the most effective practices and techniques used by professional forensic anthropologists in the field Illustrates the development of skeletal biological profiles and offers important new evidence on statistical validation of these analytical methods. Evaluates the goals and methods of forensic archaeology, including the preservation of context at surface-scattered remains, buried bodies and fatal fire scenes, and recovery and identification issues related to large-scale mass disaster scenes and mass grave excavation.
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Vergleichende Verhaltensforschung

Grundlagen der Ethologie

Author: K. Lorenz

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3709130972

Category: Science

Page: 308

View: 5001

ihr eine gezielt beschnittene Doktrin zu machen, zu deren Verwaltung sich eif rige Leute drängen. - In jedem der verglichenen Fälle war das durchaus nicht , ,im Sinne der Erfinder". Da ist es zur Klärung allemal gut, zu den Quellen hinaufzusteigen und nachzusehen, wo die Ursprünge waren, und wie sich alles seinerzeit entwickelt hat. Dabei schärft sich der Blick für den wesentlichen Kern und das Beiwerk, sowie für sachliche und persönliche Gründe und Bedeutung unausweichlicher Auseinandersetzungen. So sehe ich den Sinn dieses Buches. Ob es ganz objektiv ist? - Das wäre zuviel verlangt! Denn wer kann die Entwicklung seiner Kinder ganz objektiv sehen? Daß es redlich ist, darauf kommt es an; und das muß man ihm zuerkennen. Nicht das Durchsetzen einer Doktrin wird hier betrieben, sondern hier werden dargestellt die Entwicklung und der Inhalt eines neu-entstandenen Wissenschaftszweiges und seiner vielfäl tigen und sorgsam abgewogenen Methoden. Das Buch ist aueh frei von der Meinung, man müsse - um das Gesicht zu wahren - auf Entdeckungsschritten verharren, die einst originell waren, nun aber teilweise überholt sind. Der Ver fasser zeigt sich offen jeder sinnvollen Kritik und Korrektur, ist jedoch ausrei chend unhöflich, um unhaltbare Einwände begründet abzuweisen.
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Knochen!

Was uns aufrecht hält - das Buch zum menschlichen Skelett

Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag

ISBN: 9783827417275

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 3964

Knochen! vereint die faszinierende Beschreibung von Bau und Funktion der menschlichen Knochen mit wunderschönen Farbfotografien, die ihre einzigartige Eleganz einfangen. R. McNeill Alexander, weltweit führender Experte für Biomechanik, nimmt den Leser mit auf eine Reise durch das menschliche Skelett mit seinen 213 Knochen. Das informative Buch führt uns die Natur der menschlichen Knochen ebenso vor Augen wie ihre Beziehung zu anderen Teilen des Körpers. Der Autor verdeutlicht zunächst, dass Knochen lebendige Organe sind -- sie wachsen, nehmen Schaden und verheilen genau wie andere Organe. Er macht uns dann mit Form und Funktion der unzähligen Knochen von Schädel, Gliedmaßen und Rumpf bekannt. Wie die Knochen des Armes gemeinsam mit Rumpf und Schulter einen großen Bewegungsradius schaffen, welche Beziehung die einzelnen Teile des Kopfes zueinander haben, etwa Nasen- und Mundhöhle - das sind nur einige wenige der vielfältigen Themen, die in diesem Buch behandelt werden. Interaktive Experimente erlauben es dem Leser, seinen eigenen Körper zu erforschen, und verhelfen zu überraschenden Einsichten. Auch warum die Knochen verschiedener Menschen unterschiedlich sind, wird von Alexander eingehend dargestellt. Dieses Wissen liegt der wichtigen Arbeit von Forensikern und Archäologen zugrunde - zum einen liefert es Informationen für jene Künstler, die Gesichter aus Schädeln rekonstruieren, zum anderen verrät die Zusammensetzung von Knochen einiges über das Leben von Individuen und ihre täglichen Gewohnheiten. Alexander stellt die Knochen immer wieder auch in einen stammesgeschichtlichen Zusammenhang, erklärt die Prinzipien der Evolution und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Frage des Nutzwertes, und er widmet schließlich ein ganzes Kapitel der evolutionären Beziehung zwischen den menschlichen Knochen und denen anderer Säugetiere. Aaron Diskins 115 Farbfotografien sind mehr als nur eine visuelle Ergänzung zu Alexanders fachkundigem und gut lesbarem Text - sie sind Kunstwerke, welche die bestechende Ästhetik menschlicher Knochen zeigen. Dies ist Ihr Körper. [Format 25 x 28 cm]
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