Animal Locomotion

Author: Andrew A. Biewener

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198500223

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 8960

This work provides a clear foundation for understanding the underlying mechanisms by which animals have evolved to move in their physical environment. It integrates the biomechanics of animal movement with the physiology of animal energetics and the neural control of locomotion.
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Energy for Animal Life

Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780198500537

Category: Science

Page: 174

View: 3100

Energy for Animal Life, the first book in the innovative new Oxford Animal Biology Series, is about how animals get energy, and how they use it. It explores all aspects of animal energetics, from the different levels of the food chain, the relative merits of different digestive systems or of different strategies for finding and choosing food, and the importance of temperature regulation, to the energy costs of motion, growth and reproduction. The book is truly comparative, drawing on examples from across the animal kingdom, and looking for parallels that transcend taxonomy. Lots of practical information on relevant experiments is included. Accessibly written, the book is suitable as supplementary reading for undergraduates taking a degree course in biological sciences.
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Principles of Animal Locomotion

Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400849519

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 3771

How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these questions with certainty and in detail. This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. Excluding only the tiny creatures that use cilia, it covers all animals that power their movements with muscle--from roundworms to whales, clams to elephants, and gnats to albatrosses. The introduction sets out the general rules governing all modes of animal locomotion and considers the performance criteria--such as speed, endurance, and economy--that have shaped their selection. It introduces energetics and optimality as basic principles. The text then tackles each of the major modes by which animals move on land, in water, and through air. It explains the mechanisms involved and the physical and biological forces shaping those mechanisms, paying particular attention to energy costs. Focusing on general principles but extensively discussing a wide variety of individual cases, this is a superb synthesis of current knowledge about animal locomotion. It will be enormously useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and a range of professional biologists, physicists, and engineers.
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Animal Eyes

Author: Michael F. Land,Dan-Eric Nilsson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191625361

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 4721

Animal Eyes provides a comparative account of all known types of eye in the animal kingdom, outlining their structure and function with an emphasis on the nature of the optical systems and the physical principles involved in image formation. A universal theme throughout the book is the evolution and taxonomic distribution of each type of eye, and the roles of different eye types in the behaviour and ecology of the animals that possess them. In comparing the specific capabilities of eyes, it considers the factors that lead to good resolution of detail and the ability to function under a wide range of light conditions. This new edition is fully updated throughout, incorporating more than a decade of new discoveries and research.
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Animal Locomotion

Physical Principles and Adaptations

Author: Malcolm S. Gordon,Reinhard Blickhan,John O. Dabiri,John J. Videler

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351966200

Category: Medical

Page: 267

View: 7992

Animal Locomotion: Physical Principles and Adaptations is a professional-level, state of the art review and reference summarizing the current understanding of macroscopic metazoan animal movement. The comparative biophysics, biomechanics and bioengineering of swimming, flying and terrestrial locomotion are placed in contemporary frameworks of biodiversity, evolutionary process, and modern research methods, including mathematical analysis. The intended primary audience is advanced-level students and researchers primarily interested in and trained in mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. Although not encyclopedic in its coverage, anyone interested in organismal biology, functional morphology, organ systems and ecological physiology, physiological ecology, molecular biology, molecular genetics and systems biology should find this book useful.
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Animal Movement Across Scales

Author: Lars-Anders Hansson,Susanne Akesson,Susanne Åkesson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199677182

Category: Science

Page: 279

View: 4242

Adopts a broad, cross-taxonomic approach to animal movement across both temporal and spatial scales; addresses how and why animals move, and in what ways they differ in their locomotion and navigation performance; synthesizes our current knowledge of the genetics of movement/migration, including gene flow and local adaptations; provides a future perspective on how patterns of animal migration may change over time, together with the potential evolutionary consequences.--
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Animal Osmoregulation

Author: Timothy J. Bradley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198569963

Category: Science

Page: 168

View: 8387

Animal Osmoregulation collates a widely dispersed literature to produce a comprehensive and authoritative synthesis of the field, providing detailed examples of osmoregulatory processes at the organismal, organ and cellular level. It incorporates clear background information on ion regulation and transport (specifically in the light of recent molecular studies) and illustrates the physical principles to which each organism must adhere, as well as thephylogenetic constraints within which it must operate.
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Animal Migration

A Synthesis

Author: E.J. Milner-Gulland,John M. Fryxell,Anthony R.E. Sinclair

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199568995

Category: Mathematics

Page: 269

View: 1345

Migration is a fascinating phenomenon that can contribute to the fundamental structuring of ecosystems. This seminal volume synthesises insights from both mathematical modelling and empirical research in order to generate a unified understanding of the mechanisms underlying migration.
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The Biology of Bats

Author: Gerhard Neuweiler

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195099508

Category: Nature

Page: 310

View: 2744

Well adapted to numerous habitats, bats comprise almost one quarter of all species of mammals. This book is a comprehensive introduction to their biology. Suitable as a textbook for undergraduates and written by one of the world's leading researchers, the book offers an accessible summary of the extensive body of research on bats. The book takes a broad physiological perspective and devotes separate chapters to specific physiological systems as well as to bat ecology and phylogeny. It features a thorough discussion of echolocation, which continues to be the subject of intense research, and describes many European and neotropical bats, as well as North American species. Biology of Bats is an important resource both for students and researchers.
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How Snakes Work

Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes

Author: Harvey B. Lillywhite

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199701571

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 4180

Anyone can look at a snake and see a creature unique unto itself, a reptile with a set of zoological and biological traits that are entirely its own. Just looking at this distinct animal raises many scientific questions. With regard to evolution, how did such an animal come to be? How does a snake move, and how do its sense organs differ from that of other reptiles? How does it eat, and how does it reproduce? Essentially, how does a snake "work"? In How Snakes Work: The Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes, leading zoologist Harvey B. Lillywhite has written the definitive scientific guide to the functional biology of snakes. Written for both herpetologists and a more general audience with an interest in the field, How Snakes Work features nearly two hundred color images of various species of snakes, used to provide visual examples of biological features explained in the text. Chapter topics include the evolutionary history of the snake, feeding, locomotion, the structure and function of skin, circulation and respiration, sense organs, sound production, temperature and thermoregulation, and reproduction. Containing all the latest research and advances in our biological knowledge of the snake, How Snakes Work is an indispensable asset to professional zoologists and enthusiasts alike.
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Functional Morphology and Diversity

Author: Les Watling,Martin Thiel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195398033

Category: Nature

Page: 500

View: 916

Explores the functional morphology of crustaceans, which cover the main body parts and systems.
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Avian Flight

Author: John J. Videler

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199299928

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 5864

Bird flight has always intrigued mankind. This book provides an up to date account of our existing knowledge on the subject, as well as offering new insights and challenging some established views. A brief history of the science of flight introduces the basic physical principles governing aerial locomotion. A treatment of flight-related functional morphology concentrates on the difference in shape of the arm and hand part of the wings, on the structure and function of tails, and on the shape of the body. The anatomy and mechanical properties of feathers receive special attention. Aerodynamic principles used by birds are explained in theory by simply applying Newton's laws, and in practice by showing the direction and velocity of the attached flow around an arm wing cross section and of the leading edge vortex flow above a hand wing. The Archaeopteryx fossils remain crucial in our understanding of the evolution of bird flight despite the recent discovery of a range of well-preserved ancient birds. A novel insight into the interactions between wings and air challenges established theories relating to the origin of bird flight. Take-off, flapping flight, gliding and landing are the basic ingredients of bird flight, and birds use a variety of flight styles from hovering to soaring. Flight muscles consisting of mosaics of specialised fibres are the engines that generate the force required to keep the wings and tail in the gliding configuration and perform work during flapping motion. The energy required to fly can be estimated or measured directly, and a comparison of the empirical results provides insights into the trend in metabolic costs of flight of birds varying in shape and mass from hummingbirds to albatrosses.
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Biology of Spiders

Author: Rainer Foelix

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 0199734828

Category: Nature

Page: 419

View: 7525

One of the only books to treat the whole spider, from its behavior and physiology to its neurobiology and reproductive characteristics, Biology of Spiders is considered a classic in spider literature. First published in German in 1979, the book is now in its third edition, and has established itself as the supreme authority on these fascinating creatures. Containing five hundred new references, this book incorporates the latest research while dispelling many oft-heard myths and misconceptions that surround spiders. Of special interest are chapters on the structure and function of spider webs and silk, as well as those on spider venom. A new subchapter on tarantulas will appeal especially to tarantula keepers and breeders. The highly accessible text is supplemented by exceptional, high-quality photographs, many of them originals, and detailed diagrams. It will be of interest to arachnologists, entomologists, and zoologists, as well as to academics, students of biology, and the general reader curious about spiders.
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Neuronal Control of Locomotion

From Mollusc to Man

Author: Grigoriĭ Nikolaevich Orlovskiĭ,T. G. Deliagina,Sten Grillner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198524056

Category: Medical

Page: 322

View: 4245

What does the swimming leech have to do with the running human? The ability to move actively in space is essential to members of the animal kingdom, and the evolution of the nervous system relates to a large extent to the evolution of locomotion. The extreme importance of locomotion has stimulated many studies of the neural mechanisms underlying locomotion across a range of species. For the first time, a group of three leading neurobiologists have undertaken a comparative study of these mechanisms. Neuronal Control of Locomotion: From Mollusc to Man describes how the brains in very diverse and evolutionarily removed species control the animal's locomotion. In doing so, the authors reveal unifying principles of brain function, making it essential reading for students and researchers in neurobiology generally, and motor control in particular. In my opinion, the authors have produced a masterful and highly readable exposition on the neural control of locomotion. It is timely and relevant to avant- garde neuroscience. It will have a major impact on the field, and is sure to be referenced well into the second half of the next century." Douglas Stuart, University of Arizona College of Medicine"
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Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers

Author: Wei Shyy,Yongsheng Lian,Jian Tang,Dragos Viieru,Hao Liu

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113946891X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 8436

Low Reynolds number aerodynamics is important to a number of natural and man-made flyers. Birds, bats, and insects have been of interest to biologists for years, and active study in the aerospace engineering community, motivated by interest in micro air vehicles (MAVs), has been increasing rapidly. The focus of this book is the aerodynamics associated with fixed and flapping wings. The book considers both biological flyers and MAVs, including a summary of the scaling laws which relate the aerodynamics and flight characteristics to a flyer's sizing on the basis of simple geometric and dynamics analyses, structural flexibility, laminar-turbulent transition, airfoil shapes, and unsteady flapping wing aerodynamics. The interplay between flapping kinematics and key dimensionless parameters such as the Reynolds number, Strouhal number, and reduced frequency is highlighted. The various unsteady lift enhancement mechanisms are also addressed.
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Advanced Topics on Computer Vision, Control and Robotics in Mechatronics

Author: Osslan Osiris Vergara Villegas,Manuel Nandayapa,Israel Soto

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331977770X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 6541

The field of mechatronics (which is the synergistic combination of precision mechanical engineering, electronic control and systems thinking in the design of products and manufacturing processes) is gaining much attention in industries and academics. It was detected that the topics of computer vision, control and robotics are imperative for the successful of mechatronics systems. This book includes several chapters which report successful study cases about computer vision, control and robotics. The readers will have the latest information related to mechatronics, that contains the details of implementation, and the description of the test scenarios.
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Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Mammals

Author: Philip C. Withers,Christine E. Cooper,Ariovaldo P. Cruz Neto,Francisco Bozinovic

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199642710

Category:

Page: 560

View: 301

Mammals are the so-called "pinnacle" group of vertebrates, successfully colonising virtually all terrestrial environments as well as the air (bats) and sea (especially pinnipeds and cetaceans). How mammals function and survive in these diverse environments has long fascinated mammologists, comparative physiologists and ecologists. Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Mammals explores the physiological mechanisms and evolutionary necessities that have made the spectacular adaptation of mammals possible. It summarises our current knowledge of the complex and sophisticated physiological approaches that mammals have for survival in a wide variety of ecological and environmental contexts: terrestrial, aerial, and aquatic. The authors have a strong comparative and quantitative focus in their broad approach to exploring mammal ecophysiology. As with other books in the Ecological and Environmental Physiology Series, the emphasis is on the unique physiological characteristics of mammals, their adaptations to extreme environments, and current experimental techniques and future research directions are also considered. This accessible text is suitable for graduate level students and researchers in the fields of mammalian comparative physiology and physiological ecology, including specialist courses in mammal ecology. It will also be of value and use to the many professional mammologists requiring a concise overview of the topic.
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Wearable Robots

Biomechatronic Exoskeletons

Author: José L. Pons

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470987650

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 358

View: 1376

A wearable robot is a mechatronic system that is designed around the shape and function of the human body, with segments and joints corresponding to those of the person it is externally coupled with. Teleoperation and power amplification were the first applications, but after recent technological advances the range of application fields has widened. Increasing recognition from the scientific community means that this technology is now employed in telemanipulation, man-amplification, neuromotor control research and rehabilitation, and to assist with impaired human motor control. Logical in structure and original in its global orientation, this volume gives a full overview of wearable robotics, providing the reader with a complete understanding of the key applications and technologies suitable for its development. The main topics are demonstrated through two detailed case studies; one on a lower limb active orthosis for a human leg, and one on a wearable robot that suppresses upper limb tremor. These examples highlight the difficulties and potentialities in this area of technology, illustrating how design decisions should be made based on these. As well as discussing the cognitive interaction between human and robot, this comprehensive text also covers: the mechanics of the wearable robot and it’s biomechanical interaction with the user, including state-of-the-art technologies that enable sensory and motor interaction between human (biological) and wearable artificial (mechatronic) systems; the basis for bioinspiration and biomimetism, general rules for the development of biologically-inspired designs, and how these could serve recursively as biological models to explain biological systems; the study on the development of networks for wearable robotics. Wearable Robotics: Biomechatronic Exoskeletons will appeal to lecturers, senior undergraduate students, postgraduates and other researchers of medical, electrical and bio engineering who are interested in the area of assistive robotics. Active system developers in this sector of the engineering industry will also find it an informative and welcome resource.
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On the Wing

Insects, Pterosaurs, Birds, Bats and the Evolution of Animal Flight

Author: David E. Alexander

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199996792

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 7409

Ask anybody what superpower they wished to possess and odds are the answer just might be "the ability to fly." What is it about soaring through the air held up by the power of one's own body that has captivated humans for so long? David Alexander examines the evolution of flight in the only four animals to have evolved this ability: insects, pterosaurs, birds, and bats. With an accessible writing style grounded in rigorous research, Alexander breaks new ground in a field that has previously been confined to specialists. While birds have received the majority of attention from flight researchers, Alexander pays equal attention to all four groups of flyers-something that no other book on the subject has done before now. In a streamlined and captivating way, David Alexander demonstrates the links between the tiny 2-mm thrip and the enormous albatross with the 12 feet wingspan used to cross oceans. The book delves into the fossil record of flyers enough to satisfy the budding paleontologist, while also pleasing ornithologists and entomologists alike with its treatment of animal behavior, flapping mechanisms, and wing-origin theory. Alexander uses relatable examples to draw in readers even without a natural interest in birds, bees, and bats. He takes something that is so off-limits and unfamiliar to humans-the act of flying-and puts it in the context of experiences that many readers can relate to. Alexander guides readers through the anomalies of the flying world: hovering hummingbirds, unexpected gliders (squirrels, for instance), and the flyers that went extinct (pterosaurs). Alexander also delves into wing-origin theory and explores whether birds entered the skies from the trees down (as gliders) or from the ground up (as runners) and uses the latest fossil evidence to present readers with an answer.
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The Hippocampus Book

Author: Per Andersen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195100271

Category: Medical

Page: 832

View: 4529

The hippocampus is one of a group of remarkable structures embedded within the brain's medial temporal lobe. Long known to be important for memory, it has been a prime focus of neuroscience research for many years. The Hippocampus Book brings together contributions by leading international scientists knowledgeable about hippocampal anatomy, physiology, and function. This authoritative volume offers the most comprehensive, up-to-date account of what the hippocampus does, how it does it and what happens when things go wrong. At the same time, it illustrates how research focusing on this single brain structure has revealed principles of wider generality for the whole brain.
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