Andean Cocaine

The Making of a Global Drug

Author: Paul Gootenberg

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 9780807887790

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 1762

Illuminating a hidden and fascinating chapter in the history of globalization, Paul Gootenberg chronicles the rise of one of the most spectacular and now illegal Latin American exports: cocaine. Gootenberg traces cocaine's history from its origins as a medical commodity in the nineteenth century to its repression during the early twentieth century and its dramatic reemergence as an illicit good after World War II. Connecting the story of the drug's transformations is a host of people, products, and processes: Sigmund Freud, Coca-Cola, and Pablo Escobar all make appearances, exemplifying the global influences that have shaped the history of cocaine. But Gootenberg decenters the familiar story to uncover the roles played by hitherto obscure but vital Andean actors as well--for example, the Peruvian pharmacist who developed the techniques for refining cocaine on an industrial scale and the creators of the original drug-smuggling networks that decades later would be taken over by Colombian traffickers. Andean Cocaine proves indispensable to understanding one of the most vexing social dilemmas of the late twentieth-century Americas: the American cocaine epidemic of the 1980s and, in its wake, the seemingly endless U.S. drug war in the Andes.
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Narconomics

Ein Drogenkartell erfolgreich führen

Author: Tom Wainwright

Publisher: Karl Blessing Verlag

ISBN: 3641161746

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 2945

Was haben Coca-Cola, McDonald’s und der internationale Drogenhandel gemeinsam? Der Drogenhandel ist ein globalisiertes, vernetztes und hoch professionalisiertes Geschäftsfeld mit einem Jahresumsatz von 300 Milliarden Dollar, Tendenz steigend. Wie man sich als aufstrebendes Kartell ein Stück vom Kuchen sichert? Indem man von den Besten des Big Business lernt. Denn die Strategien, die für Konzerne wie H&M, Coca-Cola und McDonald’s funktionieren, haben sich längst auch international erfolgreiche Drogenbarone angeeignet – von der richtigen PR über Offshoring, Assessment-Center und E-Commerce. In Narconomics vollzieht Wirtschaftsjournalist Wainwright die Wertschöpfungskette von Drogen wie Kokain nach, von der Koka-Ernte in den Anden bis zum Verkauf an unseren Straßenecken. Jahrelange Recherchen, gefahrenreiche Reisen zu den Brennpunkten des Drogenhandels und Interviews mit Beteiligten, ob minderjähriger Profikiller in den Straßen von Mexico City oder Polizist, Ganglord oder Staatspräsident, haben Wainwright tiefe Einblicke in eine einzigartig einträgliche und tödliche Branche beschert.
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Reue

Roman

Author: Susan Choi

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783746626031

Category:

Page: 480

View: 8160

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Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 4644

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
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Smuggler Nation

How Illicit Trade Made America

Author: Peter Andreas

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199746885

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 454

View: 9116

Presents the history of the United States from colonial times to today as a series of highly contentious battles over clandestine commerce.
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We Sell Drugs

The Alchemy of US Empire

Author: Suzanna Reiss

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520959027

Category: History

Page: 330

View: 7379

This history of US-led international drug control provides new perspectives on the economic, ideological, and political foundations of a Cold War American empire. US officials assumed the helm of international drug control after World War II at a moment of unprecedented geopolitical influence embodied in the growing economic clout of its pharmaceutical industry. We Sell Drugs is a study grounded in the transnational geography and political economy of the coca-leaf and coca-derived commodities market stretching from Peru and Bolivia into the United States. More than a narrow biography of one famous plant and its equally famous derivative products—Coca-Cola and cocaine—this book situates these commodities within the larger landscape of drug production and consumption. Examining efforts to control the circuits through which coca traveled, Suzanna Reiss provides a geographic and legal basis for considering the historical construction of designations of legality and illegality. The book also argues that the legal status of any given drug is largely premised on who grew, manufactured, distributed, and consumed it and not on the qualities of the drug itself. Drug control is a powerful tool for ordering international trade, national economies, and society’s habits and daily lives. In a historical landscape animated by struggles over political economy, national autonomy, hegemony, and racial equality, We Sell Drugs insists on the socio-historical underpinnings of designations of legality to explore how drug control became a major weapon in asserting control of domestic and international affairs.
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Über Coca

Author: Sigmund Freud

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Coca

Page: 26

View: 8140

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Women Drug Traffickers

Mules, Bosses, and Organized Crime

Author: Elaine Carey

Publisher: UNM Press

ISBN: 0826351999

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 9442

In the flow of drugs to the United States from Latin America, women have always played key roles as bosses, business partners, money launderers, confidantes, and couriers—work rarely acknowledged. Elaine Carey’s study of women in the drug trade offers a new understanding of this intriguing subject, from women drug smugglers in the early twentieth century to the cartel queens who make news today. Using international diplomatic documents, trial transcripts, medical and public welfare studies, correspondence between drug czars, and prison and hospital records, the author’s research shows that history can be as gripping as a thriller.
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The Oxford Handbook of Environmental History

Author: Andrew C. Isenberg

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199394474

Category: History

Page: 640

View: 5910

The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.
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Narcoepics

A Global Aesthetics of Sobriety

Author: Hermann Herlinghaus

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1623565170

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 256

View: 3581

Narcoepics Unbound foregrounds the controversial yet mostly untheorized phenomenon of contemporary Latin American 'narcoepics.' Dealing with literary works and films whose characteristics are linked to illicit global exchange, informal labor, violence, 'bare life,' drug consumption, and ritualistic patterns of identity, it argues for a new theoretical approach to better understand these 'narratives of intoxication.' Foregrounding the art that has arisen from or seeks to describe drug culture, Herlinghaus' comparative study looks at writers such as Gutiérrez, J. J. Rodríguez, Reverte, films such as City of God, and the narratives surrounding cultural villains/heroes such as Pablo Escobar. Narcoepics shows that that in order to grasp the aesthetic and ethical core of these narratives it is pivotal, first, to develop an 'aesthetics of sobriety.' The aim is to establish a criteria for a new kind of literary studies, in which cultural hermeneutics plays as much a part as political philosophy, analysis of religion, and neurophysiological inquiry.
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Global Markets Transformed

Author: Steven C. Topik,Steven Topik,Allen Wells

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674281349

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 336

View: 3408

Offering a fresh look at trade during the second industrial revolution, Global Markets Transformed describes a world of commodities on the move--wheat and rice, coffee and tobacco, oil and rubber, all traveling around the planet through commodity chains of producers, processors, transporters, and buyers, often invisible to one another.
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From Development to Dictatorship

Bolivia and the Alliance for Progress in the Kennedy Era

Author: Thomas C. Field, Jr.

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801470447

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 6717

During the most idealistic years of John F. Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress development program, Bolivia was the highest per capita recipient of U.S. foreign aid in Latin America. Nonetheless, Washington’s modernization programs in early 1960s' Bolivia ended up on a collision course with important sectors of the country’s civil society, including radical workers, rebellious students, and a plethora of rightwing and leftwing political parties. In From Development to Dictatorship, Thomas C. Field Jr. reconstructs the untold story of USAID’s first years in Bolivia, including the country’s 1964 military coup d’état. Field draws heavily on local sources to demonstrate that Bolivia’s turn toward anticommunist, development-oriented dictatorship was the logical and practical culmination of the military-led modernization paradigm that provided the liberal underpinnings of Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress. In the process, he explores several underappreciated aspects of Cold War liberal internationalism: the tendency of “development” to encourage authoritarian solutions to political unrest, the connection between modernization theories and the rise of Third World armed forces, and the intimacy between USAID and CIA covert operations. Challenging the conventional dichotomy between ideology and strategy in international politics, From Development to Dictatorship engages with a growing literature on development as a key rubric for understanding the interconnected processes of decolonization and the Cold War.
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El Narco

Inside Mexico's Criminal Insurgency

Author: Ioan Grillo

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 160819504X

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 1058

A gripping, sobering account of how Mexican drug gangs have transformed into a criminal insurgency that threatens the nation's democracy and reaches across to the United States. "Essential reading."-Steve Coll, NewYorker.com The world has watched stunned at the bloodshed in Mexico. Thirty thousand murdered since 2006; police chiefs shot within hours of taking office; mass graves comparable to those of civil wars; car bombs shattering storefronts; headless corpses heaped in town squares. And it is all because a few Americans are getting high. Or is it? The United States throws Black Hawk helicopters and drug agents at the problem. But in secret, Washington is confused and divided about what to do. Who are these mysterious figures tearing Mexico apart? they wonder. What is El Narco? El Narco draws the first definitive portrait of Mexico's drug cartels and how they have radically transformed. El Narco is not a gang; it is a movement and an industry drawing in hundreds of thousands from bullet-ridden barrios to marijuana-growing mountains. And it has created paramilitary death squads with tens of thousands of men-at-arms from Guatemala to the Texas border. Journalist Ioan Grillo has spent a decade in Mexico reporting on the drug wars from the front lines. This piercing book joins testimonies from inside the cartels with firsthand dispatches and unsparing analysis. The devastation may be south of the Rio Grande, El Narco shows, but America is knee-deep in this conflict
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Killing Pablo

Die Jagd auf Pablo Escobar, Kolumbiens Drogenbaron

Author: Mark Bowden

Publisher: eBook Berlin Verlag

ISBN: 3827078903

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 7265

1992 rief der Präsident Kolumbiens die Amerikaner gegen den mächtigsten Staatsfeind des Landes zu Hilfe: Pablo Escobar hatte mit seinen Kokainmilliarden und seinen Killerkommandos das Land an den Rand des Chaos gebracht. Mark Bowden schildert in seinem atemberaubenden Bericht die Jagd einer Spezialeinheit des amerikanischen Militärs auf einen der »größten Verbrecher der Welt«. Dabei stützt er sich auf Interviews mit Beteiligten und auf Hunderte von Seiten geheimdienstlicher Dokumente, darunter die Mitschriften von Escobars abgehörten Telefongesprächen.
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Violence at the Urban Margins

Author: Javier Auyero,Philippe Bourgois,Nancy Scheper-Hughes

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190221488

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 1541

In the Americas, debates around issues of citizen's public safety--from debates that erupt after highly publicized events, such as the shootings of Jordan Davis and Trayvon Martin, to those that recurrently dominate the airwaves in Latin America--are dominated by members of the middle and upper-middle classes. However, a cursory count of the victims of urban violence in the Americas reveals that the people suffering the most from violence live, and die, at the lowest of the socio-symbolic order, at the margins of urban societies. The inhabitants of the urban margins are hardly ever heard in discussions about public safety. They live in danger but the discourse about violence and risk belongs to, is manufactured and manipulated by, others--others who are prone to view violence at the urban margins as evidence of a cultural, or racial, defect, rather than question violence's relationship to economic and political marginalization. As a result, the experience of interpersonal violence among the urban poor becomes something unspeakable, and the everyday fear and trauma lived in relegated territories is constantly muted and denied. This edited volume seeks to counteract this pernicious tendency by putting under the ethnographic microscope--and making public--the way in which violence is lived and acted upon in the urban peripheries. It features cutting-edge ethnographic research on the role of violence in the lives of the urban poor in South, Central, and North America, and sheds light on the suffering that violence produces and perpetuates, as well as the individual and collective responses that violence generates, among those living at the urban margins of the Americas.
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To Die in Mexico

Dispatches from Inside the Drug War

Author: John Gibler

Publisher: City Lights Books

ISBN: 0872865177

Category: History

Page: 218

View: 3117

Since President Calderâon declared a war on drugs in December 2006, more than 38,000 Mexicans have been murdered. Drug money is now Mexico's single largest source of income. Gibler travels across Mexico and slips behind the frontlines to talk with peoplewho live in towns under assault on the lawless frontiers of the drug war.
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Indelible Inequalities in Latin America

Insights from History, Politics, and Culture

Author: Luis Reygadas,Paul Gootenberg

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822392909

Category: History

Page: 246

View: 2377

Since the earliest years of European colonialism, Latin America has been a region of seemingly intractable inequalities, marked by a stark divide between the haves and the have-nots. This collection illuminates the diverse processes that have combined to produce and reproduce inequalities in Latin America, as well as some of the implications of those processes for North Americans. Anthropologists, cultural critics, historians, and political scientists from North and South America offer new and varied perspectives, building on the sociologist Charles Tilly’s relational framework for understanding enduring inequalities. While one essay is a broad yet nuanced analysis of Latin American inequality and its persistence, another is a fine-grained ethnographic view of everyday life and aspirations among shantytown residents living on the outskirts of Lima. Other essays address topics such as the initial bifurcation of Peru’s healthcare system into one for urban workers and another for the rural poor, the asymmetrical distribution of political information in Brazil, and an evolving Cuban “aesthetics of inequality,” which incorporates hip-hop and other transnational cultural currents. Exploring the dilemmas of Latin American inequalities as they are playing out in the United States, a contributor looks at new immigrant Mexican farmworkers in upstate New York to show how undocumented workers become a vulnerable rural underclass. Taken together, the essays extend social inequality critiques in important new directions. Contributors Jeanine Anderson Javier Auyero Odette Casamayor Christina Ewig Paul Gootenberg Margaret Gray Eric Hershberg Lucio Renno Luis Reygadas
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Drug Trafficking, Organized Crime, and Violence in the Americas Today

Author: Bruce M. Bagley

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780813054667

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 2111

"An extensive overview of the drug trade in the Americas and its impact on politics, economics, and society throughout the region. . . . Highly recommended."--Choice"A first-rate update on the state of the long-fought hemispheric 'war on drugs.' It is particularly timely, as the perception that the war is lost and needs to be changed has never been stronger in Latin and North America."--Paul Gootenberg, author of Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug"A must-read volume for policy makers, concerned citizens, and students alike in the current search for new approaches to forty-year-old policies largely considered to have failed."--David Scott Palmer, coauthor of Power, Institutions, and Leadership in War and Peace"A very useful primer for anyone trying to keep up with the ever-evolving relationship between drug enforcement and drug trafficking."--Peter Andreas, author of Smuggler Nation: How Illicit Trade Made America In 1971, Richard Nixon declared a war on drugs. Despite foreign policy efforts and attempts to combat supply lines, the United States has been for decades, and remains today, the largest single consumer market for illicit drugs on the planet. This volume argues that the war on drugs has been ineffective at best and, at worst, has been highly detrimental to many countries. Leading experts in the fields of public health, political science, and national security analyze how U.S. policies have affected the internal dynamics of Mexico, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Central America, and the Caribbean islands. Together, they present a comprehensive overview of the major trends in drug trafficking and organized crime in the early twenty-first century. In addition, the editors and contributors identify emerging issues and propose several policy options to address them. This accessible and expansive volume provides a framework for understanding the limits and liabilities in the U.S.-championed war on drugs throughout the Americas. Bruce M. Bagley, professor and former associate dean of the Graduate School of International Studies at the University of Miami, is coauthor of International Relations in Latin America. Jonathan D. Rosen, professor of international studies at the Universidad del Mar in Mexico, is the author of The Losing War: Plan Colombia and Beyond.
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