From Concepts to Applications

Author: Jean-Paul Penot

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331932411X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 669

View: 9818

This textbook covers the main results and methods of real analysis in a single volume. Taking a progressive approach to equations and transformations, this book starts with the very foundations of real analysis (set theory, order, convergence, and measure theory) before presenting powerful results that can be applied to concrete problems. In addition to classical results of functional analysis, differential calculus and integration, Analysis discusses topics such as convex analysis, dissipative operators and semigroups which are often absent from classical treatises. Acknowledging that analysis has significantly contributed to the understanding and development of the present world, the book further elaborates on techniques which pervade modern civilization, including wavelets in information theory, the Radon transform in medical imaging and partial differential equations in various mechanical and physical phenomena. Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, engineers as well as practitioners wishing to familiarise themselves with concepts and applications of analysis will find this book useful. With its content split into several topics of interest, the book’s style and layout make it suitable for use in several courses, while its self-contained character makes it appropriate for self-study.

Advanced Courses of Mathematical Analysis VI

Proceedings of the Sixth International School

Author: Francisco Javier Mart猲-Reyes,Pedro Ortega Salvador,Mar猘 Lorente,Crist産al Gonzez

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813147652

Category: Mathematics

Page: 248

View: 1374

This volume contains short courses and recent papers by several specialists in different fields of Mathematical Analysis. It offers a wide perspective of the current state of research, and new trends, in areas related to Geometric Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Complex Analysis, Functional Analysis and History of Mathematics. The contributions are presented with a remarkable expository nature and this makes the discussed topics accessible to a more general audience. Contents:PrefaceOrganizing CommitteesPart A, Courses:Convex Inequalities, Isoperimetry and Spectral Gap (D Alonso-Gutiérrez and J Bastero)Two-Weight Inequalities for Fractional Integral Operators and Commutators (D Cruz-Uribe)Composition Operators on Hardy Spaces Projection (P Lefèvre)On the Boundedness of Bergman (J A Peláez & J Rättyä)Part B, Talks:Meanings of "Algebra" and "Analysis" Between Two Encyclopedias: From the Enlightenment to the Great War (L Español)A Weak 2-Weight Problem for the Poisson–Hermite Semigroup (G Garrigós)Frequently Hypercyclic Operators: Recent Advances and Open Problems (K-G Grosse-Erdmann)Classical and New Aspects of the Domination and Factorization of Multilinear Operators (M Mastylo & E A Sánchez Pérez)Toeplitz Products on the Bergman Space (M C Reguera)Semigroups, a Tool to Develop Harmonic Analysis for General Laplacians (J L Torrea) Readership: Graduate students in mathematics and researchers in mathematical analysis.

Approximation und Nichtlineare Optimierung in Praxisaufgaben

Anwendungen aus dem Finanzbereich und der Standortplanung

Author: Alfred Göpfert,Thomas Riedrich,Christiane Tammer

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 365814761X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 232

View: 9679

In diesem Buch wird die Vielgestaltigkeit von Optimierung und Approximation zusammen mit ihrem breiten Umfeld anhand von Aufgaben samt ihren Lösungen und nützlichen Anwendungen zum Ausdruck gebracht. Fachlich steht dabei im Vordergrund, Methoden der Angewandten Analysis zu nutzen, um die Struktur und Eigenschaften der Probleme zu erkennen und handhabbare Optimalitätsbedingungen herzuleiten, die die Behandlung der Aufgaben ermöglichen und vereinfachen. Viele praktische Aufgabenstellungen führen auf konvexe bzw. nichtkonvexe Optimierungsprobleme, Mehrkriterielle Optimierungsprobleme, Standortprobleme, Probleme der Risikotheorie, Versicherungsmathematik, Optimierungsprobleme mit Unsicherheiten und Modelle aus der Signaltheorie, die in den behandelten Aufgaben diskutiert werden. Hinweise auf online verfügbare Software werden gegeben. Das Buch richtet sich an Studierende und Lehrende der Mathematik, Wirtschaftsmathematik, Informatik, Physik, den Wirtschafts- und Ingenieurwissenschaften (u.a. der Mechatronik).

Peterson's Graduate Programs Programs in Mathematics 2011

Section 7 of 10

Author: Peterson's

Publisher: Peterson's

ISBN: 0768934575

Category: Study Aids

Page: 476

View: 650

Peterson's Graduate Programs in Mathematics contains a wealth of information on colleges and universities that offer graduate work in Applied Mathematics, Applied Statistics, Biomathematics, Biometry, Biostatistics, Computational Sciences, Mathematical and Computational Finance, Mathematics, and Statistics. The institutions listed include those in the United States, Canada, and abroad that are accredited by U.S. accrediting bodies. Up-to-date information, collected through Peterson's Annual Survey of Graduate and Professional Institutions, provides valuable information on degree offerings, professional accreditation, jointly offered degrees, part-time and evening/weekend programs, postbaccalaureate distance degrees, faculty, students, degree requirements, entrance requirements, expenses, financial support, faculty research, and unit head and application contact information. Readers will find helpful links to in-depth descriptions that offer additional detailed information about a specific program or department, faculty members and their research, and much more.In addition, there are valuable articles on financial assistance, the graduate admissions process, advice for international and minority students, and facts about accreditation, with a current list of accrediting agencies.

Spectral Theory and Its Applications

Author: Bernard Helffer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110703230X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 255

View: 1737

Introduces the basic tools in spectral analysis using numerous examples from the Schrödinger operator theory and various branches of physics.

Fourier Analysis

Author: Javier Duoandikoetxea Zuazo

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821883846

Category: Mathematics

Page: 222

View: 8902



Author: Elliott H. Lieb,Michael Loss

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821827839

Category: Mathematics

Page: 346

View: 1710

This is an excellent textbook on analysis and it has several unique features: Proofs of heat kernel estimates, the Nash inequality and the logarithmic Sobolev inequality are topics that are seldom treated on the level of a textbook. Best constants in several inequalities, such as Young's inequality and the logarithmic Sobolev inequality, are also included. A thorough treatment of rearrangement inequalities and competing symmetries appears in book form for the first time. There is an extensive treatment of potential theory and its applications to quantum mechanics, which, again, is unique at this level. Uniform convexity of $L^p$ space is treated very carefully. The presentation of this important subject is highly unusual for a textbook. All the proofs provide deep insights into the theorems. This book sets a new standard for a graduate textbook in analysis. --Shing-Tung Yau, Harvard University For some number of years, Rudin's ``Real and Complex'', and a few other analysis books, served as the canonical choice for the book to use, and to teach from, in a first year grad analysis course. Lieb-Loss offers a refreshing alternative: It begins with a down-to-earth intro to measure theory, $L^p$ and all that ... It aims at a wide range of essential applications, such as the Fourier transform, and series, inequalities, distributions, and Sobolev spaces--PDE, potential theory, calculus of variations, and math physics (Schrodinger's equation, the hydrogen atom, Thomas-Fermi theory ... to mention a few). The book should work equally well in a one-, or in a two-semester course. The first half of the book covers the basics, and the rest will be great for students to have, regardless of whether or not it gets to be included in a course. --Palle E. T. Jorgensen, University of Iowa

Variational, Topological, and Partial Order Methods with Their Applications

Author: Zhitao Zhang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642307094

Category: Mathematics

Page: 332

View: 4119

Nonlinear functional analysis is an important branch of contemporary mathematics. It's related to topology, ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, groups, dynamical systems, differential geometry, measure theory, and more. In this book, the author presents some new and interesting results on fundamental methods in nonlinear functional analysis, namely variational, topological and partial order methods, which have been used extensively to solve existence of solutions for elliptic equations, wave equations, Schrödinger equations, Hamiltonian systems etc., and are also used to study the existence of multiple solutions and properties of solutions. This book is useful for researchers and graduate students in the field of nonlinear functional analysis.

Multivariable Analysis

Author: Satish Shirali,Harkrishan Lal Vasudeva

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0857291920

Category: Mathematics

Page: 394

View: 933

This book provides a rigorous treatment of multivariable differential and integral calculus. Implicit function theorem and the inverse function theorem based on total derivatives is explained along with the results and the connection to solving systems of equations. There is an extensive treatment of extrema, including constrained extrema and Lagrange multipliers, covering both first order necessary conditions and second order sufficient conditions. The material on Riemann integration in n dimensions, being delicate by its very nature, is discussed in detail. Differential forms and the general Stokes' Theorem are expounded in the last chapter. With a focus on clarity rather than brevity, this text gives clear motivation, definitions and examples with transparent proofs. Much of the material included is published for the first time in textbook form, for example Schwarz' Theorem in Chapter 2 and double sequences and sufficient conditions for constrained extrema in Chapter 4. A wide selection of problems, ranging from simple to more challenging, are included with carefully formed solutions. Ideal as a classroom text or a self study resource for students, this book will appeal to higher level undergraduates in Mathematics.

Techniques of Functional Analysis for Differential and Integral Equations

Author: Paul Sacks

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128114576

Category: Mathematics

Page: 320

View: 7338

Techniques of Functional Analysis for Differential and Integral Equations describes a variety of powerful and modern tools from mathematical analysis, for graduate study and further research in ordinary differential equations, integral equations, and especially partial differential equations. Knowledge of these techniques is particularly useful as preparation for graduate courses and as PhD research preparation in differential equations and numerical analysis, and more specialized topics such as fluid dynamics and control theory. Striking a balance between mathematical depth and accessibility, proofs are limited, and their sources precisely identifie d, proofs involving more technical aspects of measure and integration theory are avoided, but clear statements and precise alternative references are given . The work provides many examples and exercises drawn from the literature. Provides an introduction to the mathematical techniques widely used in applied mathematics and needed for advanced research Establishes the advanced background needed for sophisticated literature review and research in both differential and integral equations Suitable for use as a textbook for a two semester graduate level course for M.S. and Ph.D. students in Mathematics and Applied Mathematics

Convex Functional Analysis

Author: Andrew J. Kurdila,Michael Zabarankin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764321987

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 6825

This volume is dedicated to the fundamentals of convex functional analysis. It presents those aspects of functional analysis that are extensively used in various applications to mechanics and control theory. The purpose of the text is essentially two-fold. On the one hand, a bare minimum of the theory required to understand the principles of functional, convex and set-valued analysis is presented. Numerous examples and diagrams provide as intuitive an explanation of the principles as possible. On the other hand, the volume is largely self-contained. Those with a background in graduate mathematics will find a concise summary of all main definitions and theorems.

Applied Asymptotic Analysis

Author: Peter David Miller

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821840789

Category: Mathematics

Page: 467

View: 2709

"The book is intended for a beginning graduate course on asymptotic analysis in applied mathematics and is aimed at students of pure and applied mathematics as well as science and engineering. The basic prerequisite is a background in differential equations, linear algebra, advanced calculus, and complex variables at the level of introductory undergraduate courses on these subjects."--BOOK JACKET.

A Short Course in Ordinary Differential Equations

Author: Qingkai Kong

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319112392

Category: Mathematics

Page: 267

View: 4067

This text is a rigorous treatment of the basic qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations, at the beginning graduate level. Designed as a flexible one-semester course but offering enough material for two semesters, A Short Course covers core topics such as initial value problems, linear differential equations, Lyapunov stability, dynamical systems and the Poincaré—Bendixson theorem, and bifurcation theory, and second-order topics including oscillation theory, boundary value problems, and Sturm—Liouville problems. The presentation is clear and easy-to-understand, with figures and copious examples illustrating the meaning of and motivation behind definitions, hypotheses, and general theorems. A thoughtfully conceived selection of exercises together with answers and hints reinforce the reader's understanding of the material. Prerequisites are limited to advanced calculus and the elementary theory of differential equations and linear algebra, making the text suitable for senior undergraduates as well.

Real Analysis with Economic Applications

Author: Efe A. Ok

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400840899

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 832

View: 6506

There are many mathematics textbooks on real analysis, but they focus on topics not readily helpful for studying economic theory or they are inaccessible to most graduate students of economics. Real Analysis with Economic Applications aims to fill this gap by providing an ideal textbook and reference on real analysis tailored specifically to the concerns of such students. The emphasis throughout is on topics directly relevant to economic theory. In addition to addressing the usual topics of real analysis, this book discusses the elements of order theory, convex analysis, optimization, correspondences, linear and nonlinear functional analysis, fixed-point theory, dynamic programming, and calculus of variations. Efe Ok complements the mathematical development with applications that provide concise introductions to various topics from economic theory, including individual decision theory and games, welfare economics, information theory, general equilibrium and finance, and intertemporal economics. Moreover, apart from direct applications to economic theory, his book includes numerous fixed point theorems and applications to functional equations and optimization theory. The book is rigorous, but accessible to those who are relatively new to the ways of real analysis. The formal exposition is accompanied by discussions that describe the basic ideas in relatively heuristic terms, and by more than 1,000 exercises of varying difficulty. This book will be an indispensable resource in courses on mathematics for economists and as a reference for graduate students working on economic theory.

A Course in Abstract Analysis

Author: John B. Conway

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821890832

Category: Mathematics

Page: 367

View: 9063

This book covers topics appropriate for a first-year graduate course preparing students for the doctorate degree. The first half of the book presents the core of measure theory, including an introduction to the Fourier transform. This material can easily be covered in a semester. The second half of the book treats basic functional analysis and can also be covered in a semester. After the basics, it discusses linear transformations, duality, the elements of Banach algebras, and C*-algebras. It concludes with a characterization of the unitary equivalence classes of normal operators on a Hilbert space. The book is self-contained and only relies on a background in functions of a single variable and the elements of metric spaces. Following the author's belief that the best way to learn is to start with the particular and proceed to the more general, it contains numerous examples and exercises.

Nonlinear Physical Systems

Spectral Analysis, Stability and Bifurcations

Author: Oleg N. Kirillov,Dmitry E. Pelinovsky

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111857754X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 448

View: 2912

Bringing together 18 chapters written by leading experts indynamical systems, operator theory, partial differential equations,and solid and fluid mechanics, this book presents state-of-the-artapproaches to a wide spectrum of new and challenging stabilityproblems. Nonlinear Physical Systems: Spectral Analysis, Stability andBifurcations focuses on problems of spectral analysis, stabilityand bifurcations arising in the nonlinear partial differentialequations of modern physics. Bifurcations and stability of solitarywaves, geometrical optics stability analysis in hydro- andmagnetohydrodynamics, and dissipation-induced instabilities aretreated with the use of the theory of Krein and Pontryagin space,index theory, the theory of multi-parameter eigenvalue problems andmodern asymptotic and perturbative approaches. Each chapter contains mechanical and physical examples, and thecombination of advanced material and more tutorial elements makesthis book attractive for both experts and non-specialists keen toexpand their knowledge on modern methods and trends in stabilitytheory. Contents 1. Surprising Instabilities of Simple Elastic Structures, DavideBigoni, Diego Misseroni, Giovanni Noselli and DanieleZaccaria. 2. WKB Solutions Near an Unstable Equilibrium and Applications,Jean-François Bony, Setsuro Fujiié, Thierry Ramond andMaher Zerzeri, partially supported by French ANR projectNOSEVOL. 3. The Sign Exchange Bifurcation in a Family of Linear HamiltonianSystems, Richard Cushman, Johnathan Robbins and DimitriiSadovskii. 4. Dissipation Effect on Local and Global Fluid-ElasticInstabilities, Olivier Doaré. 5. Tunneling, Librations and Normal Forms in a Quantum Double Wellwith a Magnetic Field, Sergey Yu. Dobrokhotov and Anatoly Yu.Anikin. 6. Stability of Dipole Gap Solitons in Two-Dimensional LatticePotentials, Nir Dror and Boris A. Malomed. 7. Representation of Wave Energy of a Rotating Flow in Terms of theDispersion Relation, Yasuhide Fukumoto, Makoto Hirota and YouichiMie. 8. Determining the Stability Domain of Perturbed Four-DimensionalSystems in 1:1 Resonance, Igor Hoveijn and Oleg N. Kirillov. 9. Index Theorems for Polynomial Pencils, Richard Kollár andRadomír Bosák. 10. Investigating Stability and Finding New Solutions inConservative Fluid Flows Through Bifurcation Approaches, PaoloLuzzatto-Fegiz and Charles H.K. Williamson. 11. Evolution Equations for Finite Amplitude Waves in ParallelShear Flows, Sherwin A. Maslowe. 12. Continuum Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation I, Philip J. Morrisonand George I. Hagstrom. 13. Continuum Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation II, George I. Hagstromand Philip J. Morrison. 14. Energy Stability Analysis for a Hybrid Fluid-Kinetic PlasmaModel, Philip J. Morrison, Emanuele Tassi and Cesare Tronci. 15. Accurate Estimates for the Exponential Decay of Semigroups withNon-Self-Adjoint Generators, Francis Nier. 16. Stability Optimization for Polynomials and Matrices, Michael L.Overton. 17. Spectral Stability of Nonlinear Waves in KdV-Type EvolutionEquations, Dmitry E. Pelinovsky. 18. Unfreezing Casimir Invariants: Singular Perturbations GivingRise to Forbidden Instabilities, Zensho Yoshida and Philip J.Morrison. About the Authors Oleg N. Kirillov has been a Research Fellow at theMagneto-Hydrodynamics Division of the Helmholtz-ZentrumDresden-Rossendorf in Germany since 2011. His research interestsinclude non-conservative stability problems of structural mechanicsand physics, perturbation theory of non-self-adjoint boundaryeigenvalue problems, magnetohydrodynamics, friction-inducedoscillations, dissipation-induced instabilities and non-Hermitianproblems of optics and microwave physics. Since 2013 he has servedas an Associate Editor for the journal Frontiers in MathematicalPhysics. Dmitry E. Pelinovsky has been Professor at McMaster University inCanada since 2000. His research profile includes work withnonlinear partial differential equations, discrete dynamicalsystems, spectral theory, integrable systems, and numericalanalysis. He served as the guest editor of the special issue of thejournals Chaos in 2005 and Applicable Analysis in 2010. He is anAssociate Editor of the journal Communications in Nonlinear Scienceand Numerical Simulations. This book is devoted to the problems of spectral analysis,stability and bifurcations arising from the nonlinear partialdifferential equations of modern physics. Leading experts indynamical systems, operator theory, partial differential equations,and solid and fluid mechanics present state-of-the-art approachesto a wide spectrum of new challenging stability problems.Bifurcations and stability of solitary waves, geometrical opticsstability analysis in hydro- and magnetohydrodynamics anddissipation-induced instabilities will be treated with the use ofthe theory of Krein and Pontryagin space, index theory, the theoryof multi-parameter eigenvalue problems and modern asymptotic andperturbative approaches. All chapters contain mechanical andphysical examples and combine both tutorial and advanced sections,making them attractive both to experts in the field andnon-specialists interested in knowing more about modern methods andtrends in stability theory.

Einführung in die Komplexe Analysis

Elemente der Funktionentheorie

Author: Wolfgang Fischer,Ingo Lieb

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3834893773

Category: Mathematics

Page: 214

View: 632

In den Bachelor-Studiengängen der Mathematik steht für die Komplexe Analysis (Funktionentheorie) oft nur eine einsemestrige 2-stündige Vorlesung zur Verfügung. Dieses Buch eignet sich als Grundlage für eine solche Vorlesung im 2. Studienjahr. Mit einer guten thematischen Auswahl, vielen Beispielen und ausführlichen Erläuterungen gibt dieses Buch eine Darstellung der Komplexen Analysis, die genau die Grundlagen und den wesentlichen Kernbestand dieses Gebietes enthält. Das Buch bietet über diese Grundausbildung hinaus weiteres Lehrmaterial als Ergänzung, sodass es auch für eine 3- oder 4 –stündige Vorlesung geeignet ist. Je nach Hörerkreis kann der Stoff unterschiedlich erweitert werden. So wurden für den „Bachelor Lehramt“ die geometrischen Aspekte der Komplexen Analysis besonders herausgearbeitet.

Advanced Calculus

An Introduction to Linear Analysis

Author: Leonard F. Richardson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118030672

Category: Mathematics

Page: 416

View: 7781

Features an introduction to advanced calculus and highlights itsinherent concepts from linear algebra Advanced Calculus reflects the unifying role of linearalgebra in an effort to smooth readers' transition to advancedmathematics. The book fosters the development of completetheorem-proving skills through abundant exercises while alsopromoting a sound approach to the study. The traditional theoremsof elementary differential and integral calculus are rigorouslyestablished, presenting the foundations of calculus in a way thatreorients thinking toward modern analysis. Following an introduction dedicated to writing proofs, the bookis divided into three parts: Part One explores foundational one-variable calculus topics fromthe viewpoint of linear spaces, norms, completeness, and linearfunctionals. Part Two covers Fourier series and Stieltjes integration, whichare advanced one-variable topics. Part Three is dedicated to multivariable advanced calculus,including inverse and implicit function theorems and Jacobiantheorems for multiple integrals. Numerous exercises guide readers through the creation of theirown proofs, and they also put newly learned methods into practice.In addition, a "Test Yourself" section at the end of each chapterconsists of short questions that reinforce the understanding ofbasic concepts and theorems. The answers to these questions andother selected exercises can be found at the end of the book alongwith an appendix that outlines key terms and symbols from settheory. Guiding readers from the study of the topology of the real lineto the beginning theorems and concepts of graduate analysis,Advanced Calculus is an ideal text for courses in advancedcalculus and introductory analysis at the upper-undergraduate andbeginning-graduate levels. It also serves as a valuable referencefor engineers, scientists, and mathematicians.

A Companion to Analysis

A Second First and First Second Course in Analysis

Author: Thomas William Körner

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821834479

Category: Mathematics

Page: 590

View: 7534

This book not only provides a lot of solid information about real analysis, it also answers those questions which students want to ask but cannot figure how to formulate. To read this book is to spend time with one of the modern masters in the subject. --Steven G. Krantz, Washington University, St. Louis One of the major assets of the book is Korner's very personal writing style. By keeping his own engagement with the material continually in view, he invites the reader to a similarly high level of involvement. And the witty and erudite asides that are sprinkled throughout the book are a real pleasure. --Gerald Folland, University of Washingtion, Seattle Many students acquire knowledge of a large number of theorems and methods of calculus without being able to say how they hang together. This book provides such students with the coherent account that they need. A Companion to Analysis explains the problems which must be resolved in order to obtain a rigorous development of the calculus and shows the student how those problems are dealt with. Starting with the real line, it moves on to finite dimensional spaces and then to metric spaces. Readers who work through this text will be ready for such courses as measure theory, functional analysis, complex analysis and differential geometry. Moreover, they will be well on the road which leads from mathematics student to mathematician. Able and hard working students can use this book for independent study, or it can be used as the basis for an advanced undergraduate or elementary graduate course. An appendix contains a large number of accessible but non-routine problems to improve knowledge and technique.

Semiclassical Analysis

Author: Maciej Zworski

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821883208

Category: Mathematics

Page: 431

View: 8789

This book is an excellent, comprehensive introduction to semiclassical analysis. I believe it will become a standard reference for the subject. --Alejandro Uribe, University of Michigan Semiclassical analysis provides PDE techniques based on the classical-quantum (particle-wave) correspondence. These techniques include such well-known tools as geometric optics and the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. Examples of problems studied in this subject are high energy eigenvalue asymptotics and effective dynamics for solutions of evolution equations. From the mathematical point of view, semiclassical analysis is a branch of microlocal analysis which, broadly speaking, applies harmonic analysis and symplectic geometry to the study of linear and nonlinear PDE. The book is intended to be a graduate level text introducing readers to semiclassical and microlocal methods in PDE. It is augmented in later chapters with many specialized advanced topics which provide a link to current research literature.