An Archaeological Study of Human Decapitation Burials

Author: Katie Tucker

Publisher: Pen & Sword Books

ISBN: 9781473825512

Category: Beheading

Page: 264

View: 4106

This is an in depth yet accessible study of human decapitation burials in Roman Britain. Dr Katie Tucker studied this subject for her doctorate and so is a leading expert in the area. Her findings go against conventional views of human decapitation burials of this period, which traditionally favor the view of a post-mortem removal of the head. Instead, Katie found the majority of the evidence did not support this theory and so concluded that most decapitations were likely to have been performed prior to death, potentially as a result of execution or human sacrifice. In order to gain a full insight into the ways in which these burials were formed and the reasoning behind these practices, Katie compares the decapitation burials to the burials of the wider Romano-British cemetery population. In doing this, Katie is able to better understand the differences between decapitated individuals and the rest of the population in terms of burial practice, demographics and ante-mortem health status.Decapitation burials are not only confined to the Roman period and so Katie also discusses the context of them in the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Early Medieval, Medieval and Post Medieval periods in order to assess whether there is continuity between periods.REVIEWS Of the many different burial practices, decapitation burials are one of the most intriguing. These unusual cases - with the skull placed elsewhere in the grave, removed from the grave entirely, or where cut-marks clearly indicate its separation from the body - are widely believed to be some form of burial ritual after death. Not so, Tucker argues. Drawing on her doctoral research, she re-examines the evidence and, focusing on skeletal trauma, comes to a different conclusion - that the majority of these decapitations were performed prior to death. The subject of decapitation is approached chronologically from prehistory to the medieval period with a particular focus on the decapitation elsewhere within the Roman Empire, and also its presence in ancient European art and literature, broadens the scope.The technical language used will most benefit those familiar with skeletal anatomy, but the inclusion of color photographs of a number of examples, as well as some unusual reconstruction drawings, certainly aids understanding. Current Archaeology
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Care in the Past

Archaeological and Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Author: Lindsay Powell,William Southwell-Wright,Rebecca Gowland

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 1785703366

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 9252

Care-giving is an activity that has been practiced by all human societies. From the earliest societies through to the present, all humans have faced choices regarding how people in positions of dependency are to be treated. As such, care-giving, and the form it takes, is a central experience of being a human and one that is culturally mediated. Archaeology has tended to marginalise the study of care, and debates surrounding our ability to recognise it within the archaeological record have often remained implicit rather than a focus of discussion. These 12 papers examine the topic of care in past societies and specifically how we might recognise the provision of care in archaeological contexts and to open up an inter-disciplinary conversation, including historical, bioarchaeological, faunal and philosophical perspectives. The topic of ‘care’ is examined through three different strands: the provision of care throughout the life course, namely that provided to the youngest and oldest members of a society; care-giving and attitudes towards impairment and disability in prehistoric and historic contexts, and the role of animals as both recipients of care and as tools for its provision.
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The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict

Author: Christopher Knüsel,Martin Smith

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134677979

Category: Social Science

Page: 706

View: 8051

If human burials were our only window onto the past, what story would they tell? Skeletal injuries constitute the most direct and unambiguous evidence for violence in the past. Whereas weapons or defenses may simply be statements of prestige or status and written sources are characteristically biased and incomplete, human remains offer clear and unequivocal evidence of physical aggression reaching as far back as we have burials to examine. Warfare is often described as ‘senseless’ and as having no place in society. Consequently, its place in social relations and societal change remains obscure. The studies in The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict present an overview of the nature and development of human conflict from prehistory to recent times as evidenced by the remains of past people themselves in order to explore the social contexts in which such injuries were inflicted. A broadly chronological approach is taken from prehistory through to recent conflicts, however this book is not simply a catalogue of injuries illustrating weapon development or a narrative detailing ‘progress’ in warfare but rather provides a framework in which to explore both continuity and change based on a range of important themes which hold continuing relevance throughout human development.
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Death and Dying in the Neolithic Near East

Author: Karina Croucher

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199693951

Category: History

Page: 372

View: 6923

Going beyond traditional concerns such as wealth, status, and social hierarchy, Karina Croucher here explores a variety of new approaches to the mortuary archaeology of the Neolithic Near East. Case studies reinterpret the remarkable plastered skulls, as well as plaster statuary, headless burials, relationships between human and animal remains, food consumption and cannibalism. Topics such as human interaction with the environment, identity, personhood and gender are stressed, providing a window on a more complex, more "humanised" Near Eastern Neolithic.
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Magic in Britain

A History of Medieval and Earlier Practices

Author: Robin Melrose

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 1476632545

Category: Religion

Page: 270

View: 6003

Magic, both benevolent (white) and malign (black), has been practiced in the British Isles since at least the Iron Age (800 BCE–CE 43). “Curse tablets”—metal plates inscribed with curses intended to harm specific people—date from the Roman Empire. The Anglo-Saxons who settled in England in the fifth and sixth centuries used ritual curses in documents, and wrote spells and charms. When they became Christians in the seventh century, the new “magicians” were saints, who performed miracles. When William of Normandy became king in 1066, there was a resurgence of belief in magic. The Church was able to quell the fear of magicians, but the Reformation saw its revival, with numerous witchcraft trials in the late 16th and 17th centuries.
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Deviant Burial in the Archaeological Record

Author: Eileen M. Murphy

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 1782975357

Category: Social Science

Page: 244

View: 4903

This edited volume contains twelve papers that present evidence on non-normative burial practices from the Neolithic through to Post-Medieval periods and includes case studies from some ten countries. It has long been recognised by archaeologists that certain individuals in a variety of archaeological cultures from diverse periods and locations have been accorded differential treatment in burial relative to other members of their society. These individuals can include criminals, women who died during childbirth, unbaptised infants, people with disabilities, and supposed revenants, to name but a few. Such burials can be identifiable in the archaeological record from an examination of the location and external characteristics of the grave site. Furthermore, the position of the body in addition to its association with unusual grave goods can be a further feature of atypical burials. The motivation behind such non-normative burial practices is also diverse and can be related to a wide variety of social and religious beliefs. It is envisaged that the volume will make a significant contribution towards our understanding of the complexities involved when dealing with non-normative burials in the archaeological record.
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An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt

Author: Kathryn A. Bard

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118896114

Category: Social Science

Page: 480

View: 4805

This student-friendly introduction to the archaeology of ancient Egypt guides readers from the Paleolithic to the Greco-Roman periods, and has now been updated to include recent discoveries and new illustrations. • Superbly illustrated with photographs, maps, and site plans, with additional illustrations in this new edition • Organized into 11 chapters, covering: the history of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology; prehistoric and pharaonic chronology and the ancient Egyptian language; geography, resources, and environment; and seven chapters organized chronologically and devoted to specific archaeological sites and evidence • Includes sections on salient topics such as the constructing the Great Pyramid at Giza and the process of mummification
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Trepanation

Author: Robert Arnott,Stanley Finger,Chris Smith

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203970942

Category: Medical

Page: 350

View: 4284

This volume will look at the history of trepanation, the identification of skulls, the tools used to make the cranial openings, and theories as to why trepanation might have been performed many thousands of years ago.
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The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial

Author: Sarah Tarlow,Liv Nilsson Stutz

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191650390

Category: Social Science

Page: 872

View: 9169

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial reviews the current state of mortuary archaeology and its practice, highlighting its often contentious place in the modern socio-politics of archaeology. It contains forty-four chapters which focus on the history of the discipline and its current scientific techniques and methods. Written by leading, international scholars in the field, it derives its examples and case studies from a wide range of time periods, such as the middle palaeolithic to the twentieth century, and geographical areas which include Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. Combining up-to-date knowledge of relevant archaeological research with critical assessments of the theme and an evaluation of future research trajectories, it draws attention to the social, symbolic, and theoretical aspects of interpreting mortuary archaeology. The volume is well-illustrated with maps, plans, photographs, and illustrations and is ideally suited for students and researchers.
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Encyclopedia of Prehistory

Volume 3: East Asia and Oceania

Author: Peter N. Peregrine,Melvin Ember

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306462573

Category: Social Science

Page: 386

View: 4193

The Encyclopedia of Prehistory represents also defined bya somewhatdifferent set of an attempt to provide basic information sociocultural characteristics than are eth on all archaeologically known cultures, nological cultures. Major traditions are covering the entire globe and the entire defined based on common subsistence prehistory ofhumankind. It is designed as practices, sociopolitical organization, and a tool to assist in doing comparative materialindustries,butlanguage,ideology, research on the peoples of the past. Most and kinship ties play little or no part in of the entries are written by the world's their definition because they are virtually foremost experts on the particular areas unrecoverable from archaeological con and time periods. texts. In contrast, language, ideology, and The Encyclopedia is organized accord kinship ties are central to defining ethno ing to major traditions. A major tradition logical cultures. is defined as a group ofpopulations sharing There are three types ofentries in the similar subsistence practices, technology, Encyclopedia: the major tradition entry, and forms of sociopolitical organization, the regional subtradition entry, and the which are spatially contiguous over a rela site entry. Each contains different types of tively large area and which endure tempo information, and each is intended to be rally for a relatively long period. Minimal used in a different way.
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Richtstättenarchäologie

Author: Jost Auler

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3938473177

Category: Execution sites

Page: 636

View: 701

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The Archaeology of Human Bones

Author: Simon Mays

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136971777

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 8323

The Archaeology of Human Bones provides an up to date account of the scientific analysis of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites. This completely revised edition reflects the latest developments in scientific techniques for studying human skeletons and the latest applications of those techniques in archaeology. In particular, the sections on ancient DNA and bone stable isotopes have been comprehensively updated, and two completely new chapters have been introduced, covering metric study of the postcranial skeleton and ethical dimensions of the study of human remains. The Archaeology of Human Bones introduces students to the anatomy of bones and teeth, utilising a large number of images. It analyzes the biasing effects of decay and incomplete recovery on burial data from archaeological sites, and discusses what we may learn about burial rites from human remains. Subsequent chapters focus on demographic analysis of earlier populations, normal skeletal variation, disease and injury, isotopic and DNA analysis of bone, the study of cremated bone and ethical aspects of working with ancient human remains. Current scientific methods are explained, alongside a critical discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. The ways in which scientific analyses of human skeletal remains can contribute to tackling major archaeological or historical issues is illustrated by means of examples drawn from studies from around the world. Technical jargon is kept to a minimum, and each chapter contains a summary of the main points that a student should grasp and a list of further reading targeted to enable students to follow up major issues covered in the book. Featuring case studies from around the world and with copious illustrations, The Archaeology of Human Bones continues to be a crucial work for students of archaeology.
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Science

Author: John Michels (Journalist)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1220

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The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Contemporary World

Author: Paul Graves-Brown,Rodney Harrison,Angela Piccini

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191663956

Category: Social Science

Page: 864

View: 3286

It has been clear for many years that the ways in which archaeology is practised have been a direct product of a particular set of social, cultural, and historical circumstances - archaeology is always carried out in the present. More recently, however, many have begun to consider how archaeological techniques might be used to reflect more directly on the contemporary world itself: how we might undertake archaeologies of, as well as in the present. This Handbook is the first comprehensive survey of an exciting and rapidly expanding sub-field and provides an authoritative overview of the newly emerging focus on the archaeology of the present and recent past. In addition to detailed archaeological case studies, it includes essays by scholars working on the relationships of different disciplines to the archaeology of the contemporary world, including anthropology, psychology, philosophy, historical geography, science and technology studies, communications and media, ethnoarchaeology, forensic archaeology, sociology, film, performance, and contemporary art. This volume seeks to explore the boundaries of an emerging sub-discipline, to develop a tool-kit of concepts and methods which are applicable to this new field, and to suggest important future trajectories for research. It makes a significant intervention by drawing together scholars working on a broad range of themes, approaches, methods, and case studies from diverse contexts in different parts of the world, which have not previously been considered collectively.
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Man Corn

Cannibalism and Violence in the Prehistoric American Southwest

Author: Christy G. Turner,Jacqueline A. Turner

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 547

View: 7603

This study of prehistoric violence, homicide, and cannibalism explodes the myth that the Anasazi and other Southwest Indians were simple, peaceful farmers. Until quite recently, Southwest prehistory studies have largely missed or ignored evidence of violent competition. Christy and Jacqueline Turner's study of prehistoric violence, homicide, and cannibalism explodes the myth that the Anasazi and other Southwest Indians were simple, peaceful farmers. Using detailed osteological analyses and other lines of evidence the Turners show that warfare, violence, and their concomitant horrors were as common in the ancient Southwest as anywhere else in the world. The special feature of this massively documented study is its multi-regional assessment of episodic human bones assemblages (scattered floor deposits or charnel pits) by taphonomic analysis, which considers what happens to bones from the time of death to the time of recovery. During the past thirty years, the authors and other analysts have identified a minimal perimortem taphonomic signature of burning, pot polishing, anvil abrasions, bone breakage, cut marks, and missing vertebrae that closely match the signatures of animal butchering and is frequently associated with additional evidence of violence. More than seventy-five archaeological sited containing several hundred individuals are carefully examined for the cannibalism signature. Because this signature has not been reported for any sites north of Mexico, other than those in the Southwest, the authors also present detailed comparisons with Mesoamerican skeletal collections where human sacrifice and cannibalism were known to have been practiced. The authors review several hypotheses for Southwest cannibalism: starvation, social pathology, and institutionalized violence and cannibalism. In the latter case, they present evidence for a potential Mexican connection and demonstrate that most of the known cannibalized series are located temporally and spatially near Chaco great houses.
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Domestic Life in Prehispanic Capitals

A Study of Specialization, Hierarchy, and Ethnicity

Author: Linda Manzanilla,Claude Chapdelaine

Publisher: University of Michigan Museum

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 266

View: 456

With major differences in size, urban plans, and population density, the capitals of New World states had large heterogeneous societies, sometimes multiethnic and highly specialized, making these cities amazing backdrops for complex interactions. What do their houses tell us about specialization, ethnicity, and hierarchy? This book explores these issues, reviewing case studies from Mesoamerica (such as Teotihuacan, Monte Albán, Xochicalco, Tula, Sayil, Chac, Tikal, and Copan) and South America (such as Tiwanaku, Huacas de Moche, Huari, Chan Chan, and Cuzco).
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Wasperton

A Roman, British and Anglo-Saxon Community in Central England

Author: M. O. H. Carver,Jonathan Scheschkewitz

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 372

View: 2767

The newest research on a major Anglo-Saxon site paints a vivid picture of the beginnings of England.
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