American Exceptionalism and Human Rights

Author: Michael Ignatieff

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400826889

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 8774

With the 2003 invasion and subsequent occupation of Iraq, the most controversial question in world politics fast became whether the United States stands within the order of international law or outside it. Does America still play by the rules it helped create? American Exceptionalism and Human Rights addresses this question as it applies to U.S. behavior in relation to international human rights. With essays by eleven leading experts in such fields as international relations and international law, it seeks to show and explain how America's approach to human rights differs from that of most other Western nations. In his introduction, Michael Ignatieff identifies three main types of exceptionalism: exemptionalism (supporting treaties as long as Americans are exempt from them); double standards (criticizing "others for not heeding the findings of international human rights bodies, but ignoring what these bodies say of the United States); and legal isolationism (the tendency of American judges to ignore other jurisdictions). The contributors use Ignatieff's essay as a jumping-off point to discuss specific types of exceptionalism--America's approach to capital punishment and to free speech, for example--or to explore the social, cultural, and institutional roots of exceptionalism. These essays--most of which appear in print here for the first time, and all of which have been revised or updated since being presented in a year-long lecture series on American exceptionalism at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government--are by Stanley Hoffmann, Paul Kahn, Harold Koh, Frank Michelman, Andrew Moravcsik, John Ruggie, Frederick Schauer, Anne-Marie Slaughter, Carol Steiker, and Cass Sunstein.
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Das russische Album

Geschichte einer Familie

Author: Michael Ignatieff

Publisher: Kiepenheuer & Witsch

ISBN: 346241044X

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 278

View: 8317

Diese ungewöhnlichen Erinnerungen erzählen die dramatische Geschichte von vier Generationen einer aristokratischen weißrussischen Familie – ihr luxuriöses Leben im zaristischen Rußland, die Verfolgung und Flucht durch den Bürgerkrieg und schließlich die Ankunft im Exil und den Neubeginn. Der Enkel und Autor Michael Ignatieff bedient sich der Tagebücher der Großeltern und entrollt so rückblickend das Leben seiner Familie in einer nicht mehr vorhandenen Welt.
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American Exceptionalism Reconsidered

U.S. Foreign Policy, Human Rights, and World Order

Author: David P. Forsythe,Patrice C. McMahon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131735236X

Category: Political Science

Page: 172

View: 1344

Is the US really exceptional in terms of its willingness to take universal human rights seriously? According to the rhetoric of American political leaders, the United States has a unique and lasting commitment to human rights principles and to a liberal world order centered on rule of law and human dignity. But when push comes to shove—most recently in Libya and Syria--the United States failed to stop atrocities and dithered as disorder spread in both places. This book takes on the myths surrounding US foreign policy and the future of world order. Weighing impulses toward parochial nationalism against the ideal of cosmopolitan internationalism, the authors posit that what may be emerging is a new brand of American globalism, or a foreign policy that gives primacy to national self-interest but does so with considerable interest in and genuine attention to universal human rights and a willingness to suffer and pay for those outside its borders—at least on occasion. The occasions of exception—such as Libya and Syria—provide case studies for critical analysis and allow the authors to look to emerging dominant powers, especially China, for indicators of new challenges to the commitment to universal human rights and humanitarian affairs in the context of the ongoing clash between liberalism and realism. The book is guided by four central questions: 1) What is the relationship between cosmopolitan international standards and narrow national self-interest in US policy on human rights and humanitarian affairs? 2) What is the role of American public opinion and does it play any significant role in shaping US policy in this dialectical clash? 3) Beyond public opinion, what other factors account for the shifting interplay of liberal and realist inclinations in Washington policy making? 4) In the 21st century and as global power shifts, what are the current views and policies of other countries when it comes to the application of human rights and humanitarian affairs?
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Meeting the Enemy

American Exceptionalism and International Law

Author: Natsu Taylor Saito

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814741252

Category: Law

Page: 384

View: 3730

Since its founding, the United States has defined itself as the supreme protector of freedom throughout the world, pointing to its Constitution as the model of law to ensure democracy at home and to protect human rights internationally. Although the United States has consistently emphasized the importance of the international legal system, it has simultaneously distanced itself from many established principles of international law and the institutions that implement them. In fact, the American government has attempted to unilaterally reshape certain doctrines of international law while disregarding others, such as provisions of the Geneva Conventions and the prohibition on torture. America’s selective self-exemption, Natsu Taylor Saito argues, undermines not only specific legal institutions and norms, but leads to a decreased effectiveness of the global rule of law. Meeting the Enemy is a pointed look at why the United States’ frequent—if selective—disregard of international law and institutions is met with such high levels of approval, or at least complacency, by the American public.
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Wer beherrscht die Welt?

Die globalen Verwerfungen der amerikanischen Politik

Author: Noam Chomsky

Publisher: Ullstein eBooks

ISBN: 3843714436

Category: Political Science

Page: 416

View: 3074

„Die Frage, wer die Welt regiert, kann nicht eindeutig beantwortet werden. Aber die einflussreichsten Akteure sind klar auszumachen.“ Auch nach der Ära Obama gilt: Die USA betrachten sich grundsätzlich als die Guten – selbst dann, wenn sie das Gleiche tun wie jene, denen sie Böses unterstellen: Zivilflugzeuge abschießen, willkürlich Leute inhaftieren und mit Drohnen umbringen oder in fremde Länder einmarschieren. Das Primat der militärischen Intervention und der unerbittliche Drang, alleinige Weltmacht zu bleiben, bilden die Konstanten der amerikanischen Politik – auch wenn dadurch Staaten ins Chaos und Menschen ins Verderben getrieben werden. Im Land dagegen haben die Reichen und Mächtigen fast freie Hand, jenseits demokratischer Kontrollen und unbeachtet von einer zunehmend gleichgültigen Bevölkerung. Wohin führt uns das? Welche Folgen hat das für den Rest der Welt? In seiner so brillanten wie präzisen Analyse zeigt Noam Chomsky die fatalen Folgen der imperialen Politik der USA für das ohnehin immer chaotischere Zusammenleben auf unserem Planeten.
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Die Arroganz der Macht

Author: J. William Fulbright

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3688112873

Category: Fiction

Page: 248

View: 1596

Nach den bürgerkriegsähnlichen Unruhen in Vierteln von Newark, Detroit und anderen Städten der USA faßte Fulbright Anfang August 1967 in einer Rede vor der amerikanischen Anwaltsvereinigung in Honolulu seine Kritik an der Innen- und Außenpolitik der USA zusammen in dem Urteil, die Vereinigten Staaten «übten Macht um der Macht willen» aus und sie seien auf dem Wege, «eine imperialistische Nation zu werden». Der Illusion, Amerika könne in Vietnam Krieg führen und zugleich Armut und Rechtsungleichheit im eigenen Lande wirksam bekämpfen, hielt der Senator die Diagnose entgegen, die USA seien im Begriff, den Krieg an beiden Fronten zu verlieren, denn: «Der Vietnamkrieg zehrt nicht nur an den menschlichen und materiellen Grundlagen unserer schwelenden Städte, er nährt nicht nur in den Slums die Überzeugung, daß das Land ihrer Lage gleichgültig gegenüberstehe. Der Krieg bestärkt immer mehr die Vorstellung, daß die Gewalt ein Weg zur Lösung von Problemen sei.»
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American Exceptionalism

An Idea that Made a Nation and Remade the World

Author: Hilde Eliassen Restad

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135048584

Category: Political Science

Page: 284

View: 8602

How does American exceptionalism shape American foreign policy? Conventional wisdom states that American exceptionalism comes in two variations – the exemplary version and the missionary version. Being exceptional, experts in U.S. foreign policy argue, means that you either withdraw from the world like an isolated but inspiring "city upon a hill," or that you are called upon to actively lead the rest of the world to a better future. In her book, Hilde Eliassen Restad challenges this assumption, arguing that U.S. history has displayed a remarkably constant foreign policy tradition, which she labels unilateral internationalism. The United States, Restad argues, has not vacillated between an "exemplary" and a "missionary" identity. Instead, the United States developed an exceptionalist identity that, while idealizing the United States as an exemplary "city upon a hill," more often than not errs on the side of the missionary crusade in its foreign policy. Utilizing the latest historiography in the study of U.S. foreign relations, the book updates political science scholarship and sheds new light on the role American exceptionalism has played – and continues to play – in shaping America’s role in the world. This work will be of great interest to students and scholars of US foreign policy, security studies, and American politics.
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China

Zwischen Tradition und Herausforderung

Author: Henry Kissinger

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783570551912

Category:

Page: 605

View: 5900

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Das Recht der Völker

Enthält: "Nochmals: Die Idee der öffentlichen Vernunft"

Author: John Rawls

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110898535

Category: Philosophy

Page: 294

View: 8757

Welche Bedingungen lassen Völker gerecht und friedlich zusammenleben? Unter welchen Umständen sind Kriege gerechtfertigt? Welche Leitlinien müssen gegeben sein für Organisationen, die eine gerechte Gesellschaft von Völkern mit gleichen Rechten herzustellen vermögen? In acht Grundsätzen für eine gerechte internationale Ordnung entwickelt der amerikanische Philosoph John Rawls einen hypothetischen "Vertrag der Gesellschaft der Völker". Das jüngste Buch von John Rawls ist nach A Theory of Justice 1971, dt. 1975) und Political Liberalism (1993, dt. 1998) ein weiteres wichtiges Werk des bedeutenden amerikanischen Philosophen. Die Originalausgabe (The Law of Peoples, 1999) hat zu heftigen Kontroversen geführt.
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Alle Menschen sind gleich - erfolgreiche nicht

Die verblüffenden kulturellen Ursachen von Erfolg

Author: Amy Chua,Jed Rubenfeld

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 3593422794

Category: Social Science

Page: 318

View: 8189

Warum sind Einwanderer aus China und dem Iran Gewinnertypen und die aus anderen Nationen oft nicht? »Tigermutter« Amy Chua und ihr Mann Jed Rubenfeld haben eine überraschende Antwort. Erfolg hat, wer drei Dinge mit auf den Weg bekommt: das Gefühl kollektiver Überlegenheit, gepaart mit einer tiefen Unsicherheit gegenüber der neuen Gesellschaft und nicht zuletzt einer guten Portion Selbstdisziplin. Das Gute: Das Erfolgsprinzip ist kulturell geprägt, aber dennoch übertragbar und kann uns auch hierzulande eine Lehre sein. Vorausgesetzt, wir haben den nötigen Biss!
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American Foreign Policy in a Globalized World

Author: David P. Forsythe,Patrice C. MacMahon,Andrew Wedeman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135447632

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 6568

In this volume, several leading foreign policy and international relations experts consider the long term prospects and implications of US foreign policy as it has been shaped and practiced during the presidency of George W. Bush. The essays in this collection - based on the research of well-respected scholars such as Ole Holsti, Loch Johnson, John Ruggie, Jack Donnelly, Robert Leiber, Karen Mingst, and Edward Luck - offer a clear assessment: while US resources are substantial, Washington's ability to shape outcomes in the world is challenged by its expansive foreign policy goals, its exceptionalist approach to international relations, serious questions about the limits of its hard power resources as well as fundamental changes in the global system. Illustrating one of the central ironies of the contemporary situation in foreign affairs and international relations: that at the very time of the ‘unipolar moment,’ the world has become globalized to such an extent that the unilateralism of the Bush Administration leads as much to resistance as it does to coercion, compliance, and cooperation. American Foreign Policy in a Globalized World will be of interest to students and scholars of politics and international relations.
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American Exceptionalism, the French Exception, and Digital Media Law

Author: Lyombe S. Eko

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739181130

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 330

View: 698

This volume explores and explains sameness and difference between the United States and France in the matters of freedom of expression on the Internet, the management of the tensions that arise between freedom of expression and the right of privacy of public figures, the comparative role of interest groups in the regulation of Internet content in both countries, the intellectual property implications of the digitization and transfer of journalistic works from print to searchable electronic databases, how courts in the United States and France managed the copyright issues that were triggered by the Google Book Search project, as well as the clash between intellectual property rights and freedom of expression in the area of parody or “gripe” web sites on the Internet. The volume presents American exceptionalism and the French exception as functionally equivalent logics that lead to different freedom of expression outcomes. This book makes a significant contribution to comparative communication law studies, an area that has not received serious academic interest.
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The Reception and Transmission of Civil Procedural Law in the Global Society

Legislative and Legal Educational Assistance to Other Countries in Procedural Law

Author: Masahisa Deguchi,Marcel Storme

Publisher: Garant

ISBN: 904660151X

Category: Law

Page: 359

View: 3610

In modern times, the civil procedural laws of every country have been influenced by those of other countries. For instance, the Japanese legal system was itself influenced by Chinese culture and later developed independently under the policy of national isolation. And since 1868, Japan has modernized its civil procedural law, using French, German, and American law as its models. Japan has recently tried to contribute by way of legislative and legal educational assistance to other Asian countries (Vietnam, Cambodia, etc.) in civil and procedural law. The civil procedural laws of different countries should be expected to harmonize with each other in the global society. This book is the outcome of the Congress of the International Association of Procedural Law at the Ritsumeikan University in Kyoto, Japan. In this book, various outstanding contributors are treating a contemporary legal problem in their own civil procedural systems, including examples from India, the Netherlands, Korea, Italy, China, Japan, etc.
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Human Rights in the 'War on Terror'

Author: Richard Ashby Wilson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139446822

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 9224

This book asks whether human rights, since the 9/11 attacks and the 'war on terror,' are a luxury we can no longer afford, or rights that must always remain a fundamental part of democratic politics, in order to determine the boundary between individual freedom and government tyranny. This volume brings together leading international lawyers, policy-makers, scholars and activists in the field of human rights to evaluate the impact of the 'war on terror' on human rights, as well as to develop a counter-terror strategy which takes human rights seriously. While some contributors argue that war is necessary in defense of liberal democracy, others assert that it is time to move away from the war model towards a new paradigm based upon respect for human rights, an internationally-coordinated anti-terror justice strategy, and a long-term political vision that can reduce the global tensions that generate a political constituency for terrorists.
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From Civil to Human Rights

Dialogues on Law and Humanities in the United States and Europe

Author: Helle Porsdam

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1849802300

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 2858

Helle Porsdam s new book is a readable and perceptive analysis of European and American perceptions of essential human rights and their roots in national and regional cultures. Professor Porsdam traces the notions of civil, political, social and economic interests as rights protected and implemented by law on both sides of the Atlantic. From Civil to Human Rights is a must read for Europeans, Americans, and everyone else who wants to learn more about the institutions, values, hopes and dreams that bring us together and hold us apart at the beginning of the 21st century. Peter L. Murray, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, US Is there a special human rights narrative emerging from the chastened soul of post-war Europe? What lies ahead for that great but shattered community? Helle Porsdam, a leader in the related fields of human rights and humane letters, bids fair to answer these and other pressing questions. Along the way her highly nuanced intellect addresses the frustrating differences among those contentious first cousins, Europe and the United States. The result is a wide-ranging, richly informed inquiry about Europe s rise from the ashes and the choices it must make to inspire rather than repulse the world around it. Richard Weisberg, Cardozo Law School, New York, US Europeans have attempted for some time to develop a human rights talk and now European intellectuals are talking about the need to construct European narratives . This book illustrates that these narratives will emphasize a political and cultural vision for a multi-ethnic and more cosmopolitan Europe. The narratives evolve around human rights, partly in the hope that they might function as a cultural glue in an increasingly multi-ethnic Europe, and partly because they are intimately connected with that part of enlightenment thinking that sought to promote democracy and the rule of law. Helle Porsdam discusses the development of human rights as a discourse of atonement for Europeans a discourse which has the potential to become a shared, transatlantic discourse. Using an interdisciplinary approach, this book will be an invaluable research tool for postgraduate students and scholars within the fields of law, history, political science and international relations.
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