Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism

Author: James Karl Hoffmeier

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199792089

Category: History

Page: 293

View: 7261

Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years in the fourteenth century B.C.E, is one of the most intriguing rulers of ancient Egypt. His odd appearance and his preoccupation with worshiping the sun disc Aten have stimulated academic discussion and controversy for more than a century. Despite the numerous books and articles about this enigmatic figure, many questions about Akhenaten and the Atenism religion remain unanswered. In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James K. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten was not, as is often said, a radical advocating a new religion, but rather a primitivist: that is, one who reaches back to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's inspiration was the Old Kingdom (2650-2400 B.C.E.), when the sun-god Re/Atum ruled as the unrivaled head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier finds that Akhenaten was a genuine convert to the worship of Aten, the sole creator God, based on the Pharoah's own testimony of a theophany, a divine encounter that launched his monotheistic religious odyssey. The book also explores the Atenist religion's possible relationship to Israel's religion, offering a close comparison of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been identified by scholars as influenced by the Egyptian hymn. Through a careful reading of key texts, artworks, and archaeological studies, Hoffmeier provides compelling new insights into a religion that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the impact of Atenism on Egyptian religion and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.


History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt

Author: Dominic Montserrat

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134690347

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 5268

The pharaoh Akhenaten, who ruled Egypt in the mid-fourteenth century BCE, has been the subject of more speculation than any other character in Egyptian history. This provocative new biography examines both the real Akhenaten and the myths that have been created around him. It scrutinises the history of the pharaoh and his reign, which has been continually written in Eurocentric terms inapplicable to ancient Egypt, and the archaeology of Akhenaten's capital city, Amarna. It goes on to explore the pharaoh's extraordinary cultural afterlife, and the way he has been invoked to validate everything from psychoanalysis to racial equality to Fascism.

Akhenaten and the Religion of Light

Author: Erik Hornung

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801487255

Category: History

Page: 146

View: 6983

Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, was king of Egypt during the Eighteenth Dynasty and reigned from 1375 to 1358 B.C. E. Called the "religious revolutionary," he is the earliest known creator of a new religion. The cult he founded broke with Egypt's traditional polytheism and focused its worship on a single deity, the sun god Aten. Erik Hornung, one of the world's preeminent Egyptologists, here offers a concise and accessible account of Akhenaten and his religion of light.Hornung begins with a discussion of the nineteenth-century scholars who laid the foundation for our knowledge of Akhenaten's period and extends to the most recent archaeological finds. He emphasizes that Akhenaten's monotheistic theology represented the first attempt in history to explain the entire natural and human world on the basis of a single principle. "Akhenaten made light the absolute reference point," Hornung writes, "and it is astonishing how clearly and consistently he pursued this concept." Hornung also addresses such topics as the origins of the new religion; pro-found changes in beliefs regarding the afterlife; and the new Egyptian capital at Akhetaten which was devoted to the service of Aten, his prophet Akhenaten, and the latter's family.

Das Akhenaten-Abenteuer

Author: P. B. Kerr

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644472416

Category: Juvenile Fiction

Page: 384

View: 6315

»Auch der wunderbarste Märchenheld, der an seiner kupfernen Lampe reibt, hätte sich keine fesselndere Geschichte als das rasant und brillant erzählte Abenteuer wünschen können.« (Spiegel) Eigentlich führen die Zwillinge John und Philippa ein ganz normales Leben. Bis ihnen eines Tages ihre Weisheitszähne entfernt werden und plötzlich unerklärliche Dinge geschehen. Denn John und Philippa sind keineswegs wie andere Zwölfjährige. Sie sind Dschinn. Und ehe die beiden so recht wissen, wie ihnen geschieht, landen sie mitten in einem unglaublichen magischen Abenteuer.

Akhenaten and Tutankhamun

Revolution and Restoration

Author: David P. Silverman,Josef W. Wegner,Jennifer Houser Wegner

Publisher: UPenn Museum of Archaeology

ISBN: 9781931707909

Category: History

Page: 196

View: 8664

The Amarna Period, named after the site of an innovative capital city that was the center of the new religion, included the reigns Akhenaten and his presumed son, Tutankhamun.

The Boundary Stelae of Akhenaten

Author: William J. Murnane,Charles Cornell Van Siclen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0710304641

Category: History

Page: 227

View: 9239

During the fourteenth century B.C., even as Egypt faced troubling challenges to her empire, the most basic structures of society suddenly came under attack from an unexpected quarter - the pharaoh himself. Amenhotep IV (c. 1353-1336 B.C), both god-king and high priest of all the gods in the Nile Valley, acted against all precedent by withdrawing his support from the orthodox religion. In place of Egypt's many traditional divinities he promoted an entirely new form of the sun god. Embodied in a hitherto minor figure in the pantheon, the solar orb ('Aten'), this being was not only worshipped as the life force of all creation, but was regarded as the celestial alter ego of the king, who reigned on earth as the Aten ruled in heaven. When the king decided to break with the past, he changed his name to Akhenaten and established for his god a new cult centre on virgin ground in Middle Egypt. To define the site of Akhet-Aten - 'Horizon of the Aten' - the king commissioned a number of stelae along the city's boundaries. These glorified frontier markers symbolically established the royal presence by means of statues and reliefs depicting the royal family, and preserved for posterity the decrees which had initiated the city's foundation. The fifteen known boundary monuments of Akhenaten were discovered in the two decades that bridged the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but they were incompletely served by the pioneering publications that first made them known. The authors, both well known Egyptologists, worked at El Amarna from 1983 to 1989, making fresh copies of the inscriptions and studying the stelae themselves. The results of their investigations, which are published here, include a definitive new edition of the texts, with modern translations, together with a wide-ranging analysis of the history which inspired and is reflected in these monuments.

Akhenaten and Tutankhamen

Author: Zoe Lowery,Susanna Thomas

Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc

ISBN: 1508172609

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 112

View: 3234

Once Akhenaton came to power in fourteenth-century Egypt, life changed dramatically. He completely reformed the country’s religion, and he replaced the traditional gods with a single god: Aton the sun god. His religious fervor went so far that he changed his own name to Akhenaton, meaning “beneficial to the Aton,” from Amenhotep IV. His people were dissatisfied, and soon after his death, and with the rule of Tutankhamen, the country returned to its traditional deities. Although Tutankhamen is famously known for his lavish tombs, his short rule is also marked by the restoration of art and any temples damaged during Akhenaton’s rule.

Moses and Akhenaten

The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus

Author: Ahmed Osman

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1591438845

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 2550

A reinterpretation of biblical and Egyptian history that shows Moses and the Pharaoh Akhenaten to be one and the same. • Provides dramatic evidence from both archaeological and documentary sources. • A radical challenge to long-established beliefs on the origin of Semitic religion. During his reign, the Pharaoh Akhenaten was able to abolish the complex pantheon of the ancient Egyptian religion and replace it with a single god, the Aten, who had no image or form. Seizing on the striking similarities between the religious vision of this “heretic” pharaoh and the teachings of Moses, Sigmund Freud was the first to argue that Moses was in fact an Egyptian. Now Ahmed Osman, using recent archaeological discoveries and historical documents, contends that Akhenaten and Moses were one and the same man. In a stunning retelling of the Exodus story, Osman details the events of Moses/Akhenaten's life: how he was brought up by Israelite relatives, ruled Egypt for seventeen years, angered many of his subjects by replacing the traditional Egyptian pantheon with worship of the Aten, and was forced to abdicate the throne. Retreating to the Sinai with his Egyptian and Israelite supporters, he died out of the sight of his followers, presumably at the hands of Seti I, after an unsuccessful attempt to regain his throne. Osman reveals the Egyptian components in the monotheism preached by Moses as well as his use of Egyptian royal ritual and Egyptian religious expression. He shows that even the Ten Commandments betray the direct influence of Spell 125 in the Egyptian Book of the Dead. Moses and Akhenaten provides a radical challenge to long-standing beliefs concerning the origin of Semitic religion and the puzzle of Akhenaten's deviation from ancient Egyptian tradition. In fact, if Osman's contentions are correct, many major Old Testament figures would be of Egyptian origin.

From Imhotep to Akhenaten

An Introduction to Egyptian Philosophers

Author: Molefi K. Asante

Publisher: menaibuc

ISBN: 9782911372506

Category: Egypt

Page: 227

View: 7380


Brilliant Things for Akhenaten

The Production of Glass, Vitreous Materials and Pottery at Amarna Site O45.1

Author: Paul T. Nicholson

Publisher: N.A


Category: History

Page: 393

View: 6622

This book examines the coming of glass to Egypt and its relationship to the production of faience and pottery, particularly at Amarna site O45.1. The text combines excavated evidence with experimental archaeology and laboratory analyses to give a reconstruction of the production of glass and other materials at Amarna, both in terms of technology and social context. The excavations carried out by Flinders Petrie at Amarna (18912) are reassessed in the light of the new work and finds from that time put into a broader perspective.

The Akhenaten Colossi of Karnak

Author: Lise Manniche

Publisher: American Univ in Cairo Press

ISBN: 9789774163494

Category: Art

Page: 182

View: 6509

Some of the most fascinating sculptures to have survived from ancient Egypt are the colossal statues of Akhenaten, erected at the beginning of his reign (1353-1335 BC) in his new temple to the Aten at Karnak. Fragments of more than thirty statues are now known, showing the paradoxical features combining male and female, young and aged, characteristic of representations of this king. Did he look like this in real life? Was his iconography skillfully devised to mirror his concept of his role in the universe? And was more than one individual represented in the colossi? The author presents the history of the discovery of the statue fragments from 1925 to the present day; the profusion of opinions on the appearance of the king and his alleged medical conditions; and the various suggestions for an interpretation of the perplexing evidence. A complete catalog of all major fragments is included, as well as many pictures not previously published.


Son of the Sun

Author: Moyra Caldecott

Publisher: Bladud Books

ISBN: 1899142258

Category: Fiction

Page: 208

View: 2056

In ancient Egypt during the magnificent eighteenth dynasty the Pharaoh Akhenaten and his queen, the strong and beautiful Nefertiti, are engaged in a dramatic battle against the wealthy, corrupt and dangerously powerful priests of Amun. Haunting and full of surprises, The Son of the Sun, gives a fascinating glimpse into an ancient civilisation. It is a story about hate and love, despair and hope, but more than that it is the story of extraordinary spiritual and psychic powers being tested to their limits.


Author: Dorothy Porter

Publisher: Picador Australia

ISBN: 9780330424233

Category: Australian poetry

Page: 172

View: 1004

Akhenaten was a fascinating, shadowy figure in Egyptian history – archaeologists have discovered attempts to eradicate all traces of his brief reign, but enough remains to tell a remarkable story of incest, heresy, androgyny and a massive cult of personality.Like Albert Camus celebrated Caligula, Dorothy Porter's Akhenaten is an attractive warped megalomaniac who attempted to construct an heretical religion around one Sun God, with himself at the centre.Akhenaten is a novel in verse that captures the obsessive, erotic nature of its central figure. It is a towering achievement.


Egypt's False Prophet

Author: Nicholas Reeves

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780500285527

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 208

View: 350

A lavishly illustrated portrait of ancient Egypt's heretic pharaoh sheds new light on the turbulent events of Akhenaten's reign; his efforts to impose upon his kingdom the worship of a single god; the political, cultural, social, and artistic facets of the Amarna era; and the mysteries of Akhenaten, the fate of his wife Nefertiti, and the death of his heir, Tutankhamun. 12,000 first printing.


The Heretic Pharaoh

Author: Brien Foerster

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781537272276


Page: 148

View: 8666

Perhaps the most intriguing of ancient Egypt's rulers, Akhenaten is in many ways also the most mysterious. Loved by those that followed him, and his wife Nefertiti, he was hated by the Amun priesthood, who before and during his childhood held the reigns of power in Egypt. He not only changed his name from Amenhotep to Akhenaten, but also moved the capital from Thebes to his new city of Akhetaten, as well as changing the belief system from poly to monotheism. Learn more about him in this book.

From Akhenaten to Moses

Ancient Egypt and Religious Change

Author: Jan Assmann

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 1617975745

Category: Religion

Page: 192

View: 3476

The shift from polytheism to monotheism changed the world radically. Akhenaten and Moses—a figure of history and a figure of tradition—symbolize this shift in its incipient, revolutionary stages and represent two civilizations that were brought into the closest connection as early as the Book of Exodus, where Egypt stands for the old world to be rejected and abandoned in order to enter the new one. The seven chapters of this seminal study shed light on the great transformation from different angles. Between Egypt in the first chapter and monotheism in the last, five chapters deal in various ways with the transition from one to the other, analyzing the Exodus myth, understanding the shift in terms of evolution and revolution, confronting Akhenaten and Moses in a new way, discussing Karl Jaspers’ theory of the Axial Age, and dealing with the eighteenth-century view of the Egyptian mysteries as a cultural model.


Dweller in Truth A Novel

Author: Naguib Mahfouz

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 0307481263

Category: Fiction

Page: 176

View: 7915

From the winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature and author of the Cairo Trilogy, comes Akhenaten, a fascinating work of fiction about the most infamous pharaoh of ancient Egypt. In this beguiling novel, originally published in Arabic in 1985, Mahfouz tells with extraordinary insight the story of the "heretic pharaoh," or "sun king,"--the first known monotheistic ruler--whose iconoclastic and controversial reign during the 18th Dynasty (1540-1307 B.C.) has uncanny resonance with modern sensibilities. Narrating the novel is a young man with a passion for the truth, who questions the pharaoh's contemporaries after his horrible death--including Akhenaten's closest friends, his most bitter enemies, and finally his enigmatic wife, Nefertiti--in an effort to discover what really happened in those strange, dark days at Akhenaten's court. As our narrator and each of the subjects he interviews contribute their version of Akhenaten, "the truth" becomes increasingly evanescent. Akhenaten encompasses all of the contradictions his subjects see in him: at once cruel and empathic, feminine and barbaric, mad and divinely inspired, his character, as Mahfouz imagines him, is eerily modern, and fascinatingly ethereal. An ambitious and exceptionally lucid and accessible book, Akhenaten is a work only Mahfouz could render so elegantly, so irresistibly. From the Trade Paperback edition.