Agent-Based Simulation of Organizational Behavior

New Frontiers of Social Science Research

Author: Davide Secchi,Martin Neumann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331918153X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 348

View: 3405

The aim of this book is to demonstrate how Agent-Based Modelling (ABM) can be used to enhance the study of social agency, organizational behavior and organizational management. It derives from a workshop, sponsored by the Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behavior (AISB), held at Bournemouth University Business School in 2014 on “Modelling Organizational Behavior and Social Agency”. The contents of this book are divided into four themes: Perspectives, Modeling Organizational Behavior, Philosophical and Methodological Perspective, and Modeling Organized Crime and Macro-Organizational Phenomena. ABM is a particular and advanced type of computer simulation where the focus of modeling shifts to the agent rather than to the system. This allows for complex and more realistic representations of reality, facilitating an innovative socio-cognitive perspective on organizational studies. The editors and contributing authors claim that the use of ABM may dramatically expand our understanding of human behavior in organizations. This is made possible because of (a) the computational power made available by technological advancements, (b) the relative ease of the programming, (c) the ability to borrow simulation practices from other disciplines, and (d) the ability to demonstrate how the ABM approach clearly enables a socio-cognitive perspective on organizational complexity. Showcasing contributions from academics and researchers of various backgrounds and discipline, this volumes provides a global, interdisciplinary perspective.
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Simulating Social Complexity

A Handbook

Author: Bruce Edmonds,Ruth Meyer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319669486

Category: Computers

Page: 838

View: 583

This volume examines all aspects of using agent or individual-based simulation. This approach represents systems as individual elements having their own set of differing states and internal processes. The interactions between elements in the simulation represent interactions in the target systems. What makes this "social" is that it can represent an observed society. Social systems include all those systems where the components have individual agency but also interact with each other. This includes human societies and groups, but also increasingly socio-technical systems where the internet-based devices form the substrate for interaction. These systems are central to our lives, but are among the most complex known. This poses particular problems for those who wish to understand them. The complexity often makes analytic approaches infeasible but, on the other hand, natural language approaches are also inadequate for relating intricate cause and effect. This is why individual and agent-based computational approaches hold out the possibility of new and deeper understanding of such systems. This handbook marks the maturation of this new field. It brings together summaries of the best thinking and practices in this area from leading researchers in the field and constitutes a reference point for standards against which future methodological advances can be judged. This second edition adds new chapters on different modelling purposes and applying software engineering methods to simulation development. Revised existing content will keep the book up-to-date with recent developments. This volume will help those new to the field avoid "reinventing the wheel" each time, and give them a solid and wide grounding in the essential issues. It will also help those already in the field by providing accessible overviews of current thought. The material is divided into four sections: Introduction, Methodology, Mechanisms, and Applications. Each chapter starts with a very brief section called ‘Why read this chapter?’ followed by an abstract, which summarizes the content of the chapter. Each chapter also ends with a section on ‘Further Reading’. Whilst sometimes covering technical aspects, this second edition of Simulating Social Complexity is designed to be accessible to a wide range of researchers, including both those from the social sciences as well as those with a more formal background. It will be of use as a standard reference text in the field and also be suitable for graduate level courses.
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Cognition Beyond the Brain

Computation, Interactivity and Human Artifice

Author: Stephen J. Cowley,Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319491156

Category: Computers

Page: 342

View: 6455

This book challenges neurocentrism by advocating a systemic view of cognition based on investigating how action shapes the experience of thinking, placing interactivity at its heart. This systemic viewpoint makes three main claims. First, that many elaborate cognitive skills like language, problem solving and human-computer interaction (HCI) are based in sense-saturated coordination or interactivity. Second, interactivity produces a tightly woven scaffold of resources, some internal to the agent and others external, that elevates and transforms thinking. Third, human agents entwine brains, bodies and their surroundings as they manage multi-scalar dynamics. This new edition continues to demonstrate how a systemic perspective casts a productive light on thinking in applied domains such as crime scene analysis, the use of information technology in construction, and computer-meditated trusts and presents new studies on the cognitive ecology of the web, multi-scalar temporal and organisational cognition and the importance of interactive material engagement in digital architecture. Authors use various scales of the systemic viewpoint to illustrate how bodies and artefacts shape thinking, but in all cases the experience of materiality is meshed with activity that involves the world beyond the body. Cognition Beyond the Brain is a valuable reference for researchers, practitioners and graduate students within the fields of Computer Science, Psychology, Linguistics and Cognitive Sciences.
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Introducing the Oscillations Based Paradigm

The Simulation of Agents and Social Systems

Author: Darius Plikynas

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319390406

Category: Computers

Page: 325

View: 956

The book presents a conceptually novel oscillations based paradigm, the Oscillation-Based Multi-Agent System (OSIMAS), aimed at the modelling of agents and their systems as coherent, stylized, neurodynamic processes. This paradigm links emerging research domains via coherent neurodynamic oscillation based representations of the individual human mind and society (as a coherent collective mind) states. Thus, this multidisciplinary paradigm delivers an empirical and simulation research framework that provides a new way of modelling the complex dynamics of individual and collective mind states. This book addresses a conceptual problem – the lack of a multidisciplinary, connecting paradigm, which could link fragmented research in the fields of neuroscience, artificial intelligence (AI), multi-agent system (MAS) and the social network domains. The need for a common multidisciplinary research framework essentially arises because these fields share a common object of investigation and simulation, i.e., individual and collective human behavior. Although the fields of research mentioned above all approach this from different perspectives, their common object of investigation unites them. By putting the various pathways of research as they are interrelated into perspective, this book provides a philosophical underpinning, experimental background and modelling tools that the author anticipates will reveal new frontiers in multidisciplinary research. Fundamental investigation of the implicit oscillatory nature of agents’ mind states and social mediums in general can reveal some new ways of understanding the periodic and nonperiodic fluctuations taking place in real life. For example, via agent states-related diffusion properties, we could investigate complex economic phenomena like the spread of stock market crashes, currency crises, speculative oscillations (bubbles and crashes), social unrest, recessionary effects, sovereign defaults, etc. All these effects are closely associated with social fragility, which follows and is affected by cycles such as production, political, business and financial. Thus, the multidisciplinary OSIMAS paradigm can yield new knowledge and research perspectives, allowing for a better understanding of social agents and their social organization principles.
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Social Services Disrupted

Changes, Challenges and Policy Implications for Europe in Times of Austerity

Author: Flavia Martinelli,Anneli Anttonen,Margitta Mätzke

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1786432110

Category: POLITICAL SCIENCE

Page: 448

View: 3912

This book revives the discussion on public social services and their redesign, with a focus on services relating to care and the social inclusion of vulnerable groups, providing rich information on the changes that occurred in the organisation and supply of public social services over the last thirty years in different European places and service fields. Despite the persisting variety in social service models, three shared trends emerge: public sector disengagement, ‘vertical re-scaling’ of authority and ‘horizontal re-mix’ in the supply system. The consequences of such changes are evaluated from different perspectives – governance, social and territorial cohesion, labour market, gender – and are eventually deemed ‘disruptive’ in both economic and social terms. The policy implications of the restructuring are also explored. This title will be Open Access on Elgaronline.com.
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An Introduction to Agent-Based Modeling

Modeling Natural, Social, and Engineered Complex Systems with NetLogo

Author: Uri Wilensky,William Rand

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262731894

Category: Computers

Page: 504

View: 7029

A comprehensive and hands-on introduction to the core concepts, methods, and applications of agent-based modeling, including detailed NetLogo examples.
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Computational Social Psychology

Author: Robin R. Vallacher,Stephen J. Read,Andrzej Nowak

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351701681

Category: Psychology

Page: 398

View: 5461

Computational Social Psychology showcases a new approach to social psychology that enables theorists and researchers to specify social psychological processes in terms of formal rules that can be implemented and tested using the power of high speed computing technology and sophisticated software. This approach allows for previously infeasible investigations of the multi-dimensional nature of human experience as it unfolds in accordance with different temporal patterns on different timescales. In effect, the computational approach represents a rediscovery of the themes and ambitions that launched the field over a century ago. The book brings together social psychologists with varying topical interests who are taking the lead in this redirection of the field. Many present formal models that are implemented in computer simulations to test basic assumptions and investigate the emergence of higher-order properties; others develop models to fit the real-time evolution of people’s inner states, overt behavior, and social interactions. Collectively, the contributions illustrate how the methods and tools of the computational approach can investigate, and transform, the diverse landscape of social psychology.
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Simulation For The Social Scientist

Author: Gilbert, Nigel,Troitzsch, Klaus

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 9780335216000

Category: Social Science

Page: 295

View: 4487

Social sciences -- Simulation methods. Social interaction -- Computer simulation. Social sciences -- Mathematical models. (publisher)
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New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence

Joint JSAI 2001 Workshop Post-Proceedings

Author: Takao Terano,Toyoaki Nishida,Akira Namatame,Syrusaku Tsumoto,Yukio Ohsawa,Takashi Washio

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540455485

Category: Computers

Page: 556

View: 8824

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Agent-Based and Individual-Based Modeling

A Practical Introduction

Author: Steven F. Railsback,Volker Grimm

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691136742

Category: Science

Page: 329

View: 8327

Agent-based modeling is a new technique for understanding how the dynamics of biological, social, and other complex systems arise from the characteristics and behaviors of the agents making up these systems. This innovative textbook gives students and scientists the skills to design, implement, and analyze agent-based models. It starts with the fundamentals of modeling and provides an introduction to NetLogo, an easy-to-use, free, and powerful software platform. Nine chapters then each introduce an important modeling concept and show how to implement it using NetLogo. The book goes on to present strategies for finding the right level of model complexity and developing theory for agent behavior, and for analyzing and learning from models. Agent-Based and Individual-Based Modeling features concise and accessible text, numerous examples, and exercises using small but scientific models. The emphasis throughout is on analysis--such as software testing, theory development, robustness analysis, and understanding full models--and on design issues like optimizing model structure and finding good parameter values. The first hands-on introduction to agent-based modeling, from conceptual design to computer implementation to parameterization and analysis Provides an introduction to NetLogo with nine chapters introducing an important modeling concept and showing how to implement it using NetLogo Filled with examples and exercises, with updates and supplementary materials at http://www.railsback-grimm-abm-book.com/ Designed for students and researchers across the biological and social sciences Written by leading practitioners Leading universities that have adopted this book include: Amherst College Brigham Young University Carnegie Mellon University Cornell University Miami University Northwestern University Old Dominion University Portland State University Rhodes College Susquehanna University University College, Dublin University of Arizona University of British Columbia University of Michigan University of South Florida University of Texas at Austin University of Virginia
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Agent-Based Models of Geographical Systems

Author: Alison J. Heppenstall,Andrew T. Crooks,Linda M. See,Michael Batty

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048189274

Category: Social Science

Page: 760

View: 5173

This unique book brings together a comprehensive set of papers on the background, theory, technical issues and applications of agent-based modelling (ABM) within geographical systems. This collection of papers is an invaluable reference point for the experienced agent-based modeller as well those new to the area. Specific geographical issues such as handling scale and space are dealt with as well as practical advice from leading experts about designing and creating ABMs, handling complexity, visualising and validating model outputs. With contributions from many of the world’s leading research institutions, the latest applied research (micro and macro applications) from around the globe exemplify what can be achieved in geographical context. This book is relevant to researchers, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students, and professionals in the areas of quantitative geography, spatial analysis, spatial modelling, social simulation modelling and geographical information sciences.
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Trust in Organizations

Frontiers of Theory and Research

Author: Roderick M. Kramer,Tom R. Tyler

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803957404

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 429

View: 2575

Trust plays a central role in organizational life. It facilitates exchanges among individuals, enhances cooperation and coordination, and contributes to more effective relationships. This volume brings together a cross-disciplinary group of contributors to present some of the latest, most exciting conceptual perspectives in the field and to demonstrate a variety of new methodological approaches to the study of trust. It includes discussions on: the psychological and social antecedents of trust; the effects of social and organizational structures on trust; and the broad effects of trust on organizational functioning.
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Computational Organization Theory

Author: Kathleen M. Carley,Michael J. Prietula

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1317781163

Category: Psychology

Page: 336

View: 478

This volume represents an advance in our understanding of how to represent and reason about organizational phenomena. Although organizational theorists have long grappled with the complexities of adaptive agents, ecological systems, and non-linear relations among the basic elements of organizational design, they have not, until recently, had the tools to grapple with these complex relationships. Recent advances in logic, symbolic programming, network analysis, and computer technology have made possible a series of tools that can be used to understand the complexities of organizational behavior. New computational techniques make it possible to develop and test more realistic models of organizational behavior. This volume offers examples of this new breed of models, and provides insight into how these advances and techniques can be used to extend our theoretical understanding of organizations. Authored by leading researchers in the area of computational organization theory, the various chapters demonstrate the value of computational analysis for organizational theory and advance our understanding of the relationship between organizational design and performance. This book contains both theoretical and methodological contributions that enable organizational theorists to use computational and mathematical techniques to systematically address the complex relationships that underlie organizational life. It also presents new -- or sometimes, renewed -- approaches on how to conduct organizational research from multiple formal perspectives including: simulation, numerical analysis, symbolic logic, mathematical modeling, and graph theory.
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Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences

A Pluralist Perspective

Author: Donatella Della Porta,Michael Keating

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139474596

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 706

A revolutionary textbook introducing masters and doctoral students to the major research approaches and methodologies in the social sciences. Written by an outstanding set of scholars, and derived from successful course teaching, this volume will empower students to choose their own approach to research, to justify this approach, and to situate it within the discipline. It addresses questions of ontology, epistemology and philosophy of social science, and proceeds to issues of methodology and research design essential for producing a good research proposal. It also introduces researchers to the main issues of debate and contention in the methodology of social sciences, identifying commonalities, historic continuities and genuine differences.
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Frontiers of Complexity

The Search for Order in a Chaotic World

Author: Peter V. Coveney

Publisher: Ballantine Books

ISBN: 9780449910818

Category: Science

Page: 462

View: 1179

A groundbreaking book explores the dynamic, emerging concept of complexity and its relationship to mathematics, physics, biology, and chemistry, and provides an arresting account of how far science has come and what to expect in the rapidly approaching future. Reprint.
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New Frontiers in Information and Production Systems Modelling and Analysis

Incentive Mechanisms, Competence Management, Knowledge-based Production

Author: Przemysław Różewski,Dmitry Novikov,Natalia Bakhtadze,Oleg Zaikin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319233386

Category: Computers

Page: 268

View: 3635

This book demonstrates how to apply modern approaches to complex system control in practical applications involving knowledge-based systems. The dimensions of knowledge-based systems are extended by incorporating new perspectives from control theory, multimodal systems and simulation methods. The book is divided into three parts: theory, production system and information system applications. One of its main focuses is on an agent-based approach to complex system analysis. Moreover, specialised forms of knowledge-based systems (like e-learning, social network, and production systems) are introduced with a new formal approach to knowledge system modelling. The book, which offers a valuable resource for researchers engaged in complex system analysis, is the result of a unique cooperation between scientists from applied computer science (mainly from Poland) and leading system control theory researchers from the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences.
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Handbook of Motivation and Cognition Across Cultures

Author: Richard Sorrentino,Susumu Yamaguchi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080560007

Category: Psychology

Page: 624

View: 9669

In recent years there has been a wealth of new research in cognition, particularly in relation to supporting theoretical constructs about how cognitions are formed, processed, reinforced, and how they then affect behavior. Many of these theories have arisen and been tested in geographic isolation. It remains to be seen whether theories that purport to describe cognition in one culture will equally prove true in other cultures. The Handbook of Motivation and Cognition Across Cultures is the first book to look at these theories specifically with culture in mind. The book investigates universal truths about motivation and cognition across culture, relative to theories and findings indicating cultural differences. Coverage includes the most widely cited researchers in cognition and their theories- as seen through the looking glass of culture. The chapters include self-regulation by Tory Higgins, unconscious thought by John Bargh, attribution theory by Bernie Weiner, and self-verification by Bill Swann, among others. The book additionally includes some of the best new researchers in cross-cultural psychology, with contributors from Germany, New Zealand, Japan, Hong Kong, and Australia. In the future, culture may be the litmus test of a theory before it is accepted, and this book brings this question to the forefront of cognition research. Includes contributions from researchers from Germany, New Zealand, Japan, Hong Kong, and Australia for a cross-cultural panel Provides a unique perspective on the effect of culture on scientific theories and data
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Advances in Social Simulation 2015

Author: Wander Jager,Rineke Verbrugge,Andreas Flache,Gert de Roo,Lex Hoogduin,Charlotte Hemelrijk

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319472534

Category: Computers

Page: 460

View: 2889

This book highlights recent developments in the field, presented at the Social Simulation 2015 conference in Groningen, The Netherlands. It covers advances both in applications and methods of social simulation. Societal issues addressed range across complexities in economic systems, opinion dynamics and civil violence, changing mobility patterns, different land-use, transition in the energy system, food production and consumption, ecosystem management and historical processes. Methodological developments cover how to use empirical data in validating models in general, formalization of behavioral theory in agent behavior, construction of artificial populations for experimentation, replication of models, and agent-based models that can be run in a web browser. Social simulation is a rapidly evolving field. Social scientists are increasingly interested in social simulation as a tool to tackle the complex non-linear dynamics of society. Furthermore, the software and hardware tools available for social simulation are becoming more and more powerful. This book is an important source for readers interested in the newest developments in the ways in which the simulation of social interaction contributes to our understanding and managing of complex social phenomena.
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Extendable Rationality

Understanding Decision Making in Organizations

Author: Davide Secchi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441975423

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 161

View: 3570

“How do people make decisions in organizations?” is the question at the core of this book. Do people act rationally? Under what conditions can information and knowledge be shared to improve decision making? Davide Secchi applies concepts and theories from cognitive science, organizational behavior, and social psychology to explore the dynamics of decision making. In particular, he integrates “bounded rationality” (people are only partly rational; they have (a) limited computational capabilities and (b) limited access to information) and “distributed cognition” (knowledge is not confined to an individual, but is distributed across the members of a group) to build upon the pioneering work of Herbert Simon (1916-2001) on rational decision making and contribute fresh insights. This book is divided into two parts. The first part (Chapters 2 to 5) explores how recent studies on biases, prospect theory, heuristics, and emotions provide the so-called “map” of bounded rationality. The second part (Chapter 6 to 8) presents the idea of extendable rationality. In this section, Secchi identifies the limitations of bounded rationality and focuses more heavily on socially-based decision processes and the role of “docility” in teaching, managing, and executing decisions in organizations. The practical implications extend broadly to issues relating to change and innovation, as organizations adapt to evolving market conditions, implementing new systems, and effectively managing limited resources. The final chapter outlines an agenda for future research to help understand the decision making characteristics and capabilities of an organization.
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Organizational Learning

Creating, Retaining and Transferring Knowledge

Author: Linda Argote

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461452511

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 218

View: 8933

Why do some organizations learn at faster rates than others? Why do organizations "forget"? Could productivity gains acquired in one part of an organization be transferred to another? These are among the questions addressed in Organizational Learning: Creating, Retaining and Transferring Knowledge. Since its original publication in 1999, this book has set the standard for research and analysis in the field. This fully updated and expanded edition showcases the most current research and insights, featuring a new chapter that provides a theoretical framework for analyzing organizational learning and presents evidence about how the organizational context affects learning processes and outcomes. Drawing from a wide array of studies across the spectrum of management, economics, sociology, and psychology, Organizational Learning explores the dynamics of learning curves in organizations, with particular emphasis on how individuals and groups generate, share, reinforce, and sometimes forget knowledge. With an increased emphasis on service organizations, including healthcare, Linda Argote demonstrates that organizations vary dramatically in the rates at which they learn—with profound implications for productivity, performance, and managerial and strategic decision making.
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