Advances in hillslope processes

Author: Malcolm G. Anderson,Susan M. Brooks

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780471967743

Category: Slopes (Physical geography)

Page: 1306

View: 2847

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Advances in hillslope processes

Author: M. G. Anderson,Sue M. Brooks

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 1340

View: 3054

Deals in detail with the full range of elements appropriate to hillslope research. It develops several key themes in an attempt to bring together the very latest advances in hillslope research. Hydrological, solute, soil, gully and slope stability processes together with processes in tropical, semi arid and periglacial environments are all accorded major sections in the book. Written by internationally renowned experts in the field it brings together recent innovative advances in both modelling and field monitoring. "Hugely valuable publication that not only makes an impressive statement on or contemporary knowledge and methodology but also sets up a well defined platform for future work." Progress in Physical Geography, Vol 21:4 1997
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Advances in Agronomy

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080524337

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 238

View: 1383

Advances in Agronomy continues to be recognized as a leading reference and a first-rate source of the latest and best research in agronomy. As always, the topics covered are varied and exemplary of the panoply of subject matter dealt with by this long-running serial. Volume 69 contains five excellent reviews dealing with crop and soil sciences. Chapter 1 is a comprehensive and timely review of the measurement and interpretation of bulk mass-transfer phenomena for organic compounds in soils. Chapter 2 is an excellent overview of environmental indicators of agroecosystems. In chapter 3, an interesting treatise is presented on plant growth as effected by phosphate solubilizing soil microorganisms. Chapter 4 is a fine review on hydrological factors affecting phosphorus transfer from agricultural soils. The concluding chapter is an excellent discussion of the genetic resources of Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz.
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Recent Advances in Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Processing for Land Degradation Assessment

Author: Achim Roeder,Joachim Hill

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203875445

Category: Science

Page: 418

View: 8069

Land degradation and desertification are amongst the most severe threats to human welfare and the environment, as they affect the livelihoods of some 2 billion people in the world’s drylands, and they are directly connected to pressing global environmental problems, such as the loss of biological diversity or global climate change. Strategies to combat these processes and mitigate their effects at the land-management and policy level require spatially explicit, up-to-date information, which can be provided based on remote sensing data and using geoinformation processing techniques. Recent Advances in Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Processing for Land Degradation Assessment introduces the current state of the art in this field and provides an overview of both conceptual and technological advances of the recent past. With a specific focus on desertification and land degradation, the volume covers the assessment of related biophysical indicators, as well as complementary qualitative information at different spatial and temporal scales. It is shown how remote sensing data may be utilized in the context of assessing and monitoring affected ecosystems and how this information may be assimilated into integrated interpretation and modelling concepts. In addition, different case studies are provided to demonstrate the implementation of these methods in the frame of different local settings. The volume will be of interest to scientists and students working at the interface of ecosystem services, land degradation/desertification, spatial ecology, remote sensing and spatial modelling, as well as to land managers and policy makers.
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Recent Advances in the Modeling of Hydrologic Systems

Author: D.S Bowles,P. Enda O'Connell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401134804

Category: Science

Page: 667

View: 9452

Modeling of the rainfall-runoff process is of both scientific and practical significance. Many of the currently used mathematical models of hydrologic systems were developed a genera tion ago. Much of the effort since then has focused on refining these models rather than on developing new models based on improved scientific understanding. In the past few years, however, a renewed effort has been made to improve both our fundamental understanding of hydrologic processes and to exploit technological advances in computing and remote sensing. It is against this background that the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Recent Advances in the Modeling of Hydrologic Systems was organized. The idea for holding a NATO ASI on this topic grew out of an informal discussion between one of the co-directors and Professor Francisco Nunes-Correia at a previous NATO ASI held at Tucson, Arizona in 1985. The Special Program Panel on Global Transport Mechanisms in the Geo-Sciences of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division agreed to sponsor the ASI and an organizing committee was formed. The committee comprised the co directors, Professor David S. Bowles (U.S.A.) and Professor P. Enda O'Connell (U.K.), and Professor Francisco Nunes-Correia (Portugal), Dr. Donn G. DeCoursey (U.S.A.), and Professor Ezio Todini (Italy).
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The Use of Historical Data in Natural Hazard Assessments

Author: Thomas Glade,Paola Albini,Félix Francés

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401734909

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 6880

Natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, floods, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and hurricanes cause environmental, economic as well as sociological problems worldwide. In recent years, greater availability of information and sensational media reports of natural hazard occurrence -and in particular in terms of property damage or loss oflife caused by these hazards -resulted in an increase of hazard awareness at a societal level. This increase in public awareness has often been misconstrued as an indication that natural hazards have been occurring more frequently with higher magnitudes in recent years/decades, thus causing more damage than in the past. It is still under debate, however, to which extent recent increases in damage can be related to changing frequencies of natural processes, or whether catastrophic events occur at similar rates as they always had. If the latter is the case, the reason for a greater damage can be related to dramatic population growth over the last century, with a substantial augmentation of population density in some regions. Indeed, the implications are more server in underdeveloped and developing countries, where urbanisation has increasingly occurred in hazard prone areas such as coastal zones, alluvial river plains and steep slopes, thus causing an increase in the exposure to natural hazards. Some groups of society in wealthy countries accept higher risks in order to live directly on top of a cliff or on a steep slope to enjoy panoramic views of the landscape.
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Human Impacts on Amazonia

The Role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Conservation and Development

Author: Darrell A. Posey,Michael J. Balick

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231517351

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 9448

From the pre-Columbian era to the present, native Amazonians have shaped the land around them, emphasizing utilization, conservation, and sustainability. These priorities stand in stark contrast to colonial and contemporary exploitation of Amazonia by outside interests. With essays from environmental scientists, botanists, and anthropologists, this volume explores the various effects of human development on Amazonia. The contributors argue that by protecting and drawing on local knowledge and values, further environmental ruin can be avoided.
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Environmental Challenges in the Mediterranean 2000–2050

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Environmental Challenges in the Mediterranean 2000–2050 Madrid, Spain 2–5 October 2002

Author: Antonio Marquina

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400709730

Category: Social Science

Page: 390

View: 2969

This book addresses six key factors that will affect environmental policies in the Mediterranean region during the next fifty years: population growth, climate change, soil erosion and desertification, water scarcity, food production, and urbanization and pollution. The authors assess these as potential sources of violent conflict. The interdisciplinary approach makes this a relevant and useful reference for a broad range of professionals, specialists and researchers.
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Handbook of Erosion Modelling

Author: R. P. C. Morgan,Mark Nearing

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444348019

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 2979

The movement of sediment and associated pollutants over the landscape and into water bodies is of increasing concern with respect to pollution control, prevention of muddy floods and environmental protection. In addition, the loss of soil on site has implications for declining agricultural productivity, loss of biodiversity and decreased amenity and landscape value. The fate of sediment and the conservation of soil are important issues for land managers and decision-makers. In developing appropriate policies and solutions, managers and researchers are making greater use of erosion models to characterise the processes of erosion and their interaction with the landscape. A study of erosion requires one to think in terms of microseconds to understand the mechanics of impact of a single raindrop on a soil surface, while landscapes form over periods of thousands of years. These processes operate on scales of millimetres for single raindrops to mega-metres for continents. Erosion modelling thus covers quite a lot of ground. This book introduces the conceptual and mathematical frameworks used to formulate models of soil erosion and uses case studies to show how models are applied to a variety of purposes at a range of spatial and temporal scales. The aim is to provide land managers and others with the tools required to select a model appropriate to the type and scale of erosion problem, to show what users can expect in terms of accuracy of model predictions and to provide an appreciation of both the advantages and limitations of models. Problems covered include those arising from agriculture, the construction industry, pollution and climatic change and range in scale from farms to small and large catchments. The book will also be useful to students and research scientists as an up-to-date review of the state-of-art of erosion modelling and, through a knowledge of how models are used in practice, in highlighting the gaps in knowledge that need to be filled in order to develop even better models.
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Advances in Water Resources Engineering

Author: Chih Ted Yang,Lawrence K Wang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319110233

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 556

View: 6560

This book, Advances in Water Resources Engineering, Volume 14, covers the topics on watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, integrated simulation of interactive surface water and groundwater systems, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment transport, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial processes, minimum energy dissipation rate theory and applications, hydraulic modeling development and application, geophysical methods for assessment of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland areas by rainfall and overland flow, geofluvial modeling methodologies and applications, and environmental water engineering glossary.
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Advances in Urban Flood Management

Author: Richard Ashley,Stephen Garvin,Erik Pasche,Andreas Vassilopoulos,Chris Zevenbergen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203945980

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 512

View: 2080

One of the effects of global climate change is the increasing variability of extreme flood events and cyclones. Current measures to mitigate flood impacts, particularly in the urban environment, are based on previously-planned flood risk intervals and no longer provide sufficient protection. Being prepared for unexpected changes and extreme flood events asks for a paradigm shift in current strategies to avoid and manage flood disasters. In order to stem the increasing impact of urban floods, a major rethink of current planning and flood management policies and practice is required, taking into account different spatial and temporal scales. This book addresses a broad spectrum of relevant issues in the emerging field of urban flood management. It may act as a stimulus for further research and development in urban flood management while informing and engaging stakeholders in the promotion of integrated and cooperative approaches in water management. An interdisciplinary approach which will be of interest to all those who are active in water, risk and urban management.
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Catchment Dynamics and River Processes

Author: C. Garcia,R.J. Batalla

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080457826

Category: Science

Page: 246

View: 2122

Maria Sala introduced experimental and field-based studies on soil and fluvial processes in Spain during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Research on this broad topic has grown remarkably worldwide since then. This title shows some of these advances and documents the latest research, although with a particularity: it gives special treatment to research on Mediterranean climate regions, an ever-present issue in Maria Sala's research career. It contains the latest research on slope and river processes with a special emphasis on rivers and catchments with a Mediterranean climate. Papers cover a gamut of topics describing research and applied studies, mainly in Spain, but also in Israel, the USA, Canada, the UK and New Zealand. The book examines natural and anthropogenic processes operating in drainage basins and includes coverage of current experimental and fieldwork investigations on soil erosion, river and catchment hydrology, suspended sediment transport and bedload dynamics in gravel-bed rivers, and present-day diagnosis and future key-paths for catchment and river management. * Examines the natural and anthropogenic processes operating in drainage basins and river channels, and covers current investigations on Process Geomorphology and Catchment Hydrology, including management issues * Topics covered include soil erosion, catchment hydrology, suspended sediment transport, bedload dynamics in gravel-bed rivers, and sediment yield * Emphasis is on the Mediterranean region
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Fundamentals of Geomorphology

Author: Richard John Huggett

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317378385

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 1030

The new fourth edition of Fundamentals of Geomorphology continues to provide a comprehensive introduction to the subject by discussing the latest developments in the field, as well as covering the basics of Earth surface forms and processes. The revised edition has an improved logically cohesive structure, added recent material on Quaternary environments and landscapes, landscape evolution and tectonics, as well as updated information in fast-changing areas such as the application of dating techniques, digital terrain modelling, historical contingency, preglacial landforms, neocatastrophism, and biogeomorphology. The book begins with a consideration of the nature of geomorphology, process and form, history, and geomorphic systems, and moves on to discuss: Endogenic processes: structural landforms associated with plate tectonics and those associated with volcanoes, impact craters, and folds, faults, and joints. Exogenic processes: landforms resulting from, or influenced by, the exogenic agencies of weathering, running water, flowing ice and meltwater, ground ice and frost, the wind, and the sea; landforms developed on limestone; and long-term geomorphology, a discussion of ancient landforms, including palaeosurfaces, stagnant landscape features, and evolutionary aspects of landscape change. Featuring over 400 illustrations, diagrams, and tables, Fundamentals of Geomorphology provides a stimulating and innovative perspective on the key topics and debates within the field of geomorphology. Written in an accessible and lively manner, and providing guides to further reading, chapter summaries, and an extensive glossary of key terms, this is an indispensable undergraduate level textbook for students of physical geography.
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Advances in Digital Terrain Analysis

Author: Qiming Zhou,Brian Lees,Guo-an Tang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540778004

Category: Science

Page: 462

View: 1104

Terrain analysis has attracted research studies from geographers, surveyors, engineers and computer scientists. The contributions in this book represent the state-of-the-art of terrain analysis methods and techniques in areas of digital representation, morphological and hydrological models, uncertainty and applications of terrain analysis. The book will appeal to postgraduate and senior undergraduate students who take advanced courses in GIS and geographical analysis.
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Global Change and Mountain Regions

An Overview of Current Knowledge

Author: Uli M. Huber,Harald K.M. Bugmann,Mel A. Reasoner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140203508X

Category: Science

Page: 652

View: 1887

This book gives an overview of the state of research in fields pertaining to the detection, understanding and prediction of global change impacts in mountain regions. More than sixty contributions from paleoclimatology, cryospheric research, hydrology, ecology, and development studies are compiled in this volume, each with an outlook on future research directions. The book will interest meteorologists, geologists, botanists and climatologists.
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Dating Torrential Processes on Fans and Cones

Methods and Their Application for Hazard and Risk Assessment

Author: Michelle Schneuwly-Bollschweiler,Markus Stoffel,Florian Rudolf-Miklau

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940074336X

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 8602

This book provides a detailed overview on methods used for the dating of past torrential activity on fans and cones and fosters the discussion on the impact of past and potential future climate change on torrential processes. The book has a clear focus on the practical applications of these methods, complemented by case studies. The limits of each dating method in case of excessive natural and human interventions on fans and cones are shown.
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Hillslope Stability and Land Use

Author: Roy C. Sidle,Andrew J. Pearce,Colin L. O'Loughlin

Publisher: American Geophysical Union

ISBN: 0875903150

Category: Science

Page: 140

View: 9916

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Water Resources Monograph Series, Volume 11. This monograph compiles research findings on soil mass movement into a format usable by practitioners and students. Applications are stressed in the areas of extensive and management practices rather than engineering earthworks. Examples are included to illustrate various prediction, avoidance, and control measures used in managing unstable terrain. We use the term soil (i.e., soil mass movement) to mean the mantle of unconsolidated or poorly consolidated material of either residual or transported origin, that overlies bedrock and forms the surface of the land. This usage is consistent with the conventional civil engineering use of the word and is synonymous with the geological term regolith and with soil mantle.
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Landscapes on the Edge:

New Horizons for Research on Earth's Surface

Author: Committee on Challenges and Opportunities in Earth Surface Processes,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309140242

Category: Science

Page: 180

View: 2494

During geologic spans of time, Earth's shifting tectonic plates, atmosphere, freezing water, thawing ice, flowing rivers, and evolving life have shaped Earth's surface features. The resulting hills, mountains, valleys, and plains shelter ecosystems that interact with all life and provide a record of Earth surface processes that extend back through Earth's history. Despite rapidly growing scientific knowledge of Earth surface interactions, and the increasing availability of new monitoring technologies, there is still little understanding of how these processes generate and degrade landscapes. Landscapes on the Edge identifies nine grand challenges in this emerging field of study and proposes four high-priority research initiatives. The book poses questions about how our planet's past can tell us about its future, how landscapes record climate and tectonics, and how Earth surface science can contribute to developing a sustainable living surface for future generations.
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Advances in Artificial Life

5th European Conference, ECAL'99, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 13-17, 1999 Proceedings

Author: Dario Floreano,Jean-Daniel Nicoud,Francesco Mondada

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540664529

Category: Computers

Page: 742

View: 8987

No matter what your perspective is, what your goals are, or how experienced you are, Artificial Life research is always a learning experience. The variety of phe nomena that the people who gathered in Lausanne reported and discussed for the fifth time since 1991 at the European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL) has not been programmed, crafted, or assembled by analytic design. It has evolved, emerged, or appeared spontaneously from a process of artificial evolution, se- organisation, or development. Artificial Life is a field where biological and artificial sciences meet and blend together, where the dynamics of biological life are reproduced in the memory of computers, where machines evolve, behave, and communicate like living organ isms, where complex life-like entities are synthesised from electronic chromo somes and artificial chemistries. The impact of Artificial Life in science, phi losophy, and technology is tremendous. Over the years the synthetic approach has established itself as a powerful method for investigating several complex phenomena of life. From a philosophical standpoint, the notion of life and of in telligence is continuously reformulated in relation to the dynamics of the system under observation and to the embedding environment, no longer a privilege of carbon-based entities with brains and eyes. At the same time, the possibility of engineering machines and software with life-like properties such as evolvability, self-repair, and self-maintainance is gradually becoming reality, bringing new perspectives in engineering and applications.
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The Role of Water and the Hydrological Cycle in Global Change

Author: Howard R. Oliver,Sylvia A. Oliver

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642798306

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 468

View: 8297

Water is an extremely important factor in global environmental change. Water influences the processes causing change. The human and economic consequences of changes in the water system can be very significant. The aim of this NATO Advanced Study Institute was to present a state-of-the-art assessment of the role of water in global change, ranging from a consideration of atmospheric processes to the social and political impacts of changes in water resources. Many initiatives have recently been developed, such as international conferences and research programmes in particular themes, but there was still a need for information from these diverse activities to be brought together. One of the aims of the ASI was to encourage cross-fertilization between the various disciplines looking at water in the global system. This book contains the expanded written versions of the lectures presented during the AS! held in Italy in May/June 1994. It falls into two basic parts. The first twelve chapters cover the role of water in the climate system and climate modelling. Various areas of the water balance including global budgets, the effect of each element of the water balance on regional and global climates, and procedures used to model hydrological processes at all scales are discussed. Precipitation, ice, lake, groundwater, land surface and atmospheric considerations are included together with hydrological process linkage to climate models. Ocean effects were not covered as they were considered to be outside the scope of this particular AS!.
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