Advances in hillslope processes

Author: Malcolm G. Anderson,Susan M. Brooks

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780471967743

Category: Slopes (Physical geography)

Page: 1306

View: 6952

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Advances in Agronomy

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080524337

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 238

View: 8942

Advances in Agronomy continues to be recognized as a leading reference and a first-rate source of the latest and best research in agronomy. As always, the topics covered are varied and exemplary of the panoply of subject matter dealt with by this long-running serial. Volume 69 contains five excellent reviews dealing with crop and soil sciences. Chapter 1 is a comprehensive and timely review of the measurement and interpretation of bulk mass-transfer phenomena for organic compounds in soils. Chapter 2 is an excellent overview of environmental indicators of agroecosystems. In chapter 3, an interesting treatise is presented on plant growth as effected by phosphate solubilizing soil microorganisms. Chapter 4 is a fine review on hydrological factors affecting phosphorus transfer from agricultural soils. The concluding chapter is an excellent discussion of the genetic resources of Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz.
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Recent Advances in Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Processing for Land Degradation Assessment

Author: Achim Roeder,Joachim Hill

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203875445

Category: Science

Page: 418

View: 3086

Land degradation and desertification are amongst the most severe threats to human welfare and the environment, as they affect the livelihoods of some 2 billion people in the world’s drylands, and they are directly connected to pressing global environmental problems, such as the loss of biological diversity or global climate change. Strategies to combat these processes and mitigate their effects at the land-management and policy level require spatially explicit, up-to-date information, which can be provided based on remote sensing data and using geoinformation processing techniques. Recent Advances in Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Processing for Land Degradation Assessment introduces the current state of the art in this field and provides an overview of both conceptual and technological advances of the recent past. With a specific focus on desertification and land degradation, the volume covers the assessment of related biophysical indicators, as well as complementary qualitative information at different spatial and temporal scales. It is shown how remote sensing data may be utilized in the context of assessing and monitoring affected ecosystems and how this information may be assimilated into integrated interpretation and modelling concepts. In addition, different case studies are provided to demonstrate the implementation of these methods in the frame of different local settings. The volume will be of interest to scientists and students working at the interface of ecosystem services, land degradation/desertification, spatial ecology, remote sensing and spatial modelling, as well as to land managers and policy makers.
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Recent Advances in the Modeling of Hydrologic Systems

Author: D.S Bowles,P. Enda O'Connell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401134804

Category: Science

Page: 667

View: 3322

Modeling of the rainfall-runoff process is of both scientific and practical significance. Many of the currently used mathematical models of hydrologic systems were developed a genera tion ago. Much of the effort since then has focused on refining these models rather than on developing new models based on improved scientific understanding. In the past few years, however, a renewed effort has been made to improve both our fundamental understanding of hydrologic processes and to exploit technological advances in computing and remote sensing. It is against this background that the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Recent Advances in the Modeling of Hydrologic Systems was organized. The idea for holding a NATO ASI on this topic grew out of an informal discussion between one of the co-directors and Professor Francisco Nunes-Correia at a previous NATO ASI held at Tucson, Arizona in 1985. The Special Program Panel on Global Transport Mechanisms in the Geo-Sciences of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division agreed to sponsor the ASI and an organizing committee was formed. The committee comprised the co directors, Professor David S. Bowles (U.S.A.) and Professor P. Enda O'Connell (U.K.), and Professor Francisco Nunes-Correia (Portugal), Dr. Donn G. DeCoursey (U.S.A.), and Professor Ezio Todini (Italy).
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Advances in Urban Flood Management

Author: Richard Ashley,Stephen Garvin,Erik Pasche,Andreas Vassilopoulos,Chris Zevenbergen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203945980

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 512

View: 7287

One of the effects of global climate change is the increasing variability of extreme flood events and cyclones. Current measures to mitigate flood impacts, particularly in the urban environment, are based on previously-planned flood risk intervals and no longer provide sufficient protection. Being prepared for unexpected changes and extreme flood events asks for a paradigm shift in current strategies to avoid and manage flood disasters. In order to stem the increasing impact of urban floods, a major rethink of current planning and flood management policies and practice is required, taking into account different spatial and temporal scales. This book addresses a broad spectrum of relevant issues in the emerging field of urban flood management. It may act as a stimulus for further research and development in urban flood management while informing and engaging stakeholders in the promotion of integrated and cooperative approaches in water management. An interdisciplinary approach which will be of interest to all those who are active in water, risk and urban management.
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The Use of Historical Data in Natural Hazard Assessments

Author: Thomas Glade,Paola Albini,Félix Francés

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401734909

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 8632

Natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, floods, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and hurricanes cause environmental, economic as well as sociological problems worldwide. In recent years, greater availability of information and sensational media reports of natural hazard occurrence -and in particular in terms of property damage or loss oflife caused by these hazards -resulted in an increase of hazard awareness at a societal level. This increase in public awareness has often been misconstrued as an indication that natural hazards have been occurring more frequently with higher magnitudes in recent years/decades, thus causing more damage than in the past. It is still under debate, however, to which extent recent increases in damage can be related to changing frequencies of natural processes, or whether catastrophic events occur at similar rates as they always had. If the latter is the case, the reason for a greater damage can be related to dramatic population growth over the last century, with a substantial augmentation of population density in some regions. Indeed, the implications are more server in underdeveloped and developing countries, where urbanisation has increasingly occurred in hazard prone areas such as coastal zones, alluvial river plains and steep slopes, thus causing an increase in the exposure to natural hazards. Some groups of society in wealthy countries accept higher risks in order to live directly on top of a cliff or on a steep slope to enjoy panoramic views of the landscape.
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Key Methods in Geography

Author: Nicholas Clifford,Gill Valentine

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761974925

Category: Science

Page: 572

View: 9713

Key Methods in Geography is an introduction for undergraduates to the principal methodological issues involved in the collection, analysis and presentation of geographical information. It provides an accessible primer, which will be used by students as a reference throughout their degree, on all issues from research design to presentation. A unique feature of the book is that it provides definitions of terms from both human geography and physical geography. Organized into four parts: Getting Started in Geographical Research; Data Collection in Human Geography; Data Collection in Physical Geography; Analyzing and Representing Geographical Data. Each chapter is comprised of a short definition, a summary of the principal arguments, a substantive 5,000-word discussion, the use of real-life examples, and annotated notes for further reading. The teaching of research methods is integral in all geography courses. Key Methods in Geography identifies the key analytical and observational strategies with which all geography undergraduates should be conversant.
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Human Impacts on Amazonia

The Role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Conservation and Development

Author: Darrell A. Posey,Michael J. Balick

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231517351

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 4066

From the pre-Columbian era to the present, native Amazonians have shaped the land around them, emphasizing utilization, conservation, and sustainability. These priorities stand in stark contrast to colonial and contemporary exploitation of Amazonia by outside interests. With essays from environmental scientists, botanists, and anthropologists, this volume explores the various effects of human development on Amazonia. The contributors argue that by protecting and drawing on local knowledge and values, further environmental ruin can be avoided.
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Handbook of Erosion Modelling

Author: R. P. C. Morgan,Mark Nearing

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444348019

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 2001

The movement of sediment and associated pollutants over the landscape and into water bodies is of increasing concern with respect to pollution control, prevention of muddy floods and environmental protection. In addition, the loss of soil on site has implications for declining agricultural productivity, loss of biodiversity and decreased amenity and landscape value. The fate of sediment and the conservation of soil are important issues for land managers and decision-makers. In developing appropriate policies and solutions, managers and researchers are making greater use of erosion models to characterise the processes of erosion and their interaction with the landscape. A study of erosion requires one to think in terms of microseconds to understand the mechanics of impact of a single raindrop on a soil surface, while landscapes form over periods of thousands of years. These processes operate on scales of millimetres for single raindrops to mega-metres for continents. Erosion modelling thus covers quite a lot of ground. This book introduces the conceptual and mathematical frameworks used to formulate models of soil erosion and uses case studies to show how models are applied to a variety of purposes at a range of spatial and temporal scales. The aim is to provide land managers and others with the tools required to select a model appropriate to the type and scale of erosion problem, to show what users can expect in terms of accuracy of model predictions and to provide an appreciation of both the advantages and limitations of models. Problems covered include those arising from agriculture, the construction industry, pollution and climatic change and range in scale from farms to small and large catchments. The book will also be useful to students and research scientists as an up-to-date review of the state-of-art of erosion modelling and, through a knowledge of how models are used in practice, in highlighting the gaps in knowledge that need to be filled in order to develop even better models.
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Environmental Challenges in the Mediterranean 2000–2050

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Environmental Challenges in the Mediterranean 2000–2050 Madrid, Spain 2–5 October 2002

Author: Antonio Marquina

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400709730

Category: Social Science

Page: 390

View: 9115

This book addresses six key factors that will affect environmental policies in the Mediterranean region during the next fifty years: population growth, climate change, soil erosion and desertification, water scarcity, food production, and urbanization and pollution. The authors assess these as potential sources of violent conflict. The interdisciplinary approach makes this a relevant and useful reference for a broad range of professionals, specialists and researchers.
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Advances in Water Resources Engineering

Author: Chih Ted Yang,Lawrence K. Wang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319110233

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 556

View: 9054

This book, Advances in Water Resources Engineering, Volume 14, covers the topics on watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, integrated simulation of interactive surface water and groundwater systems, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment transport, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial processes, minimum energy dissipation rate theory and applications, hydraulic modeling development and application, geophysical methods for assessment of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland areas by rainfall and overland flow, geofluvial modeling methodologies and applications, and environmental water engineering glossary.
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Advances in Digital Terrain Analysis

Author: Qiming Zhou,Brian Lees,Guo-an Tang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540778004

Category: Science

Page: 462

View: 6013

Terrain analysis has attracted research studies from geographers, surveyors, engineers and computer scientists. The contributions in this book represent the state-of-the-art of terrain analysis methods and techniques in areas of digital representation, morphological and hydrological models, uncertainty and applications of terrain analysis. The book will appeal to postgraduate and senior undergraduate students who take advanced courses in GIS and geographical analysis.
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Advances in Artificial Life

5th European Conference, ECAL'99, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 13-17, 1999 Proceedings

Author: Dario Floreano,Jean-Daniel Nicoud,Francesco Mondada

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540664529

Category: Computers

Page: 742

View: 5969

No matter what your perspective is, what your goals are, or how experienced you are, Artificial Life research is always a learning experience. The variety of phe nomena that the people who gathered in Lausanne reported and discussed for the fifth time since 1991 at the European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL) has not been programmed, crafted, or assembled by analytic design. It has evolved, emerged, or appeared spontaneously from a process of artificial evolution, se- organisation, or development. Artificial Life is a field where biological and artificial sciences meet and blend together, where the dynamics of biological life are reproduced in the memory of computers, where machines evolve, behave, and communicate like living organ isms, where complex life-like entities are synthesised from electronic chromo somes and artificial chemistries. The impact of Artificial Life in science, phi losophy, and technology is tremendous. Over the years the synthetic approach has established itself as a powerful method for investigating several complex phenomena of life. From a philosophical standpoint, the notion of life and of in telligence is continuously reformulated in relation to the dynamics of the system under observation and to the embedding environment, no longer a privilege of carbon-based entities with brains and eyes. At the same time, the possibility of engineering machines and software with life-like properties such as evolvability, self-repair, and self-maintainance is gradually becoming reality, bringing new perspectives in engineering and applications.
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Integration of Computer Modeling and Field Observations in Geomorphology

Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium 2000

Author: John F. Shroder,Michael P. Bishop

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780444515322

Category: Science

Page: 196

View: 1647

The integration of classic field-gathered data with new computer models has allowed many new advances in geomorphology, which the 31st Binghamton Millennium Symposium 2000 presents in this latest of the well-known Binghamton book series, the Integration of Computer Modeling and Field Observations in Geomorphology. Conceptual models have been most commonly inferred from analyses of topography and investigator perspectives derived from fieldwork. The main stumbling blocks to understanding surface processes, their interactions, temporal changes, and resulting landforms are the difficulty of observation, geological timescales involved, spatial-scale dependencies, and the inability to attribute differences to either process or age. Physically based computer models have thus become essential tools, primarily because of their ability to explore spatial and temporal trends and to determine the sensitivity of physical inputs to change without the difficulties of identification and generalization associated with the complexity of field studies. Thus, the combination of both methods, or the integration of field methods with computer modeling become a very powerful mechanism for robust understanding. This new book presents topics on fluvial processes of overland and channelized flow in arid, humid, and periglacial areas of high and low relief, as well as work on interlinked biogeographic and geomorphic fluctuations in alpine terrain, and ground penetrating radar of coastal geomorphology. Issues of long-term evolution of drainage networks are addressed in natural systems, as well as stream-table environments, and terrain analyses characterize surficial and subsurface geomorphic features by using GIS and remote sensing. Botanical and biogeomorphologic controls of landforms are assessed, along with issues of scientific visualization, cartographic representation, DEMs, spatial analyses, and scale dependencies.
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Predictions in Ungauged Basins

Promise and Progress

Author: Murugesu Sivapalan

Publisher: International Assn of Hydrological Sciences

ISBN: 9781901502480

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 520

View: 7955

Presents peer-reviewed papers selected from a symposium which coincided with completion of Phase 1 of the IAHS PUB initiative (2003-2012). Guided by the PUB Science and Implementation Plan, the papers are organized into five sections that focus on the distinct PUB themes: 1. Model improvements through Detailed Process Studies. 2. Model Evaluation and Comparison: Uncertainty Analysis and Diagnostics. 3. New Data Collection Approaches and Model Development. 4. New Modeling Approaches and Methods for Testing Models Against Observations. 5. Progress in PUB Implementation: PUB Working Groups.
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Catchment Dynamics and River Processes

Author: C. Garcia,R.J. Batalla

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080457826

Category: Science

Page: 246

View: 743

Maria Sala introduced experimental and field-based studies on soil and fluvial processes in Spain during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Research on this broad topic has grown remarkably worldwide since then. This title shows some of these advances and documents the latest research, although with a particularity: it gives special treatment to research on Mediterranean climate regions, an ever-present issue in Maria Sala's research career. It contains the latest research on slope and river processes with a special emphasis on rivers and catchments with a Mediterranean climate. Papers cover a gamut of topics describing research and applied studies, mainly in Spain, but also in Israel, the USA, Canada, the UK and New Zealand. The book examines natural and anthropogenic processes operating in drainage basins and includes coverage of current experimental and fieldwork investigations on soil erosion, river and catchment hydrology, suspended sediment transport and bedload dynamics in gravel-bed rivers, and present-day diagnosis and future key-paths for catchment and river management. * Examines the natural and anthropogenic processes operating in drainage basins and river channels, and covers current investigations on Process Geomorphology and Catchment Hydrology, including management issues * Topics covered include soil erosion, catchment hydrology, suspended sediment transport, bedload dynamics in gravel-bed rivers, and sediment yield * Emphasis is on the Mediterranean region
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Fractal River Basins

Chance and Self-Organization

Author: Ignacio Rodríguez-Iturbe,Andrea Rinaldo

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521004053

Category: Science

Page: 547

View: 8310

This book provides a theoretical basis to the arrangement of river basins and networks.
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Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 3

River Basins, Reservoir Sedimentation and Water Resources

Author: Giorgio Lollino,Massimo Arattano,Massimo Rinaldi,Orazio Giustolisi,Jean-Christophe Marechal,Gordon E. Grant

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319090542

Category: Science

Page: 657

View: 1192

This book is one out of 8 IAEG XII Congress volumes and deals with river basins, which are the focus of many hydraulic engineering and hydrogeological studies worldwide. Such studies examine river systems as both a resource of the fluvial environment, and also explore river-related hazards and risks. The contributions of researchers from different disciplines focus on: surface-groundwater exchanges, stream flow, stream erosion, river morphology and management, sediment transport regimes, debris flows, evaluation of water resources, dam operation and hydropower generation, flood risks and flood control, stream pollution and water quality management. The contributions include case studies for advancing field monitoring techniques, improving modeling and assessment of rivers and studies contributing to better management plans and policies for the river environment and water resources. The Engineering Geology for Society and Territory volumes of the IAEG XII Congress held in Torino from September 15-19, 2014, analyze the dynamic role of engineering geology in our changing world and build on the four main themes of the congress: environment, processes, issues and approaches. The congress topics and subject areas of the 8 IAEG XII Congress volumes are: Climate Change and Engineering Geology. Landslide Processes. River Basins, Reservoir Sedimentation and Water Resources. Marine and Coastal Processes. Urban Geology, Sustainable Planning and Landscape Exploitation. Applied Geology for Major Engineering Projects. Education, Professional Ethics and Public Recognition of Engineering Geology. Preservation of Cultural Heritage.
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