A New Approach to Quantum Logic

Author: Kurt Engesser,Dov M. Gabbay,Daniel Lehmann

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781904987536

Category: Mathematics

Page: 182

View: 1194

This monograph is an investigation into certain new logical structures implicit in the formalism of quantum mechanics. Its message rests on two pillars. The first pillar is the dynamic view of propositions. Propositions are viewed as acting on states of the world and changing them rather than just being true or false in them. The second pillar is a logical enquiry into the nature of the states of a dynamic framework in general and thus the nature of physical states in particular. It turns out that a physical state viewed as a logical entity must encode other states and also itself. The main logical structures under investigation are that of an M-algebra and that of a holistic logic. In a sense to be made precise the latter structures reflect the 'holistic' nature of quantum mechanics.
Release

Quantum Logic in Algebraic Approach

Author: Miklos Redei

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401590265

Category: Science

Page: 243

View: 9224

This work has grown out of the lecture notes that were prepared for a series of seminars on some selected topics in quantum logic. The seminars were delivered during the first semester of the 1993/1994 academic year in the Unit for Foundations of Science of the Department of History and Foundations of Mathematics and Science, Faculty of Physics, Utrecht University, The Netherlands, while I was staying in that Unit on a European Community Research Grant, and in the Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, U. S. A. , where I was staying during the 1994/1995 academic year as a Visiting Fellow on a Fulbright Research Grant, and where I also was supported by the Istvan Szechenyi Scholarship Foundation. The financial support provided by these foundations, by the Center for Philosophy of Science and by the European Community is greatly acknowledged, and I wish to thank D. Dieks, the professor of the Foundations Group in Utrecht and G. Massey, the director of the Center for Philosophy of Science in Pittsburgh for making my stay at the respective institutions possible. I also wish to thank both the members of the Foundations Group in Utrecht, especially D. Dieks, C. Lutz, F. Muller, J. Uffink and P. Vermaas and the participants in the seminars at the Center for Philosophy of Science in Pittsburgh, especially N. Belnap, J. Earman, A. Janis, J. Norton, and J.
Release

Essays in Logic and Ontology

Author: N.A

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004332960

Category: Philosophy

Page: 400

View: 9551

The aim of this book is to present essays centered upon the subjects of Formal Ontology and Logical Philosophy. The idea of investigating philosophical problems by means of logical methods was intensively promoted in Torun by the Department of Logic of Nicolaus Copernicus University during last decade. Another aim of this book is to present to the philosophical and logical audience the activities of the Torunian Department of Logic during this decade. The papers in this volume contain the results concerning Logic and Logical Philosophy, obtained within the confines of the projects initiated by the Department of Logic and other research projects in which the Torunian Department of Logic took part.
Release

Handbook of Quantum Logic and Quantum Structures

Quantum Structures

Author: Kurt Engesser,Dov M. Gabbay,Daniel Lehmann

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080550381

Category: Computers

Page: 818

View: 3148

Since its inception in the famous 1936 paper by Birkhoff and von Neumann entitled “The logic of quantum mechanics quantum logic, i.e. the logical investigation of quantum mechanics, has undergone an enormous development. Various schools of thought and approaches have emerged and there are a variety of technical results. Quantum logic is a heterogeneous field of research ranging from investigations which may be termed logical in the traditional sense to studies focusing on structures which are on the border between algebra and logic. For the latter structures the term quantum structures is appropriate. The chapters of this Handbook, which are authored by the most eminent scholars in the field, constitute a comprehensive presentation of the main schools, approaches and results in the field of quantum logic and quantum structures. Much of the material presented is of recent origin representing the frontier of the subject. The present volume focuses on quantum structures. Among the structures studied extensively in this volume are, just to name a few, Hilbert lattices, D-posets, effect algebras MV algebras, partially ordered Abelian groups and those structures underlying quantum probability. - Written by eminent scholars in the field of logic - A comprehensive presentation of the theory, approaches and results in the field of quantum logic - Volume focuses on quantum structures
Release

Logic in Reality

Author: JOSEPH BRENNER

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402083750

Category: Philosophy

Page: 362

View: 8165

This book is both dif?cult and rewarding, affording a new perspective on logic and reality, basically seen in terms of change and stability, being and becoming. Most importantly it exemplifies a mode of doing philosophy of science that seems a welcome departure from the traditional focus on purely analytic arguments. The author approaches ontology, metaphysics, and logic as having offered a number of ways of constructing the description of reality, and aims at deepening their relationships in a new way. Going beyond the mere abstract and formal aspects of logical analysis, he offers a new architecture of logic that sees it as applied not only to the “reasoning processes” belonging to the first disciplinary group – ontology – but also directly concerned with en- ties, events, and phenomena studied by the second one – metaphysics. It is the task of the book to elaborate such a constructive logic, both by offering a lo- cal view of the structure of the reality in general and by proffering a wealth of models able to encompass its implications for science. In turning from the merely formal to the constructive account of logic Brenner overcomes the limitation of logic to linguistic concepts so that it can be not only a logic “of” reality but also “in” that reality which is constitutively characterized by a number of fundamental dualities (observer and observed, self and not-self, internal and external, etc.
Release

Logic, Mathematics, Philosophy, Vintage Enthusiasms

Essays in Honour of John L. Bell

Author: David DeVidi,Michael Hallett,Peter Clark

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400702141

Category: Philosophy

Page: 486

View: 1723

The volume includes twenty-five research papers presented as gifts to John L. Bell to celebrate his 60th birthday by colleagues, former students, friends and admirers. Like Bell’s own work, the contributions cross boundaries into several inter-related fields. The contributions are new work by highly respected figures, several of whom are among the key figures in their fields. Some examples: in foundations of maths and logic (William Lawvere, Peter Aczel, Graham Priest, Giovanni Sambin); analytical philosophy (Michael Dummett, William Demopoulos), philosophy of science (Michael Redhead, Frank Arntzenius), philosophy of mathematics (Michael Hallett, John Mayberry, Daniel Isaacson) and decision theory and foundations of economics (Ken Bimore). Most articles are contributions to current philosophical debates, but contributions also include some new mathematical results, important historical surveys, and a translation by Wilfrid Hodges of a key work of arabic logic.
Release

Current Research in Operational Quantum Logic

Algebras, Categories, Languages

Author: Bob Coecke,David Moore,Alexander Wilce

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401712018

Category: Science

Page: 325

View: 3944

The present volume has its origins in a pair of informal workshops held at the Free University of Brussels, in June of 1998 and May of 1999, named "Current Research 1 in Operational Quantum Logic". These brought together mathematicians and physicists working in operational quantum logic and related areas, as well as a number of interested philosophers of science, for a rare opportunity to discuss recent developments in this field. After some discussion, it was decided that, rather than producing a volume of conference proceedings, we would try to organize the conferees to produce a set of comprehensive survey papers, which would not only report on recent developments in quantum logic, but also provide a tutorial overview of the subject suitable for an interested non-specialist audience. The resulting volume provides an overview of the concepts and methods used in current research in quantum logic, viewed both as a branch of mathemati cal physics and as an area of pure mathematics. The first half of the book is concerned with the algebraic side of the subject, and in particular the theory of orthomodular lattices and posets, effect algebras, etc. In the second half of the book, special attention is given to categorical methods and to connections with theoretical computer science. At the 1999 workshop, we were fortunate to hear three excellent lectures by David J. Foulis, represented here by two contributions. Dave's work, spanning 40 years, has helped to define, and continues to reshape, the field of quantum logic.
Release

The Logical Foundations of Scientific Theories

Languages, Structures, and Models

Author: Decio Krause,Jonas R.B. Arenhart

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315535203

Category: Mathematics

Page: 162

View: 2190

This book addresses the logical aspects of the foundations of scientific theories. Even though the relevance of formal methods in the study of scientific theories is now widely recognized and regaining prominence, the issues covered here are still not generally discussed in philosophy of science. The authors focus mainly on the role played by the underlying formal apparatuses employed in the construction of the models of scientific theories, relating the discussion with the so-called semantic approach to scientific theories. The book describes the role played by this metamathematical framework in three main aspects: considerations of formal languages employed to axiomatize scientific theories, the role of the axiomatic method itself, and the way set-theoretical structures, which play the role of the models of theories, are developed. The authors also discuss the differences and philosophical relevance of the two basic ways of aximoatizing a scientific theory, namely Patrick Suppes’ set theoretical predicates and the "da Costa and Chuaqui" approach. This book engages with important discussions of the nature of scientific theories and will be a useful resource for researchers and upper-level students working in philosophy of science.
Release

The New Physics and Cosmology

Dialogues with the Dalai Lama

Author: Arthur Zajonc

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199882835

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 6689

What happens when the Dalai Lama meets with leading physicists and a historian? This book is the carefully edited record of the fascinating discussions at a Mind and Life conference in which five leading physicists and a historian (David Finkelstein, George Greenstein, Piet Hut, Arthur Zajonc, Anton Zeilinger, and Tu Weiming) discussed with the Dalai Lama current thought in theoretical quantum physics, in the context of Buddhist philosophy. A contribution to the science-religion interface, and a useful explanation of our basic understanding of quantum reality, couched at a level that intelligent readers without a deep involvement in science can grasp. In the tradition of other popular books on resonances between modern quantum physics and Zen or Buddhist mystical traditions--notably The Dancing Wu Li Masters and The Tao of Physics, this book gives a clear and useful update of the genuine correspondences between these two rather disparate approaches to understanding the nature of reality.
Release

Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Theory

Author: A.R. Marlow

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323141188

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 8953

Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Theory is a collection of papers presented at the 1977 conference on the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Theory, held in New Orleans. The contributors present their topics from a wide variety of backgrounds and specialization, but all shared a common interest in answering quantum issues. Organized into 20 chapters, this book's opening chapters establish a sound mathematical basis for quantum theory and a mode of observation in the double slit experiment. This book then describes the Lorentz particle system and other mathematical structures with which fundamental quantum theory must deal, and then some unsolved problems in the quantum logic approach to the foundations of quantum mechanics are considered. Considerable chapters cover topics on manuals and logics for quantum mechanics. This book also examines the problems in quantum logic, and then presents examples of their interpretation and relevance to nonclassical logic and statistics. The accommodation of conventional Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory is illustrated. The final chapters of the book present a system of axioms for nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, with particular emphasis on the role of density operators as states. Specific connections of this theory with other formulations of quantum theory are also considered. These chapters also deal with the determination of the state of an elementary quantum mechanical system by the associated position and momentum distribution. This book is of value to physicists, mathematicians, and researchers who are interested in quantum theory.
Release

String Theory and the Scientific Method

Author: Richard Dawid

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107067588

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2755

String theory has played a highly influential role in theoretical physics for nearly three decades and has substantially altered our view of the elementary building principles of the Universe. However, the theory remains empirically unconfirmed, and is expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. So why do string theorists have such a strong belief in their theory? This book explores this question, offering a novel insight into the nature of theory assessment itself. Dawid approaches the topic from a unique position, having extensive experience in both philosophy and high-energy physics. He argues that string theory is just the most conspicuous example of a number of theories in high-energy physics where non-empirical theory assessment has an important part to play. Aimed at physicists and philosophers of science, the book does not use mathematical formalism and explains most technical terms.
Release

Quantum Models of Cognition and Decision

Author: Jerome R. Busemeyer,Peter D. Bruza

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139536486

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 3340

Much of our understanding of human thinking is based on probabilistic models. This innovative book by Jerome R. Busemeyer and Peter D. Bruza argues that, actually, the underlying mathematical structures from quantum theory provide a much better account of human thinking than traditional models. They introduce the foundations for modeling probabilistic-dynamic systems using two aspects of quantum theory. The first, 'contextuality', is a way to understand interference effects found with inferences and decisions under conditions of uncertainty. The second, 'quantum entanglement', allows cognitive phenomena to be modeled in non-reductionist ways. Employing these principles drawn from quantum theory allows us to view human cognition and decision in a totally new light. Introducing the basic principles in an easy-to-follow way, this book does not assume a physics background or a quantum brain and comes complete with a tutorial and fully worked-out applications in important areas of cognition and decision.
Release

An Introduction to Hilbert Space and Quantum Logic

Author: David W. Cohen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461388414

Category: Science

Page: 149

View: 8475

Historically, nonclassical physics developed in three stages. First came a collection of ad hoc assumptions and then a cookbook of equations known as "quantum mechanics". The equations and their philosophical underpinnings were then collected into a model based on the mathematics of Hilbert space. From the Hilbert space model came the abstaction of "quantum logics". This book explores all three stages, but not in historical order. Instead, in an effort to illustrate how physics and abstract mathematics influence each other we hop back and forth between a purely mathematical development of Hilbert space, and a physically motivated definition of a logic, partially linking the two throughout, and then bringing them together at the deepest level in the last two chapters. This book should be accessible to undergraduate and beginning graduate students in both mathematics and physics. The only strict prerequisites are calculus and linear algebra, but the level of mathematical sophistication assumes at least one or two intermediate courses, for example in mathematical analysis or advanced calculus. No background in physics is assumed.
Release

Dependence Logic

A New Approach to Independence Friendly Logic

Author: Jouko Väänänen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139465155

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 4272

Dependence is a common phenomenon, wherever one looks: ecological systems, astronomy, human history, stock markets - but what is the logic of dependence? This book is the first to carry out a systematic logical study of this important concept, giving on the way a precise mathematical treatment of Hintikka's independence friendly logic. Dependence logic adds the concept of dependence to first order logic. Here the syntax and semantics of dependence logic are studied, dependence logic is given an alternative game theoretic semantics, and results about its complexity are proven. This is a graduate textbook suitable for a special course in logic in mathematics, philosophy and computer science departments, and contains over 200 exercises, many of which have a full solution at the end of the book. It is also accessible to readers, with a basic knowledge of logic, interested in new phenomena in logic.
Release

Quantum Mechanics for Applied Physics and Engineering

Author: Albert T. Fromhold

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486164691

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 2467

For upper-level undergraduates and graduate students: an introduction to the fundamentals of quantum mechanics, emphasizing aspects essential to an understanding of solid-state theory. Numerous problems (and selected answers), projects, exercises.
Release

PSA 1974

Proceedings of the 1974 Biennial Meeting Philosophy of Science Association

Author: Robert S. Cohen,Cliff Hooker,Alex C. Michalos,James Van Evra

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401014493

Category: Science

Page: 747

View: 6005

For this book, we have selected papers from symposia and contributed sessions at the fourth biennial meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, held at the University of Notre Dame on November 1-3, 1974. The meeting was lively and well-attended, and we regret that there was no way to record here the many stimulating discussions after the papers and during the informal hours. We also regret that we had in sufficient space for all the contributed papers. Even more, some of the symposia were not available: those on systems and decision theory (c. W. Churchman, P. Suppes, I. Levi), and on the Marxist philosophy of science (M. W. Wartofsky, R. S. Cohen, E. N. Hiebert). Unhappily several individual contributions to other symposia were likewise not available: I. Velikovsky in the session on his own work and the politics of science, D. Finkelstein in the session on quantum logic. Memorial minutes were read for Alan Ross Anderson (prepared by Nuel Belnap) and for Imre Lakatos (prepared by Paul Feyerabend). They initiate this volume of philosophy of science in the mid-seventies.
Release

Reasoning in Quantum Theory

Sharp and Unsharp Quantum Logics

Author: Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara,Roberto Giuntini,Richard Greechie

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401705267

Category: Mathematics

Page: 298

View: 4348

"Is quantum logic really logic?" This book argues for a positive answer to this question once and for all. There are many quantum logics and their structures are delightfully varied. The most radical aspect of quantum reasoning is reflected in unsharp quantum logics, a special heterodox branch of fuzzy thinking. For the first time, the whole story of Quantum Logic is told; from its beginnings to the most recent logical investigations of various types of quantum phenomena, including quantum computation. Reasoning in Quantum Theory is designed for logicians, yet amenable to advanced graduate students and researchers of other disciplines.
Release