A History of Science in World Cultures

Voices of Knowledge

Author: Scott L. Montgomery,Alok Kumar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317439058

Category: History

Page: 364

View: 8322

To understand modern science, it is essential to recognize that many of the most fundamental scientific principles are drawn from the knowledge of ancient civilizations. Taking a global yet comprehensive approach to this complex topic, A History of Science in World Cultures uses a broad range of case studies and examples to demonstrate that the scientific thought and method of the present day is deeply rooted in a pluricultural past. Covering ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, Greece, China, Islam, and the New World, this volume discusses the scope of scientific and technological achievements in each civilization and how the knowledge it developed came to impact the European Renaissance. Themes covered include the influence these scientific cultures had upon one another, the power of writing and its technologies, visions of mathematical order in the universe and how it can be represented, and what elements of the distant scientific past we continue to depend upon today. Topics often left unexamined in histories of science are treated in fascinating detail, such as the chemistry of mummification and the Great Library in Alexandria in Egypt, jewellery and urban planning of the Indus Valley, hydraulic engineering and the compass in China, the sustainable agriculture and dental surgery of the Mayas, and algebra and optics in Islam. This book shows that scientific thought has never been confined to any one era, culture, or geographic region. Clearly presented and highly illustrated, A History of Science in World Cultures is the perfect text for all students and others interested in the development of science throughout history.
Release

The History of Science in the Netherlands

Survey, Themes and Reference

Author: Klaas Van Berkel,Albert Van Helden,L. C. Palm

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004100060

Category: Science

Page: 659

View: 2264

The handbook A History of Science in The Netherlands aims to correct this situation by providing a chronological and thematic survey of the field from the 16th century to the present, essays on selected aspects of science in the Netherlands, and reference biographies of about 65 important Dutch scientists.
Release

History of Science in United States

An Encyclopedia

Author: Marc Rothenberg

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135583188

Category: Reference

Page: 640

View: 2215

This Encyclopedia examines all aspects of the history of science in the United States, with a special emphasis placed on the historiography of science in America. It can be used by students, general readers, scientists, or anyone interested in the facts relating to the development of science in the United States. Special emphasis is placed in the history of medicine and technology and on the relationship between science and technology and science and medicine.
Release

Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures

Author: Helaine Selin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140204559X

Category: Science

Page: 2415

View: 8440

Here, at last, is the massively updated and augmented second edition of this landmark encyclopedia. It contains approximately 1000 entries dealing in depth with the history of the scientific, technological and medical accomplishments of cultures outside of the United States and Europe. The entries consist of fully updated articles together with hundreds of entirely new topics. This unique reference work includes intercultural articles on broad topics such as mathematics and astronomy as well as thoughtful philosophical articles on concepts and ideas related to the study of non-Western Science, such as rationality, objectivity, and method. You’ll also find material on religion and science, East and West, and magic and science.
Release

Science in World History

Author: James Trefil

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136499296

Category: History

Page: 176

View: 7695

In Science in World History, James Trefil presents a comprehensive, thematic survey of the history of science from its roots in different cultures around the world through to the present day. He explores crucial milestones in scientific development and at the same time examines the enormous social and intellectual changes they initiated. Opening with a discussion of the key elements of modern scientific enterprise, the book goes on to explore the earliest scientific activities, moving through Greece and Alexandria, science in the Muslim world, and then on to Isaac Newton, atomic theory and the major developments of the nineteenth century. After examining the most recent scientific activities across the world, the book concludes by identifying future directions for the field. Suitable for introductory courses and ideal for students new to the subject, this concise and lively study reconsiders the history of science from the perspective of world and comparative history.
Release

Science in Popular Culture

A Reference Guide

Author: A. Bowdoin Van Riper

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780313318221

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 2099

Spaceships travel through time at lightspeed, piloted by human clones and talking animals. Serious injuries are healed with the wave of a medical gizmo. The media make it all look so real. Can scientists hope to one day accomplish these feats? This book is a fun look at what can, and can't, be achieved with current technology.
Release

Cheese and Culture

A History of Cheese and its Place in Western Civilization

Author: Paul Kindstedt

Publisher: Chelsea Green Publishing

ISBN: 1603584129

Category: Cooking

Page: 256

View: 3745

Behind every traditional type of cheese there is a fascinating story. By examining the role of the cheesemaker throughout world history and by understanding a few basic principles of cheese science and technology, we can see how different cheeses have been shaped by and tailored to their surrounding environment, as well as defined by their social and cultural context. Cheese and Culture endeavors to advance our appreciation of cheese origins by viewing human history through the eyes of a cheese scientist. There is also a larger story to be told, a grand narrative that binds all cheeses together into a single history that started with the discovery of cheese making and that is still unfolding to this day. This book reconstructs that 9000-year story based on the often fragmentary information that we have available. Cheese and Culture embarks on a journey that begins in the Neolithic Age and winds its way through the ensuing centuries to the present. This tour through cheese history intersects with some of the pivotal periods in human prehistory and ancient, classical, medieval, renaissance, and modern history that have shaped western civilization, for these periods also shaped the lives of cheesemakers and the diverse cheeses that they developed. The book offers a useful lens through which to view our twenty-first century attitudes toward cheese that we have inherited from our past, and our attitudes about the food system more broadly. This refreshingly original book will appeal to anyone who loves history, food, and especially good cheese.
Release

Sciences and Cultures

Anthropological and Historical Studies of the Sciences

Author: E. Mendelsohn,Y. Elkana

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400984294

Category: History

Page: 270

View: 9991

Anthropological approaches to the sciences have developed as part of a broader tradition concerned about the place of the sciences in today's world and in some basic sense concerned with questions about the legitimacy of the sciences. In the years since the second World War, we have seen the emergence of a number of different attempts both to analyze and to cope with the successes of the sciences, their broad penetration into social life, and the sense of problem and crisis that they have projected. Among the of movements concerned about the earlier responses were the development social responsibility of scientists and technological practitioners. There is little doubt that this was a direct outgrowth of the role of science in the war epitomized by the successful construction and catastrophic use of the atomic bomb. The recognition of the deep social utility of science, and especially its role as an instrument of war, fostered curiosity about the earlier develop ment of scientific disciplines and institutional forms. The history of science as an explicit diSCipline with full-time practitioners can be seen as an attempt to locate science in temporal space - first in its intellectual form and second ly in its institutional or social form. The sociology of science, while certainly having roots in the pre-war work of Robert K.
Release

A Social History of Truth

Civility and Science in Seventeenth-Century England

Author: Steven Shapin

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226750187

Category: History

Page: 483

View: 5413

Shapin explains how gentlemen-philosophers resolved varying testimony about such phemonema as comets, icebergs, and the pressure of water by bringing to bear practical social knowledge and standards of decorum. For instance, while "vulgar" divers reported they experienced no crushing pressure no matter how deep into the sea they dived, gentlemen-philosophers preferred the evidence of crushed pewter bottles. Shapin uses richly detailed historical narrative to make a powerful argument about the establishment of factual knowledge both in science and in everyday practice. Accounts of the mores and manners of gentlemen-philosophers illustrate Shapin's broad claim that trust is imperative for constituting every kind of knowledge. Knowledge-making is always a collective enterprise: people have to know whom to trust in order to know something about the natural world
Release

The Cambridge History of Science: Volume 7, The Modern Social Sciences

Author: David C. Lindberg,Roy Porter,Theodore M. Porter,Dorothy Ross,Ronald L. Numbers,Cambridge University Press,Mary Jo Nye,Katharine Park,Lorraine Daston

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521594424

Category: Science

Page: 762

View: 9691

An account of the history of the social sciences since the late eighteenth century.
Release

From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences

Writing the History of Nineteenth-Century Science

Author: David Cahan

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226089287

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 6785

During the nineteenth century, much of the modern scientific enterprise took shape: scientific disciplines were formed, institutions and communities were founded, and unprecedented applications to and interactions with other aspects of society and culture occurred. In this book, eleven leading historians of science assess what their field has taught us about this exciting time and identify issues that remain unexamined or require reconsideration. They treat both scientific disciplines—biology, physics, chemistry, the earth sciences, mathematics, and the social sciences—in their specific intellectual and sociocultural contexts as well as the broader topics of science and medicine; science and religion; scientific institutions and communities; and science, technology, and industry. Providing a much-needed overview and analysis of a rapidly expanding field, From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences will be essential for historians of science, but also of great interest to scholars of all aspects of nineteenth-century life and culture. Contributors: Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, Jed Z. Buchwald, David Cahan, Joseph Dauben, Frederick Gregory, Michael Hagner, Sungook Hong, David R. Oldroyd, Theodore M. Porter, Robert J. Richards, Ulrich Wengenroth
Release

Technology in America

A History of Individuals and Ideas

Author: Carroll W. Pursell

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262660679

Category: Science

Page: 319

View: 7277

Essays examine major American innovations in technology and the inventors who developed them, including Whitney, McCormick, Bell, Edison, Goddard, and Eastman
Release

Holographic Visions

A History of New Science

Author: Sean F. Johnston

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191513881

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 540

View: 2303

Holography exploded on the scientific world in 1964, but its slow fuse had been burning much longer. Over the next four decades, the echoes of that explosion reached scientists, engineers, artists and popular culture. Emerging from classified military research, holography evolved to represent the power of post-war physics, an aesthetic union of art and science, the countercultural meanderings of holism, a cottage industry for waves of would-be entrepreneurs and a fertile plot device for science fiction. New working cultures sprang up to mutate holography, redefining its products, reshaping its audiences and reconceiving its applications. The outcomes included ever more sublime holograms and exquisitely sensitive measuring techniques - but also priority disputes, prurience and poisonous business rivalries. New subjects cross intellectual borders, and so do their explanations. This book draws on the history and philosophy of science and technology, social studies, politics and cultural history to trace the trajectory of holography. The result is an in-depth account of how new science emerges. Based on unprecedented interviews with pioneer holographers and extensive archival research, it reveals how science, technology, art and wider culture are entwined in the modern world.
Release

Science in Russia and the Soviet Union

A Short History

Author: Loren R. Graham

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521287890

Category: Science

Page: 321

View: 6662

By the 1980s the Soviet scientific establishment had become the largest in the world, but very little of its history was known in the West. What has been needed for many years in order to fill that gap in our knowledge is a history of Russian and Soviet science written for the educated person who would like to read one book on the subject. This book has been written for that reader. The history of Russian and Soviet science is a story of remarkable achievements and frustrating failures. That history is presented here in a comprehensive form, and explained in terms of its social and political context. Major sections include the tsarist period, the impact of the Russian Revolution, the relationship between science and Soviet society, and the strengths and weaknesses of individual scientific disciplines. The book also discusses the changes brought to science in Russia and other republics by the collapse of communism in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
Release

The Cambridge History of Science: Volume 4, Eighteenth-Century Science

Author: Former Professor of the Social History of Medicine Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine Roy Porter,David C. Lindberg,Roy Porter,Ronald L. Numbers,Mary Jo Nye,Katharine Park,Lorraine Daston,Theodore M. Porter,Dorothy Ross

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521572439

Category: Science

Page: 912

View: 5610

The fullest and most complete survey of the development of science in the eighteenth century.
Release

Companion to the History of Modern Science

Author: Robert Cecil Olby

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415019885

Category: Science

Page: 1081

View: 4041

* A descriptive and analytical guide to the development of Western science from AD 1500, and to the diversity and course of that development first in Europe and later across the world * Presented in clear, non-technical language * Extensive indexes of Subjects and Names `Indeed a companion volume whose 67 essays give pleasure and instruction ... an ambitious and successful work.' - Times Literary Supplement `This work is an essential resource for libraries everywhere. For specialist science libraries willing to keep just one encyclopaedic guide to history, for undergraduate libraries seeking to provide easily accessible information, for the devisers of university curricula, for the modern social historian or even the eclectic scientist taking a break from simply making history, this is the book for you.' - Times Higher Education Supplement `A pleasure to read with a carefully chosen typeface, well organized pages and ample margins ... it is very easy to find one's way around. This is a book which will be consulted widely.' - Technovation `This is a commendably easy book to use.' - British Journal of the History of Science `Scholars from other areas entering this field, students taking the vertical approach and teachers coming from any direction cannot fail to find this an invaluable text.' - History of Science Journal
Release

A Companion to the History of Science

Author: Bernard Lightman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118620747

Category: Science

Page: 596

View: 1461

The Wiley Blackwell Companion to the History of Science is a single volume companion that discusses the history of science as it is done today, providing a survey of the debates and issues that dominate current scholarly discussion, with contributions from leading international scholars. Provides a single-volume overview of current scholarship in the history of science edited by one of the leading figures in the field Features forty essays by leading international scholars providing an overview of the key debates and developments in the history of science Reflects the shift towards deeper historical contextualization within the field Helps communicate and integrate perspectives from the history of science with other areas of historical inquiry Includes discussion of non-Western themes which are integrated throughout the chapters Divided into four sections based on key analytic categories that reflect new approaches in the field
Release