A Farewell to Entropy

Statistical Thermodynamics Based on Information : S

Author: Arieh Ben-Naim

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812707069

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 7231

The principal message of this book is that thermodynamics and statistical mechanics will benefit from replacing the unfortunate, misleading and mysterious term ?entropy? with a more familiar, meaningful and appropriate term such as information, missing information or uncertainty. This replacement would facilitate the interpretation of the ?driving force? of many processes in terms of informational changes and dispel the mystery that has always enshrouded entropy.It has been 140 years since Clausius coined the term ?entropy?; almost 50 years since Shannon developed the mathematical theory of ?information? ? subsequently renamed ?entropy.? In this book, the author advocates replacing ?entropy? by ?information,? a term that has become widely used in many branches of science.The author also takes a new and bold approach to thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Information is used not only as a tool for predicting distributions but as the fundamental cornerstone concept of thermodynamics, held until now by the term ?entropy.? The topics covered include the fundamentals of probability and information theory; the general concept of information as well as the particular concept of information as applied in thermodynamics; the re-derivation of the Sackur?Tetrode equation for the entropy of an ideal gas from purely informational arguments; the fundamental formalism of statistical mechanics; and many examples of simple processes the ?driving force? for which is analyzed in terms of information.
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The Statistical Foundations Of Entropy

Author: Ramshaw John D

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813234148

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 3517

This book presents an innovative unified approach to the statistical foundations of entropy and the fundamentals of equilibrium statistical mechanics. These intimately related subjects are often developed in a fragmented historical manner which obscures the essential simplicity of their logical structure. In contrast, this book critically reassesses and systematically reorganizes the basic concepts into a simpler sequential framework which reveals more clearly their logical relationships. The inherent indistinguishability of identical particles is emphasized, and the resulting unification of classical and quantum statistics is discussed in detail. The discussion is focused entirely on fundamental concepts, so applications are omitted. The book is written at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, and will be useful as a concise supplement to conventional books and courses in statistical mechanics, thermal physics, and thermodynamics. It is also suitable for self-study by those seeking a deeper and more detailed analysis of the fundamentals. Contents: IntroductionFundamentalsThe Hypothesis of Equal a priori ProbabilitiesConstraintsThe Principle of Maximum EntropyThermodynamic SystemsThe Canonical and Grand Canonical Probability DistributionsMany-Particle SystemsIdentical Particles Are Inherently Indistinguishable Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and researchers in statistical physics. Keywords: Entropy;Statistical Mechanics;Statistical Physics;Thermal Physics;Thermodynamics;Information Theory;Probability;Statistics;Fluctuations;Uncertainty;Maximum Entropy;MaxEnt;Indistinguishability;Canonical;Grand Canonical;Boltzmann Distribution;Fermi-Dirac;Bose-Einstein;Gibbs;Boltzmann;JaynesReview: Key Features: The sequential logical structure of the treatment, in which each level naturally follows from and builds upon the previous levels; concepts are not introduced until they are neededDespite brevity (made possible by omitting applications), the fundamental concepts are discussed in greater depth, detail, and generality than is usual in much larger and more expensive booksDiscusses and explains in detail the inherent indistinguishability of identical particles in both classical and quantum mechanics, correcting the misconception to the contrary widespread in most other books, thus unifying classical and quantum statistics within a single general framework
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Statistical Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Author: Arieh Ben-Naim

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475715986

Category: Science

Page: 697

View: 8671

This book was planned and written with one central goal in mind: to demonstrate that statistical thermodynamics can be used successfully by a broad group of scientists, ranging from chemists through biochemists to biologists, who are not and do not intend to become specialists in statistical thermodynamics. The book is addressed mainly to gradu ate students and research scientists interested in designing experiments the results of which may be interpreted at the molecular level, or in interpreting such experimental results. It is not addressed to those who intend to practice statistical thermodynamics per se. With this goal in mind, I have expended a great deal of effort to make the book clear, readable, and, I hope, enjoyable. This does not necessarily mean that the book as a whole is easy to read. The first four chapters are very detailed. The last four become progressively more difficult to read, for several reasons. First, presuming that the reader has already acquired familiarity with the methods and arguments presented in the first part, I felt that similar arguments could be skipped later on, leaving the details to be filled in by the reader. Second, the systems themselves become progressively more com plicated as we proceed toward the last chapter.
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A Student's Guide to Entropy

Author: Don S. Lemons

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107470048

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 1083

Striving to explore the subject in as simple a manner as possible, this book helps readers understand the elusive concept of entropy. Innovative aspects of the book include the construction of statistical entropy from desired properties, the derivation of the entropy of classical systems from purely classical assumptions, and a statistical thermodynamics approach to the ideal Fermi and ideal Bose gases. Derivations are worked through step-by-step and important applications are highlighted in over 20 worked examples. Around 50 end-of-chapter exercises test readers' understanding. The book also features a glossary giving definitions for all essential terms, a time line showing important developments, and list of books for further study. It is an ideal supplement to undergraduate courses in physics, engineering, chemistry and mathematics.
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Molecular Theory of Solutions

Author: Arieh Ben-Naim

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199299692

Category: Science

Page: 380

View: 7627

This book presents new and updated developments in the molecular theory of mixtures and solutions. It is based on the theory of Kirkwood and Buff which was published more than fifty years ago. This theory has been dormant for almost two decades. It has recently become a very powerful and general tool to analyze, study and understand any type of mixtures from the molecular, or the microscopic point of view. The traditional approach to mixture has been, for many years, based on the study of excess thermodynamic quantities. This provides a kind of global information on the system. The new approach provides information on the local properties of the same system. Thus, the new approach supplements and enriches our information on mixtures and solutions.
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Statistical Mechanics

A Concise Introduction for Chemists

Author: B. Widom

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521009669

Category: Science

Page: 170

View: 504

This is a 2002 introduction to statistical mechanics, intended for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students.
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The Statistical Foundations Of Entropy

Author: Ramshaw John D

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813234148

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 3403

This book presents an innovative unified approach to the statistical foundations of entropy and the fundamentals of equilibrium statistical mechanics. These intimately related subjects are often developed in a fragmented historical manner which obscures the essential simplicity of their logical structure. In contrast, this book critically reassesses and systematically reorganizes the basic concepts into a simpler sequential framework which reveals more clearly their logical relationships. The inherent indistinguishability of identical particles is emphasized, and the resulting unification of classical and quantum statistics is discussed in detail. The discussion is focused entirely on fundamental concepts, so applications are omitted. The book is written at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, and will be useful as a concise supplement to conventional books and courses in statistical mechanics, thermal physics, and thermodynamics. It is also suitable for self-study by those seeking a deeper and more detailed analysis of the fundamentals. Contents: IntroductionFundamentalsThe Hypothesis of Equal a priori ProbabilitiesConstraintsThe Principle of Maximum EntropyThermodynamic SystemsThe Canonical and Grand Canonical Probability DistributionsMany-Particle SystemsIdentical Particles Are Inherently Indistinguishable Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and researchers in statistical physics. Keywords: Entropy;Statistical Mechanics;Statistical Physics;Thermal Physics;Thermodynamics;Information Theory;Probability;Statistics;Fluctuations;Uncertainty;Maximum Entropy;MaxEnt;Indistinguishability;Canonical;Grand Canonical;Boltzmann Distribution;Fermi-Dirac;Bose-Einstein;Gibbs;Boltzmann;JaynesReview: Key Features: The sequential logical structure of the treatment, in which each level naturally follows from and builds upon the previous levels; concepts are not introduced until they are neededDespite brevity (made possible by omitting applications), the fundamental concepts are discussed in greater depth, detail, and generality than is usual in much larger and more expensive booksDiscusses and explains in detail the inherent indistinguishability of identical particles in both classical and quantum mechanics, correcting the misconception to the contrary widespread in most other books, thus unifying classical and quantum statistics within a single general framework
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An Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics

Author: Robert Paul Holland Gasser,William Graham Richards

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810223724

Category: Science

Page: 177

View: 5121

Statistical thermodynamics plays a vital linking role between quantum theory and chemical thermodynamics, yet students often find the subject unpalatable.In this updated version of a popular text, the authors overcome this by emphasising the concepts involved, in particular demystifying the partition function. They do not get bogged down in the mathematical niceties that are essential for a profound study of the subject but which can confuse the beginner. Strong emphasis is placed on the physical basis of statistical thermodynamics and the relations with experiment. After a clear exposition of the distribution laws, partition functions, heat capacities, chemical equilibria and kinetics, the subject is further illuminated by a discussion of low-temperature phenomena and spectroscopy. The coverage is brought right up to date with a chapter on computer simulation and a final section which ranges beyond the narrow limits usually associated with student texts to emphasise the common dependence of macroscopic behaviour on the properties of constituent atoms and molecules.Since first published in 1974 as ?Entropy and Energy Levels?, the book has been very popular with students. This revised and updated version will no doubt serve the same needs.
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Alice's Adventures in Water-land

Author: Arieh Ben-Naim,Roberta Ben-Naim

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814338966

Category: Science

Page: 146

View: 6606

Quickly learn essential Civil 3D tools and techniques Get a thorough introduction to AutoCAD Civil 3D, the industry-leading engineering software used to design roads, highways, subdivisions, drainage and sewer systems, and more. This Autodesk Official Press book is a unique learning resource that features concise, straightforward explanations and real-world, hands-on exercises and tutorials. With compelling full-color screenshots and approachable exercises that demonstrate core features and functions, the book helps you gain understanding and confidence as you master this premiere civil engineering software. Introduces the software's interface and foundational concepts Follows a workflow-based approach that mirrors how projects progress in the real world, and guides you through importing and working with field survey data, managing point data with groups and styles, and modeling terrain using surfaces Covers creating and editing alignments and profiles, designing 3D road models, building and analyzing terrain models, designing and analyzing pipe networks, and much more Shows how to estimate quantities and create construction documentation Provides information to help you prepare for the Civil 3D certification exam AutoCAD Civil 3D Essentials is the perfect, real-world introduction to the powerful civil engineering software.
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THERMODYNAMICS & AN INTRO. TO THERMOSTATISTICS

Author: Herbert B Callen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9788126508129

Category:

Page: 512

View: 9351

Market_Desc: · Professors· Students About The Book: It is the only text to cover both thermodynamic and statistical mechanics--allowing students to fully master thermodynamics at the macroscopic level. Presents essential ideas on critical phenomena developed over the last decade in simple, qualitative terms. This new edition maintains the simple structure of the first and puts new emphasis on pedagogical considerations. Thermo statistics is incorporated into the text without eclipsing macroscopic thermodynamics, and is integrated into the conceptual framework of physical theory.
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Information, Entropy, Life and the Universe

What We Know and what We Do Not Know

Author: Arieh Ben-Naim

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated

ISBN: 9789814651660

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 3382

The aim of this book is to explain in simple language what we know and what we do not know about information and entropy -- two of the most frequently discussed topics in recent literature -- and whether they are relevant to life and the entire universe. Entropy is commonly interpreted as a measure of disorder. This interpretation has caused a great amount of "disorder" in the literature. One of the aims of this book is to put some "order" in this "disorder." The book explains with minimum amount of mathematics what information theory is and how it is related to thermodynamic entropy. Then it critically examines the application of these concepts to the question of "What is life?" and whether or not they can be applied to the entire universe.
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Living Rainbow H2O

Author: Mae-Wan Ho

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 981439758X

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 2971

This book is a unique synthesis of the latest findings in the quantum physics and chemistry of water that will tell you why it is so remarkably fit for life. It offers a novel panoramic perspective of cell biology based on water as “means, medium, and message” of life. This book is a sequel to The Rainbow and The Worm, The Physics of Organisms, which has remained in a class of its own for nearly 20 years since the publication of the first edition. Living Rainbow H2O continues the fascinating journey in the author's quest for the meaning of life, in science and beyond. Like The Rainbow and The Worm, the present book will appeal to readers in the arts and humanities as well as scientists; not least because the author herself is an occasional artist and poet. Great care has been taken to explain terms and concepts for the benefit of the general reader. At the same time, sufficient scientific details are provided in text boxes for the advanced reader and researcher without interrupting the main story. Sample Chapter(s) Chapter 1: Rainbow Dancing in the Worm (299 KB) Contents:Rainbow Dancing in the WormWeird and Wonderful WaterCooperative Coherent WaterWater and Colloid Crystals: The New Age of AlchemyQuantum Coherent WaterQED Water IQED Water II: Non-thermal EMF EffectsQED Water III: HomeopathyDancing with IonsDancing with ProteinsDancing with DNAWater at Solid InterfacesWater ElectricWater + Air = LifeWater Meets AirWater Meets MembranesThe Rainbow EnsembleTrue Portrait of the CellWater in NanospaceProtein and Water in NanospaceFire and WaterWater Fuels the Dynamo of LifeElectronic Induction Animates Life Readership: General public and undergraduate students in cell biology, biophysics, biochemistry and quantum mechanics. Keywords:Liquid Crystalline Water;Quantum Coherence;Quantum Cell BiologyKey Features:There is no competing title, or even comparable book in existenceIt is fit for the general reader with no more background than school science as well as the advanced researcher in the fieldIt tells an exciting, and evocative story of water in living cells and organisms that is also completely newReviews: "This book is a delightful read for laypersons. It surveys some of the outstanding, sometimes considered anomalous properties of water and aqueous solutions. The style is consistently light, as it hops from one topic to another with a seemingly dance-like rhythm to it. Indeed, one finds many dances of water molecules among themselves, as well as with other molecules in living cells … I recommend this book to anyone who is curious about what goes on in each of our cells, and why water is so vital to our life." Arieh Ben-Naim Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
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Statistical Mechanics

A Survival Guide

Author: A.M. Glazer,J.S. Wark

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780198508168

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 539

This superb book provides the reader with a general perspective of an interdisciplinary field between statistical physics and information sciences/engineering. It is effectively the only book on the subject, aside from a collection of papers published fourteen years ago. The field is a rapidly expanding one and this self-contained presentation will be sure to acquire a wide audience in physics and engineering.
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Entropy Demystified

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814338397

Category: Entropy

Page: 223

View: 3699

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Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Statistics

Author: Aleksandr Iakovlevich Khinchin

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486400259

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 8484

A coherent, well-organized look at the basis of quantum statistics’ computational methods, the determination of the mean values of occupation numbers, the foundations of the statistics of photons and material particles, thermodynamics.
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The Protein Folding Problem and Its Solutions

Author: Arieh Ben-Naim

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated

ISBN: 9789814436359

Category: Science

Page: 297

View: 717

This book presents a new approach to the Protein Folding Problem. It starts with a clear description of what the protein folding problem involves. Then, it suggests non-conventional answers to some of the questions posed. In particular, it emphasizes the importance of hydrophilic interactions and hydrophilic forces, rather than the hydrophobic effects, for the stability of the native structure of proteins, as well for the speed of the folding process.
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Modern Thermodynamics

Author: Arieh Ben-Naim,Diego Casadei

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789813200760

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 8881

This textbook introduces thermodynamics with a modern approach, starting from four fundamental physical facts (the atomic nature of matter, the indistinguishability of atoms and molecules of the same species, the uncertainty principle, and the existence of equilibrium states) and analyzing the behavior of complex systems with the tools of information theory, in particular with Shannon's measure of information (or SMI), which can be defined on any probability distribution. SMI is defined and its properties and time evolution are illustrated, and it is shown that the entropy is a particular type of SMI, i.e. the SMI related to the phase-space distribution for a macroscopic system at equilibrium. The connection to SMI allows the reader to understand what entropy is and why isolated systems follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Llaw is also formulated for other systems, not thermally isolated and even open with respect to the transfer of particles. All the fundamental aspects of thermodynamics are derived and illustrated with several examples in the first part of the book. The second part addresses important applications of thermodynamics, covering phase transitions, mixtures and solutions (including the Kirkwood-Buff approach and solvation thermodynamics), chemical equilibrium, and the outstanding properties of water.This textbook is unique in two aspects. First, thermodynamics is introduced with a novel approach, based on information theory applied to macroscopic systems at equilibrium. It is shown that entropy is a particular case of Shannon's measure of information (SMI), and the properties and time evolution of the SMI are used to explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics. This represents a real breakthrough, as classical thermodynamics cannot explain entropy, nor clarify why systems should obey the Second Law. Second, this textbook offers the reader the possibility to get in touch with important and advanced applications of thermodynamics, to address the topics discussed in the second part of the book. Although they may go beyond the content of a typical introductory course on thermodynamics, some of them can be important in the curriculum chosen by the student. At the same time, they are of appealing interest to more advance scholars.
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Introduction to Molecular Thermodynamics

Author: Robert M. Hanson,Susan M. E. Green

Publisher: Univ Science Books

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 3577

Starting with basic principles of probability and the distribution of energy, Introduction to Molecular Thermodynamics introduces students to the inner workings of the molecular world, from probability to Gibbs energy and beyond, following a logical step-by-step progression of ideas.
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Molecular Driving Forces

Statistical Thermodynamics in Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Nanoscience

Author: Ken Dill,Sarina Bromberg

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 1136672990

Category: Science

Page: 720

View: 9769

The VitalBook e-book version of Molecular Driving Forces is only available in the US and Canada at the present time. To purchase or rent please visit http://store.vitalsource.com. Molecular Driving Forces, Second Edition is an introductory statistical thermodynamics text that describes the principles and forces that drive chemical and biological processes. It demonstrates how the complex behaviors of molecules can result from a few simple physical processes, and how simple models provide surprisingly accurate insights into the workings of the molecular world. Widely adopted in its First Edition, Molecular Driving Forces is regarded by teachers and students as an accessible textbook that illuminates underlying principles and concepts. The Second Edition includes two brand new chapters: (1) "Microscopic Dynamics" introduces single molecule experiments; and (2) "Molecular Machines" considers how nanoscale machines and engines work. "The Logic of Thermodynamics" has been expanded to its own chapter and now covers heat, work, processes, pathways, and cycles. New practical applications, examples, and end-of-chapter questions are integrated throughout the revised and updated text, exploring topics in biology, environmental and energy science, and nanotechnology. Written in a clear and reader-friendly style, the book provides an excellent introduction to the subject for novices while remaining a valuable resource for experts.
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