A Day in the Life of the Brain

The Neuroscience of Consciousness from Dawn Till Dusk

Author: Susan Greenfield

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141976357

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 2840

Each of us has a unique, subjective inner world, one that we can never share directly with anyone else. But how do our physical brains actually give rise to this rich and varied experience of consciousness? In this ground-breaking book, internationally acclaimed neuroscientist Susan Greenfield brings together a series of astonishing new, empirically based insights into consciousness as she traces a single day in the life of your brain. From waking to walking the dog, working to dreaming, Greenfield explores how our daily experiences are translated into a tangle of cells, molecules and chemical blips, thereby probing the enduring mystery of how our brains create our individual selves.
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A Day in the Life of the Brain

The Neuroscience of Consciousness from Dawn Till Dusk

Author: Susan Greenfield

Publisher: Allen Lane

ISBN: 9780141985046

Category: Brain

Page: 273

View: 5260

"Each of us has a unique, subjective inner world, one that we can never share directly with anyone else. But how does a tangle of brain cells conjure up this experience? Despite the remarkable progress that has been made in understanding the brain, consciousness still poses one of the greatest challenges to science. In this groundbreaking book, world-renowned neuroscientist Susan Greenfield illuminates the mystery of consciousness as she traces a single day in the life of the brain - from being awoken by an alarm to walking the dog, working in an open plan office to dreaming. Greenfield concludes that the answer to the enigma of consciousness may be found in neuronal assemblies - a process that her Oxford lab, along with others around the world, is investigating. Drawing on this pioneering research and on diverse findings from physics, philosophy and psychology, A Day in the Life of the Braingives us a bold new way of understanding who we are."
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Mind Change

How Digital Technologies Are Leaving Their Mark on Our Brains

Author: Susan Greenfield

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 0812993837

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 9505

We live in a world unimaginable only decades ago: a domain of backlit screens, instant information, and vibrant experiences that can outcompete dreary reality. Our brave new technologies offer incredible opportunities for work and play. But at what price? Now renowned neuroscientist Susan Greenfield—known in the United Kingdom for challenging entrenched conventional views—brings together a range of scientific studies, news events, and cultural criticism to create an incisive snapshot of “the global now.” Disputing the assumption that our technologies are harmless tools, Greenfield explores whether incessant exposure to social media sites, search engines, and videogames is capable of rewiring our brains, and whether the minds of people born before and after the advent of the Internet differ. Stressing the impact on Digital Natives—those who’ve never known a world without the Internet—Greenfield exposes how neuronal networking may be affected by unprecedented bombardments of audiovisual stimuli, how gaming can shape a chemical landscape in the brain similar to that in gambling addicts, how surfing the Net risks placing a premium on information rather than on deep knowledge and understanding, and how excessive use of social networking sites limits the maturation of empathy and identity. But Mind Change also delves into the potential benefits of our digital lifestyle. Sifting through the cocktail of not only threat but opportunity these technologies afford, Greenfield explores how gaming enhances vision and motor control, how touch tablets aid students with developmental disabilities, and how political “clicktivism” foments positive change. In a world where adults spend ten hours a day online, and where tablets are the common means by which children learn and play, Mind Change reveals as never before the complex physiological, social, and cultural ramifications of living in the digital age. A book that will be to the Internet what An Inconvenient Truth was to global warming, Mind Change is provocative, alarming, and a call to action to ensure a future in which technology fosters—not frustrates—deep thinking, creativity, and true fulfillment. Praise for Mind Change “Greenfield’s application of the mismatch between human and machine to the brain introduces an important variation on this pervasive view of technology. . . . She has a rare talent for explaining science in accessible prose.”—The Washington Post “Greenfield’s focus is on bringing to light the implications of Internet-induced ‘mind change’—as comparably multifaceted as the issue of climate change, she argues, and just as important.”—Chicago Tribune “Mind Change is exceedingly well organized and hits the right balance between academic and provocative.”—Booklist “[A] challenging, stimulating perspective from an informed neuroscientist on a complex, fast-moving, hugely consequential field.”—Kirkus Reviews “[Greenfield] is not just an engaging communicator but a thoughtful, responsible scientist, and the arguments she makes are well-supported and persuasive.”—Mail on Sunday “Greenfield’s admirable goal to prove an empirical basis for discussion is . . . an important one.”—Financial Times “An important presentation of an uncomfortable minority position.”—Jaron Lanier, Nature From the Hardcover edition.
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The Private Life of the Brain

Author: Susan Greenfield

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141007206

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 4060

An explanation of the various mysteries of pleasure in the workings of the mind. The book shows how different experiences give rise to similar sensations in the mind - such as sport, raves, or orgasm; explores the workings of recreational drugs; and explains the neurological character of pleasure.
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You and Me

The Neuroscience of Identity

Author: Susan Greenfield

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781910749753

Category: MEDICAL

Page: 145

View: 3378

"What is it that makes you distinct from me? Identity is a term much used but hard to define. For that very reason, it has long been a topic of fascination for philosophers but has been regarded with aversion by neuroscientists - until now. Susan Greenfield takes us on a journey in search of a biological interpretion of this most elusive of concepts, guiding us through the social and psychiatric perspectives and ultimately into the heart of the physical brain. As the brain adapts exquisitely to environment, do cultural challenges of the 21st century mean that we are facing unprecedented changes to identity itself?"--Back cover.
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The Curse of Cash

How Large-Denomination Bills Aid Crime and Tax Evasion and Constrain Monetary Policy

Author: Kenneth S. Rogoff

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400888727

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 9689

From the New York Times bestselling author of This Time Is Different, "a fascinating and important book" (Ben Bernanke) about phasing out most paper money to fight crime and tax evasion—and to battle financial crises by tapping the power of negative interest rates The world is drowning in cash—and it's making us poorer and less safe. Kenneth Rogoff, New York Times bestselling author of This Time Is Different, makes a persuasive and fascinating case for an idea that until recently would have seemed outlandish: getting rid of most paper money. Even as people in advanced economies are using less paper money, there is more cash in circulation—a record $1.4 trillion in U.S. dollars alone, or $4,200 for every American, mostly in $100 bills. And the United States is hardly exceptional. So what is all that cash being used for? The answer is simple: a large part is feeding tax evasion, corruption, terrorism, the drug trade, human trafficking, and the rest of a massive global underground economy. As Rogoff shows, paper money can also cripple monetary policy. In the aftermath of the recent financial crisis, central banks have been unable to stimulate growth and inflation by cutting interest rates significantly below zero for fear that it would drive investors to abandon treasury bills and stockpile cash. This constraint has paralyzed monetary policy in virtually every advanced economy, and is likely to be a recurring problem in the future. The Curse of Cash offers a plan for phasing out most paper money—while leaving small-denomination bills and coins in circulation indefinitely—and addresses the issues the transition will pose, ranging from fears about privacy and price stability to the need to provide subsidized debit cards for the poor. While phasing out the bulk of paper money will hardly solve the world’s problems, it would be a significant step toward addressing a surprising number of very big ones. Provocative, engaging, and backed by compelling original arguments and evidence, The Curse of Cash is certain to spark widespread debate.
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Into the Gray Zone

A Neuroscientist Explores the Border Between Life and Death

Author: Adrian Owen

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1501135228

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 7099

In this “riveting read, meshing memoir with scientific explication” (Nature), a world-renowned neuroscientist reveals how he learned to communicate with patients in vegetative or “gray zone” states and, more importantly, he explains what those interactions tell us about the working of our own brains. “Vivid, emotional, and thought-provoking” (Publishers Weekly), Into the Gray Zone takes readers to the edge of a dazzling, humbling frontier in our understanding of the brain: the so-called “gray zone” between full consciousness and brain death. People in this middle place have sustained traumatic brain injuries or are the victims of stroke or degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Many are oblivious to the outside world, and their doctors believe they are incapable of thought. But a sizeable number—as many as twenty percent—are experiencing something different: intact minds adrift deep within damaged brains and bodies. An expert in the field, Adrian Owen led a team that, in 2006, discovered this lost population and made medical history. Scientists, physicians, and philosophers have only just begun to grapple with the implications. Following Owen’s journey of exciting medical discovery, Into the Gray Zone asks some tough and terrifying questions, such as: What is life like for these patients? What can their families and friends do to help them? What are the ethical implications for religious organizations, politicians, the Right to Die movement, and even insurers? And perhaps most intriguing of all: in defining what a life worth living is, are we too concerned with the physical and not giving enough emphasis to the power of thought? What, truly, defines a satisfying life? “Strangely uplifting…the testimonies of people who have returned from the gray zone evoke the mysteries of consciousness and identity with tremendous power” (The New Yorker). This book is about the difference between a brain and a mind, a body and a person. Into the Gray Zone is “a fascinating memoir…reads like a thriller” (Mail on Sunday).
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Quack Magic

Author: Susan Greenfield

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 9781448141012

Category: Medical

Page: 208

View: 2872

The human brain remains the last great unconquered frontier of science. Somehow, that almost featureless mass of grey sludge locked inside our skulls creates a whole inner world populated by emotions, memories, ideas, desires. Everything we see, touch, hear and feel the illusion of reality is conjured up by this inscrutable organ. For centuries, scientists have probed and analysed the brains every lobe and crevice, searching for clues that might shed the faintest glimmer of light on its mysterious workings but to no avail. Now, however, the brain has slowly begun to yield its secrets. Incredible advances in scanning technology that show the human brain working at full tilt are dispelling once and for all the notion that the brain works like a well-organized machine, with centres for emotion, reason, language or memory. In this highly readable and often mind-boggling tour through the brains workings, Susan Greenfield brings the reader right up to date on the latest theories and controversies of neuroscience. Drawing together many different strands of research from studies of the bizarre and disturbing effects of brain injuries to attempts to model the brain in silicon she tackles head-on the questions that have baffled philosophers and scientists since antiquity. Where are memories stored? Are our brains a product of nature or nurture? Will we ever build thinking robots? And are free will and consciousness nothing more than illusions produced by the subconscious mind? The picture that emerges is one of an incredibly complex and dynamic organ, full of astonishing surprises. Illustrated with the latest brain-scanning images that are revolutionizing neuroscience, this book which accompanies the BBC television series Brain Story gives a fascinating new insight into just what makes us tick.
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Patient H69

The Story of My Second Sight

Author: Vanessa Potter

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472936132

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 272

View: 768

Imagine how it would feel to one day wake up and find your vision descending swiftly into darkness. Your fingertips are turning numb, and, as the world closes in around you, you realise there is nothing you can do to stop it. This is what happened to Vanessa Potter. In the space of 72 hours, Vanessa went from juggling a high-flying career as a producer and caring for her two small children to being completely blind, unable to walk, and with her sense of touch completely gone. Over the course of the next six months, Vanessa slowly began to recover. Opening her eyes onto a black-and-white world with mutating shapes and colours that crackled and fizzled, she encountered a visual landscape that was completely unrecognisable. As colour reappeared, Vanessa experienced a range of bizarre phenomena as her confused brain tried to make sense of the world around her, and she found herself touching and talking to inanimate objects in order to stimulate her vision – all part of her brain's mechanism for coping with the trauma of sensory loss. Going blind led Vanessa to turn science sleuth, reinventing herself as Patient H69 to uncover the reality behind her unique condition. With the help of a team of psychologists and neuroscientists, we follow her story as she learns the science of herself, making discoveries that will positively change the course of her life. Vanessa's account is raw and candid, but ultimately upbeat. It shows how this remarkable woman opened doors by transforming her terrifying experience into an inspirational and scientifically fascinating endeavour.
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Sapiens

A Brief History of Humankind

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0062316109

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 4962

New York Times Bestseller A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become? Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.
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Purkinje's Vision

The Dawning of Neuroscience

Author: Nicholas J. Wade,Josef Brozek,Jir¡ Hoskovec

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135656401

Category: Psychology

Page: 176

View: 1107

The life of Jan Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869) has fascinated students from many disciplines. Histologists marvel at his early descriptions of cells; physiologists admire his attempts to relate structure to function; pharmacologists view in awe his heroic experiments on self-administered drugs; forensic scientists acknowledge his role in the use of fingerprints for identification; and Czech patriots salute his awakening of pride in their nation. Yet all these achievements followed his initial enquiries into vision. It is this psychological dimension that fostered this collaboration. As the title suggests, the present volume is bifocal. In the narrow sense it refers to Purkinje's studies of vision, but in its broader view it concerns Purkinje's anticipation of neuroscience. Purkinje provided evidence to support both its cellular and its conceptual base. At the cellular level his acute vision is immortalized within our bodies. At the conceptual level, he sought to relate subjective phenomena to their objective underpinnings--to link psychology to physiology. Vision provides a bond that unites psychology and physiology, and it is this bond that was strengthened by Purkinje's enquiries. The authors have tried to provide a context in which Purkinje's descriptions of visual phenomena can be placed. In some cases this exposes clear precursors of research for which Purkinje has been credited. In others, there was nothing to suggest the phenomena that he exposed. The book translates Purkinje's initial masterpiece on subjective vision and places it in the context of emerging views of neuroscience.
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East West Street

On the Origins of "genocide" and "crimes Against Humanity"

Author: Philippe Sands

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0525433724

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 3433

Winner of the 2016 Baillie Gifford Prize for Nonfiction A profound and profoundly important book--a moving personal detective story, an uncovering of secret pasts, and a book that explores the creation and development of world-changing legal concepts that came about as a result of the unprecedented atrocities of Hitler's Third Reich. East West Street looks at the personal and intellectual evolution of the two men who simultaneously originated the ideas of "genocide" and "crimes against humanity," both of whom, not knowing the other, studied at the same university with the same professors, in a city little known today that was a major cultural center of Europe, "the little Paris of Ukraine," a city variously called Lemberg, Lwów, Lvov, or Lviv. It is also a spellbinding family memoir, as the author traces the mysterious story of his grandfather, as he maneuvered through Europe in the face of Nazi atrocities. East West Street is a book that changes the way we look at the world, at our understanding of history and how civilization has tried to cope with mass murder.
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Big Brains and the Human Superorganism

Why Special Brains Appear in Hominids and Other Social Animals

Author: Niccolo Leo Caldararo

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 1498540880

Category: Psychology

Page: 266

View: 648

This book examines why humans have big brains and how brains are associated with complex society and behavior in other animals. It compares brain evolution in social animals and examines the evolution of the human brain in social and historical contexts.
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Sex at Dawn

How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What It Means for Modern Relationships

Author: Christopher Ryan,Cacilda Jetha

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0061707813

Category: Social Science

Page: 432

View: 4380

In this controversial, thought-provoking, and brilliant book, renegade thinkers Christopher Ryan and Cacilda JethÁ debunk almost everything we “know” about sex, weaving together convergent, frequently overlooked evidence from anthropology, archaeology, primatology, anatomy, and psychosexuality to show how far from human nature monogamy really is. In Sex at Dawn, the authors expose the ancient roots of human sexuality while pointing toward a more optimistic future illuminated by our innate capacities for love, cooperation, and generosity.
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The Magic of Sleep Thinking

How to Solve Problems, Reduce Stress, and Increase Creativity While You Sleep

Author: Eric Maisel,Natalya Maisel

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 0486829715

Category: Self-Help

Page: 240

View: 4118

Imagine solving problems and increasing creativity while you sleep. Grounded in current brain research, this tool for idea management and life-purpose clarification provides answers that lead to actions and positive changes.
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Tomorrow's People

How 21st-Century Technology is Changing the Way We Think and Feel

Author: Susan Greenfield

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141926082

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 304

View: 9929

The book is an exploration of how this century is going to change not just the way we think, but also what we actually think with - our own individual minds. How will new technologies transform the way we see the world? At the beginning of the twenty-first century, we may be standing on the brink of a mind make-over far more cataclysmic than anything that has happened before. As we appreciate the dynamism and sensitivity of our brain circuitry, so the prospect of directly tampering with the essence of our individuality becomes a possibility.
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Somebody I Used to Know

A Memoir

Author: Wendy Mitchell

Publisher: Ballantine Books

ISBN: 1524797928

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 272

View: 4756

“A brave and illuminating journey inside the mind, heart, and life of a person with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease.”—Lisa Genova, author of Still Alice Wendy Mitchell had a busy job with the British National Health Service, raised her two daughters alone, and spent her weekends running and climbing mountains. Then, slowly, a mist settled deep inside the mind she once knew so well, blurring the world around her. She didn’t know it then, but dementia was starting to take hold. In 2014, at age fifty-eight, she was diagnosed with young-onset Alzheimer’s. In this groundbreaking book, Mitchell shares the heartrending story of her cognitive decline and how she has fought to stave it off. What lay ahead of her after the diagnosis was scary and unknowable, but Mitchell was determined and resourceful, and she vowed to outwit the disease for as long as she could. As Mitchell learned to embrace her new life, she began to see her condition as a gift, a chance to experience the world with fresh eyes and to find her own way to make a difference. Even now, her sunny outlook persists: She devotes her time to educating doctors, caregivers, and other people living with dementia, helping to reduce the stigma surrounding this insidious disease. Still living independently, Mitchell now uses Post-it notes and technology to remind her of her routines and has created a “memory room” where she displays photos—with labels—of her daughters, friends, and special places. It is a room where she feels calm and happy, especially on days when the mist descends. A chronicle of one woman’s struggle to make sense of her shifting world and her mortality, Somebody I Used to Know offers a powerful rumination on memory, perception, and the simple pleasure of living in the moment. Philosophical, poetic, intensely personal, and ultimately hopeful, this moving memoir is both a tribute to the woman Wendy Mitchell used to be and a brave affirmation of the woman she has become. Praise for Somebody I Used to Know “Remarkable . . . Mitchell gives such clear-eyed insight that anyone who knows a person living with dementia should read this book.”—The Times (London) “A landmark book . . . The best reward for [Mitchell’s] courage and candour would surely be fundamental changes in the way people with dementia are treated by society.”—Financial Times
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The Human Brain

A Guided Tour

Author: Susan A. Greenfield,A Greenfield

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 9780786724956

Category: Psychology

Page: 176

View: 3277

What would you see if you removed the skull from the human brain and then slowly worked your way deeper and deeper into the brain, to the level of an individual neuron? With renowned brain researcher Susan Greenfield as your guide, here is your chance to gain a bird’s eye view of the human brain--and to learn more about what the brain is, how it works, what happens when one part of the brain is made dysfunctional through stroke or accident, how brain mood-modifying drugs find their targets.In a particularly fascinating chapter, Greenfield surveys for us how a brain is built and then takes us on a tour of the developing brain from the moment of conception.Throughout Greenfield poses the larger questions all readers want to consider, including: At what stage does individuality creep into the developing brain? How does the collection of circuits of neurons give rise not just to an individual brain but an individual consciousness? What might a fetus be conscious of?
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The Executive and the Elephant

A Leader's Guide for Achieving Inner Excellence

Author: Richard L. Daft

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470372265

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 336

View: 5020

Lessons for leaders on resolving the ongoing struggle between instinct and the creative mind Kings, heads of government, and corporate executives lead thousands of people and manage endless resources, but may not have mastery over themselves. Often leaders know that right action is important, but have little (if any) understanding of what prevents them from acting in accordance with their intentions. In this important book, leadership expert Richard Daft portrays this dilemma as a struggle between instinct (elephant) and intention (the executive) using the most current research on the intentional vs. the habitual mind to explain how this phenomenon occurs. Based on current research and real-life examples Offers leaders a method for directing themselves more productively Written by an expert in leadership, organizational performance, and change management Through real-life examples and recent studies in psychology, management and Eastern spirituality Daft provides guidance to all of us who struggle finding our own balance and cultivating the behavior of others.
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Neuroscience for Teachers

Applying research evidence from brain science

Author: Richard Churches,Eleanor Dommett,Ian Devonshire

Publisher: Crown House Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 1785832786

Category: Education

Page: 280

View: 9346

Foreword by Baroness Susan Greenfield CBE. In Neuroscience for Teachers: Applying Research Evidence from Brain Science, Richard Churches, Eleanor Dommett and Ian Devonshire expertly unpack, in an easy-to-read and instantly useable way, what every teacher needs to know about the brain and how we really learn – and what that suggests for how they should teach. Everyone is curious about the brain – including your learners! Not only can knowing more about the brain be a powerful way to understand what happens when your pupils – and, of course, you – pick up new knowledge and skills, but it can also offer a theoretical basis for established or new classroom practice. And as the field of neuroscience uncovers more of nature’s secrets about the way we learn – and further augments what we already know about effective teaching – this book advocates more efficient pedagogies rooted in a better understanding and application of neuroscience in education. By surveying a wide range of evidence in specific areas such as metacognition, memory, mood and motivation, the teenage brain and how to cater for individual differences, Neuroscience for Teachers shares relevant, up-to-date information to provide a suitable bridge for teachers to transfer the untapped potential of neuroscientific findings into practical classroom approaches. The key issues, challenges and research are explained in clear language that doesn’t assume a prior level of knowledge on the topic that would otherwise make it inaccessible – therefore enabling more teachers to better comprehend the lessons from neuroscience – while the authors also take care to expose the ways in which ‘neuromyths’ can arise in education in order to help them avoid these pitfalls. Laid out in an easy-to-use format, each chapter features: ‘Research Zones’ highlighting particular pieces of research with a supplementary insight into the area being explored; ‘Reflection’ sections that give you something to think about, or suggest something you might try out in the classroom; and concluding ‘Next steps’ that outline how teachers might incorporate the findings into their own practice. The authors have also included a glossary of terms covering the book’s technical vocabulary to aid the development of teachers’ literacy in the field of neuroscience. Packed with examples and research-informed tips on how to enhance personal effectiveness and improve classroom delivery, Neuroscience for Teachers provides accessible, practical guidance supported by the latest research evidence on the things that will help your learners to learn better. Suitable for LSAs, NQTs, teachers, middle leaders, local authority advisers and anyone working with learners. Contents include: 1. Neuroscience in the classroom – principles and practice: getting started; 2. Learning and remembering: attention, learning and memory; 3. Metacognition: why it pays to teach your pupils how to think about how they think; 4. Emotions and learning: classroom climate, stress and motivation; 5. The individual in the classroom: what neuroscience can tell us about different abilities and some special educational needs in the classroom; 6. The adolescent brain: why teenagers behave like teenagers; 7. Surprises from cognitive psychology and neuroscience: why making things more difficult and less enjoyable for students in the short term can enhance long-term learning; 8. Concluding remarks: developing your scientific literacy and understanding of controlled research
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